In this chapter we have mentioned only the most commonly used sense relations (some authors have found it helpful to refer to dozens of others). We have illustrated various diagnostic tests for identifying sense relations, many of them involving entailment or other meaning relations between sentences. Studying these sense relations provides a useful tool for probing the meaning of a word, and for constructing dictionary definitions of words.
Cruse (1986: chapters 4–12) offers a detailed discussion of each of the sense relations mentioned in this chapter. Cann (2011) provides a helpful overview of the subject.
Identify the meaning relations for the following pairs of words, and provide linguistic evidence that supports your identification:
a. sharp dull e. hyponym hyperonym
b. finite infinite f. silver metal
c. two too g. insert extract
d. arm leg
Antonyms.a Below is a list of incompatible pairs. (i) Classify each pair into one of the following types of relation: simple antonyms, gradable antonyms, reverses, converses, or taxonomic sisters. (ii) For each pair, provide at least one type of linguistic evidence (e.g. example sentences) that supports your decision, and where possible mention other types of evidence that would lend additional support.