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3.13: The Focus of This Chapter

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    In this chapter, we examined the skill of “Clashing” when we are faced with an argument that we disagree with. This final chapter looked at the process by focusing on:

    • The importance of “Clashing” as “Silence means consent” or at least suggests consent.
    • We have different levels of clashing from “name calling” to “refutation.”
    • The first step in effective refutation is to examine the argument being presented.
    • By using the Toulmin Model we can find weaknesses in arguments that occur in the argument including the backing and/or the inclusion of reservations.
    • The more reservations that exist in the argument, the more significant the qualifier, which lowers the validity of the argument on the “Continuum of Certainty.” This could reduce the validity level to below your “Threshold” of acceptance.
    • There are three traditional approaches used to refute an argument; Straight Refutation, Defense of the Status Quo with Minor Repairs, and a Counterproposal.
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    3.13.1: "Edmund Burke” (Public Domain; Joshua Reynolds via Wikimedia Commons)

    "The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing."

    – Edmond Burke

    3.13: The Focus of This Chapter is shared under a CC BY-NC license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jim Marteney (ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative (OERI)) .

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