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10.13: The Global Gender Gap Report

  • Page ID
    5948
  • The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2014 report covers 144 major and emerging economies. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.

    Methodology

    The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gaps. The assumption is that women are strictly disadvantaged compared to men and as such, only measures where women are traditionally disadvantaged to men are used. Information about gender imbalances to the advantage of women is explicitly prevented from affecting the score.[1] So, for example, the indicator “number of years of a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value” would score 1 if the number of years was 25, but would still score 1 if the number of years was 50. Due to this methodology, gender gaps that favor women over men are reported as equality.

    The three highest ranking countries have closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest ranking country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap. It “assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities,” the Report says.[2] “By providing a comprehensible framework for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these resources equitably between women and men, the Report serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater exchange between policymakers.”[2]

    The report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in 130 economies around the globe, over 93% of the world’s population:

    • Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
    • Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
    • Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures
    • Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. In this case parity is not assumed, there are assumed to be less female births than male (944 female for every 1,000 males), and men are assumed to die younger. Provided that women live at least six percent longer than men parity is assumed, if it is less than six percent it counts as a gender gap.[3]

    Thirteen out of the fourteen variables used to create the index are from publicly available “hard data” indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.[4]

    WEF Global Gender Gap Index Rankings

    The highest possible score is 1 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan, 106% or better for women) and the lowest possible score is 0. Data for some countries are unavailable.[5][6][7]

    2014_Gender_gap_index_world_map,_Gender_Inequality_Distribution.svg.png

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) - The WEF Gender gap index world map for 2014[8]

    Country Region Year[note 1]
    2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[8]

    Albania
    Europe 0.6607 0.6685 0.6591 0.6601 0.6726 0.6748 0.6655 0.6412 0.6869

    Algeria
    Africa 0.6018 0.6068 0.6111 0.6119 0.6052 0.5991 0.6112 0.5966 0.6182

    Angola
    Africa 0.6039 0.6034 0.6032 0.6353 0.6712 0.6624 N/A 0.6659 0.6311

    Argentina
    South America 0.6829 0.6982 0.7209 0.7211 0.7187 0.7236 0.7212 0.7195 0.7317

    Armenia
    Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6651 0.6677 0.6619 0.6669 0.6654 0.6636 0.6634 0.6622

    Australia
    Oceania 0.7163 0.7204 0.7241 0.7282 0.7271 0.7291 0.7294 0.7390 0.7409

    Austria
    Europe 0.6986 0.7060 0.7153 0.7031 0.7091 0.7165 0.7391 0.7437 0.7266

    Azerbaijan
    Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6781 0.6856 0.6626 0.6446 0.6577 0.6546 0.6582 0.6753

    Bahamas
    North America N/A N/A N/A 0.7179 0.7128 0.7340 0.7156 0.7128 0.7269

    Bahrain
    Middle East 0.5894 0.5931 0.5927 0.6136 0.6217 0.6232 0.6298 0.6334 0.6261

    Bangladesh
    South Asia 0.6270 0.6314 0.6531 0.6526 0.6702 0.6812 0.6684 0.6848 0.6973

    Barbados
    North America N/A N/A 0.7188 0.7236 0.7176 0.7170 0.7232 0.7301 0.7289

    Belgium
    Europe 0.7078 0.7198 0.7163 0.7165 0.7509 0.7531 0.7652 0.7684 0.7809

    Belize
    North America N/A 0.6426 0.6610 0.6636 0.6536 0.6489 0.6465 0.6449 0.6701

    Benin
    Africa 0.5780 0.5656 0.5582 0.5643 0.5719 0.5832 0.6258 0.5885 N/A

    Bhutan
    South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6651 0.6364

    Bolivia
    South America 0.6335 0.6574 0.6667 0.6693 0.6751 0.6862 0.7222 0.7340 0.7049

    Botswana
    Africa 0.6897 0.6797 0.6839 0.7071 0.6876 0.6832 0.6744 0.6752 0.7129

    Brazil
    South America 0.6543 0.6637 0.6737 0.6695 0.6655 0.6679 0.6909 0.6949 0.6941

    Brunei Darussalam
    Southeast Asia N/A N/A 0.6392 0.6524 0.6748 0.6787 0.6750 0.6730 0.6719

