# 3.8: Problems

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In transcribing the phones in these problems, you can replace the symbols that are not found on a keyboard with uppercase letters. (These conventions agree mostly with emerging internet conventions for representing IPA in email and newsgroups.)

• ɛ → E
• ɑ → A
• ɔ → O
• θ → T
• ð → D
• š → S
• ž → Z
• č → C
• ǰ → J
• ŋ → N

For "æ", use "&".

## Vowels

1. The chart below shows the vowel phonemes of Amharic in vowel space. Rounded vowels are circled; spread vowels are underlined. Note that some of the symbols do not refer to exactly the same sounds that they refer to for English.

Describe each vowel in terms of its values on the relevant vowel dimensions. There should be three dimensions.

2. For each of the following English words, write the symbol for the vowel in the word. Do not use a dictionary to help you.
1. mine
2. main
3. mean
4. moon
5. moan
6. men
7. man
8. love
9. weird
10. weigh
11. pants
12. soft
13. put
14. owe
15. far
16. loud
17. point
19. niece

## English consonants

1. For each of the following sets of English phonemes, say which features (dimension values) they share. For item j, you will have to come up with a feature that is not mentioned in the book; think of what the articulation of these phones shares, and describe it in a short sentence.
Example: /p, b/ — bilabial, stop
1. /ɛ, æ, ɪ, i, e/
2. /ʊ, i, u, ɪ/
3. /z, d, n, t, s/
4. /w, y/
5. /n, ŋ, m/
6. /v, z, ž/
7. /g, ŋ/
8. /s, z/
9. /t, k, p/
10. /p, m, f, b, v/
2. Transcribe each of the following English words, using the phonetic symbols in the book. Do not use a dictionary to help you.
1. creature
2. anger
3. hanger
4. luxury
5. pushed
6. physics
8. thistle
9. rhythm
10. choir

## Syllables

1. For each of the following, say whether it is a possible word in English (whether it obeys English phonotactics). If it is not possible, say why in the most general terms possible.
Example: /læbg/ No, because English syllables cannot end with a /bg/ cluster.
1. /psu/
2. /plʊ/
3. /nawz/
4. /wrayn/
5. /brith/
6. /bɪŋf/
7. /sprʊks/
8. /'kræbəl/
9. /sædb/
10. /'pyuzi/

This page titled 3.8: Problems is shared under a GNU General Public License 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Michael Gasser.