    Bulgaria
    Europe 0.6870 0.7085 0.7077 0.7072 0.6983 0.6987 0.7021 0.7097 0.7444

    Burkina Faso
    Africa 0.5854 0.5912 0.6029 0.6081 0.6162 0.6153 0.6455 0.6513 0.6500

    Burundi
    Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7270 0.7338 0.7397 0.7565

    Cambodia
    Southeast Asia 0.6291 0.6353 0.6469 0.6410 0.6482 0.6464 0.6457 0.6509 0.6520

    Cameroon
    Africa 0.5865 0.5919 0.6017 0.6108 0.6110 0.6073 0.6291 0.6560 N/A

    Canada
    North America 0.7165 0.7198 0.7136 0.7196 0.7372 0.7407 0.7381 0.7425 0.7464

    Cape Verde
    Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7180 0.7122 0.7133

    Chad
    Africa 0.5247 0.5381 0.5290 0.5417 0.5330 0.5334 0.5594 0.5588 0.5764

    Chile
    South America 0.6455 0.6482 0.6818 0.6884 0.7013 0.7030 0.6676 0.6670 0.6975

    China
    East Asia 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 0.6853 0.6908 0.6830

    Colombia
    South America 0.7049 0.7090 0.6944 0.6939 0.6927 0.6714 0.6901 0.7171 0.7122

    Costa Rica
    North America 0.6936 0.7014 0.7111 0.7180 0.7194 0.7266 0.7225 0.7241 0.7165

    Côte d’Ivoire
    Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.5691 0.5773 0.5785 0.5814 0.5874

    Croatia
    Europe 0.7145 0.7210 0.6967 0.6944 0.6939 0.7006 0.7053 0.7069 0.7075

    Cuba
    North America N/A 0.7169 0.7195 0.7176 0.7253 0.7394 0.7417 0.7540 0.7317

    Cyprus
    Europe and Middle East 0.6430 0.6522 0.6694 0.6706 0.6642 0.6567 0.6732 0.6801 0.6741

    Czech Republic
    Europe 0.6712 0.6718 0.6770 0.6789 0.6850 0.6789 0.6767 0.6770 0.6737

    Denmark
    Europe 0.7462 0.7519 0.7538 0.7628 0.7719 0.7778 0.7777 0.7779 0.8025

    Dominican Republic
    North America 0.6639 0.6705 0.6744 0.6859 0.6774 0.6682 0.6659 0.6867 0.6906

    Ecuador
    South America 0.6433 0.6881 0.7091 0.7220 0.7072 0.7035 0.7206 0.7389 0.7455

    Egypt
    Middle East and Africa 0.5786 0.5809 0.5832 0.5862 0.5899 0.5933 0.5975 0.5935 0.6064

    El Salvador
    North America 0.6837 0.6853 0.6875 0.6939 0.6596 0.6567 0.6630 0.6609 0.6863

    Estonia
    Europe 0.6944 0.7008 0.7076 0.7094 0.7018 0.6983 0.6977 0.6997 0.7017

    Ethiopia
    Africa 0.5946 0.5991 0.5867 0.5948 0.6019 0.6136 0.6200 0.6198 0.6144

    Fiji
    Oceania N/A N/A N/A 0.6414 0.6256 0.6255 0.6285 0.6286 0.6286

    Finland
    Europe 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 0.8451 0.8421 0.8453

    France
    Europe 0.6520 0.6824 0.7341 0.7331 0.7025 0.7018 0.6984 0.7089 0.7588

    Gambia, The
    Africa 0.6448 0.6421 0.6622 0.6752 0.6762 0.6763 0.6630 N/A N/A

    Georgia
    Europe and Central Asia 0.6700 0.6665 0.6654 0.6680 0.6598 0.6624 0.6691 0.6750 0.6855

    Germany
    Europe 0.7524 0.7618 0.7394 0.7449 0.7530 0.7590 0.7629 0.7583 0.7780

    Ghana
    Africa 0.6653 0.6725 0.6679 0.6704 0.6782 0.6811 0.6778 0.6811 0.6661

    Greece
    Europe 0.6540 0.6648 0.6727 0.6662 0.6908 0.6916 0.6716 0.6782 0.6784

    Guatemala
    North America 0.6067 0.6144 0.6072 0.6209 0.6238 0.6229 0.6260 0.6304 0.6821

    Guyana
    South America N/A N/A N/A 0.7108 0.7090 0.7084 0.7119 0.7085 0.7010

    Honduras
    North America 0.6483 0.6661 0.6960 0.6893 0.6927 0.6945 0.6763 0.6773 0.6935

    Hungary
    Europe 0.6698 0.6731 0.6867 0.6879 0.6720 0.6642 0.6718 0.6742 0.6759

    Iceland
    Europe 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 0.8640 0.8731 0.8594 0.881

    India
    South Asia 0.6011 0.5936 0.6060 0.6151 0.6155 0.6190 0.6442 0.6551 0.6455 0.664

    Indonesia
    Southeast Asia 0.6541 0.6550 0.6473 0.6580 0.6615 0.6594 0.6591 0.6613 0.6725

    Iran, Islamic Rep.
    Middle East 0.5803 0.5903 0.6021 0.5839 0.5933 0.5894 0.5927 0.5842 0.5811

    Ireland
    Europe 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 0.7839 0.7823 0.7850

    Israel
    Middle East 0.6889 0.6965 0.6900 0.7019 0.6957 0.6926 0.6989 0.7032 0.7005

    Italy
    Europe 0.6456 0.6498 0.6788 0.6798 0.6765 0.6796 0.6729 0.6885 0.6973

    Jamaica
    North America 0.7014 0.6925 0.6980 0.7013 0.7037 0.7028 0.7035 0.7085 0.7128

    Japan
    East Asia 0.6447 0.6455 0.6434 0.6447 0.6524 0.6514 0.6530 0.6498 0.6584

    Jordan
    Middle East 0.6109 0.6203 0.6275 0.6182 0.6048 0.6117 0.6103 0.6093 0.5968

    Kazakhstan
    Central Asia 0.6928 0.6983 0.6976 0.7013 0.7055 0.7010 0.7213 0.7218 0.7210

    Kenya
    Africa 0.6486 0.6508 0.6547 0.6512 0.6499 0.6493 0.6768 0.6803 0.7258

    Korea, Rep.
    East Asia 0.6157 0.6409 0.6154 0.6146 0.6342 0.6281 0.6356 0.6351 0.6403

    Kuwait
    Middle East 0.6341 0.6409 0.6358 0.6356 0.6318 0.6322 0.6320 0.6292 0.6457

    Kyrgyz Republic
    Central Asia 0.6742 0.6653 0.7045 0.7058 0.6973 0.7036 0.7013 0.6948 0.6974

    Laos
    Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6993 0.7044

    Latvia
    Europe 0.7091 0.7333 0.7397 0.7416 0.7429 0.7399 0.7572 0.7610 0.7691

    Lebanon
    Middle East N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6084 0.6083 0.6030 0.6028 0.5923

    Lesotho
    Africa 0.6807 0.7078 0.7320 0.7495 0.7678 0.7666 0.7608 0.7530 0.7255

    Lithuania
    Europe 0.7077 0.7234 0.7222 0.7175 0.7132 0.7131 0.7191 0.7308 0.7208

    Luxembourg
    Europe 0.6671 0.6786 0.6802 0.6889 0.7231 0.7216 0.7439 0.7410 0.7333

    Macedonia
    Europe 0.6983 0.6967 0.6914 0.6950 0.6996 0.6966 0.6968 0.7013 0.6943

    Madagascar
    Africa 0.6385 0.6461 0.6736 0.6732 0.6713 0.6797 0.6982 0.7016 0.7214

    Malawi
    Africa 0.6437 0.6480 0.6664 0.6738 0.6824 0.6850 0.7166 0.7139 0.7281

    Malaysia
    Southeast Asia 0.6509 0.6444 0.6442 0.6467 0.6479 0.6525 0.6539 0.6518 0.6520

    Maldives
    South Asia N/A 0.6350 0.6501 0.6482 0.6452 0.6480 0.6616 0.6604 0.6557

    Mali
    Africa 0.5996 0.6019 0.6117 0.5860 0.5680 0.5752 0.5842 0.5872 0.5779

    Malta
    Europe 0.6518 0.6615 0.6634 0.6635 0.6695 0.6658 0.6666 0.6761 0.6707

    Mauritania
    Africa 0.5835 0.6022 0.6117 0.6103 0.6152 0.6164 0.6129 0.5810 0.6029

    Mauritius
    Africa 0.6328 0.6487 0.6466 0.6513 0.6520 0.6529 0.6547 0.6599 0.6541

    Mexico
    North America 0.6462 0.6441 0.6441 0.6503 0.6577 0.6604 0.6712 0.6917 0.6900

    Moldova
    Europe 0.7128 0.7172 0.7244 0.7104 0.7160 0.7083 0.7101 0.7037 0.7405

    Mongolia
    East Asia 0.6821 0.6731 0.7049 0.7221 0.7194 0.7140 0.7111 0.7204 0.7212

    Morocco
    Africa 0.5827 0.5676 0.5757 0.5926 0.5767 0.5804 0.5833 0.5845 0.5988

    Mozambique
    Africa N/A 0.6883 0.7266 0.7195 0.7329 0.7251 0.7350 0.7349 0.7370

    Namibia
    Africa 0.6864 0.7012 0.7141 0.7167 0.7238 0.7177 0.7121 0.7094 0.7219

    Nepal
    Central Asia 0.5478 0.5575 0.5942 0.6213 0.6084 0.5888 0.6026 0.6053 0.6458

    Netherlands
    Europe 0.7250 0.7383 0.7399 0.7490 0.7444 0.7470 0.7659 0.7608 0.7730

    New Zealand
    Oceania 0.7509 0.7649 0.7859 0.7880 0.7808 0.7810 0.7805 0.7799 0.7772

    Nicaragua
    North America 0.6566 0.6458 0.6747 0.7002 0.7176 0.7245 0.7697 0.7715 0.7894

    Nigeria
    Africa 0.6104 0.6122 0.6339 0.6280 0.6055 0.6011 0.6315 0.6469 0.6391

    Norway
    Europe 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 0.8403 0.8417 0.8374

    Oman
    Middle East N/A 0.5903 0.5960 0.5938 0.5950 0.5873 0.5986 0.6053 0.6091

    Pakistan
    South Asia 0.5434 0.5509 0.5549 0.5458 0.5465 0.5583 0.5478 0.5459 0.5522

    Panama
    North America 0.6935 0.6954 0.7095 0.7024 0.7072 0.7042 0.7122 0.7164 0.7195

    Paraguay
    South America 0.6556 0.6659 0.6379 0.6868 0.6804 0.6818 0.6714 0.6724 0.6890

    Peru
    South America 0.6619 0.6624 0.6959 0.7024 0.6895 0.6796 0.6742 0.6787 0.7198

    Philippines
    Southeast Asia 0.7516 0.7629 0.7568 0.7579 0.7654 0.7685 0.7757 0.7832 0.7814

    Poland
    Europe 0.6802 0.6756 0.6951 0.6998 0.7037 0.7038 0.7015 0.7031 0.7051

    Portugal
    Europe 0.6922 0.6959 0.7051 0.7013 0.7171 0.7144 0.7071 0.7056 0.7243

    Qatar
    Middle East N/A 0.6041 0.5948 0.5907 0.6059 0.6230 0.6264 0.6299 0.6403

    Romania
    Europe 0.6797 0.6859 0.6763 0.6805 0.6826 0.6812 0.6859 0.6908 0.6936

    Russian Federation
    Europe and Northern Asia 0.6770 0.6866 0.6994 0.6987 0.7036 0.7037 0.6980 0.6983 0.6927

    Saudi Arabia
    Middle East 0.5242 0.5647 0.5537 0.5651 0.5713 0.5753 0.5731 0.5879 0.6059

    Senegal
    Africa N/A N/A N/A 0.6427 0.6414 0.6573 0.6657 0.6923 0.6912

    Serbia
    Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7037 0.7116 0.7086

    Singapore
    Southeast Asia 0.6550 0.6609 0.6625 0.6664 0.6914 0.6914 0.6989 0.7000 0.7046

    Slovak Republic
    Europe 0.6757 0.6797 0.6824 0.6845 0.6778 0.6797 0.6824 0.6857 0.6806

    Slovenia
    Europe 0.6745 0.6842 0.6937 0.6982 0.7047 0.7041 0.7132 0.7155 0.7443

    South Africa
    Africa 0.7125 0.7194 0.7232 0.7709 0.7535 0.7478 0.7496 0.7510 0.7527

    Spain
    Europe 0.7319 0.7444 0.7281 0.7345 0.7554 0.7580 0.7266 0.7266 0.7325

    Sri Lanka
    South Asia 0.7199 0.7230 0.7371 0.7402 0.7458 0.7212 0.7122 0.7019 0.6903

    Suriname
    South America N/A 0.6794 0.6674 0.6726 0.6407 0.6395 0.6409 0.6369 0.6504

    Sweden
    Europe 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 0.8159 0.8129 0.8165

    Switzerland
    Europe 0.6997 0.6924 0.7360 0.7426 0.7562 0.7627 0.7672 0.7736 0.7798

    Syria
    Middle East N/A 0.6216 0.6181 0.6072 0.5926 0.5896 0.5626 0.5661 0.5775

    Tajikistan
    Central Asia N/A 0.6578 0.6541 0.6661 0.6598 0.6526 0.6608 0.6682 0.6654

    Tanzania
    Africa 0.7038 0.6969 0.7068 0.6797 0.6829 0.6904 0.7091 0.6928 0.7182

    Thailand
    Southeast Asia 0.6831 0.6815 0.6917 0.6907 0.6910 0.6892 0.6893 0.6928 0.7027

    Timor-Leste
    Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6855 N/A N/A

    Trinidad and Tobago
    North America 0.6797 0.6859 0.7245 0.7298 0.7353 0.7372 0.7116 0.7166 0.7154

    Tunisia
    Africa 0.6288 0.6283 0.6295 0.6233 0.6266 0.6255 N/A N/A 0.6272

    Turkey
    Middle East and Europe 0.5850 0.5768 0.5853 0.5828 0.5876 0.5954 0.6015 0.6081 0.6183

    Uganda
    Africa 0.6797 0.6833 0.6981 0.7067 0.7169 0.7220 0.7228 0.7086 0.6821

    Ukraine
    Europe 0.6797 0.6790 0.6856 0.6896 0.6869 0.6861 0.6894 0.6935 0.7056

    United Arab Emirates
    Middle East 0.5919 0.6184 0.6220 0.6198 0.6397 0.6454 0.6392 0.6372 0.6436

    United Kingdom
    Europe 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 0.7433 0.7440 0.7383

    United States
    North America 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 0.7373 0.7392 0.7463

    Uruguay
    South America 0.6549 0.6608 0.6907 0.6936 0.6897 0.6907 0.6745 0.6803 0.6871

    Venezuela
    South America 0.6664 0.6797 0.6875 0.6839 0.6863 0.6861 0.7060 0.7060 0.6851

    Vietnam
    Southeast Asia N/A 0.6889 0.6778 0.6802 0.6776 0.6732 0.6867 0.6863 0.6915

    Yemen
    Middle East 0.4595 0.4510 0.4664 0.4609 0.4603 0.4873 0.5054 0.5128 0.5145

    Zambia
    Africa 0.6360 0.6288 0.6205 0.6310 0.6293 0.6300 0.6279 0.6312 0.6364

    Zimbabwe
    Africa 0.6461 0.6464 0.6485 0.6518 0.6574 0.6607 N/A N/A 0.7013

    Notes

    1. Years of report publication. Values may reflect data collected the previous year.

    References

    1. Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, Editors (2009). “The Global Gender Gap Report 2009” (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (…) the Index rewards countries that reach the point where outcomes for women equal those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women are outperforming men in particular variables
    2. a b 2008 Report, p. 24
    3. 2014 report, page 5
    4. 2008 Report, p. 5
    5. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Gen...eport_2012.pdf
    6. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2013” (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
    7. “Global Gender Gap Report 2014 – Reports – World Economic Forum”. Global Gender Gap Report 2014.
    8. a bhttp://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR2015/cover.pdf