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Social Sci LibreTexts

Glossary

  • Page ID
    71874
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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition) The definition is case sensitive (Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages] (Optional) Caption for Image (Optional) External or Internal Link (Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...") (Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity") The infamous double helix https://bio.libretexts.org/ CC-BY-SA; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    “the medium is the message.” A phrase coined by media theorist Marshall McLuhan asserting that every medium delivers information in a different way, and that content is fundamentally shaped by the medium of transmission.
    “the medium is the message.” A phrase coined by media theorist Marshall McLuhan asserting that every medium delivers information in a different way, and that content is fundamentally shaped by the medium of transmission.
    4G networks Fourth-generation cell phone networks that improve on the connectivity speeds of 3G networks and provide more comprehensive access to multimedia.
    4G networks Fourth-generation cell phone networks that improve on the connectivity speeds of 3G networks and provide more comprehensive access to multimedia.
    80/20 effect The effect wherein 80 percent of economic profit is made from the most affluent 20 percent of the population.
    80/20 effect The effect wherein 80 percent of economic profit is made from the most affluent 20 percent of the population.
    A&R agent Talent agent working on behalf of a record label who finds and develops new artists with commercial potential.
    A&R agent Talent agent working on behalf of a record label who finds and develops new artists with commercial potential.
    active audience The assumption that audiences make informed, rational decisions about media consumption.
    active audience The assumption that audiences make informed, rational decisions about media consumption.
    advergames Online video games that feature particular products and are marketed to children.
    advergames Online video games that feature particular products and are marketed to children.
    Advertising Promoting a product or service through paid announcements.
    Advertising Promoting a product or service through paid announcements.
    affiliated stations A local television or radio station associated with a particular broadcast network that carries some or all of that network’s programming.
    affiliated stations A local television or radio station associated with a particular broadcast network that carries some or all of that network’s programming.
    agenda-setting theory A theory stating that the mass media determines the issues the public considers important.
    agenda-setting theory A theory stating that the mass media determines the issues the public considers important.
    Areopagitica John Milton’s 1644 treatise that criticized the British Parliament’s regulation of texts, which paved the way for the freedom of the press.
    Areopagitica John Milton’s 1644 treatise that criticized the British Parliament’s regulation of texts, which paved the way for the freedom of the press.
    aspect ratio Width-to-height ratio of a film.
    aspect ratio Width-to-height ratio of a film.
    Atari The video game company that was responsible for the arcade game Pong and that led the home console market in the 1970s and 1980s.
    Atari The video game company that was responsible for the arcade game Pong and that led the home console market in the 1970s and 1980s.
    bandwidth Equivalent to the number of lanes on a highway: the maximum amount of data that can be sent per second.
    bandwidth Equivalent to the number of lanes on a highway: the maximum amount of data that can be sent per second.
    Beat Generation The name given to a group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s and who were known for literary experimentation and nonconformity.
    Beat Generation The name given to a group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s and who were known for literary experimentation and nonconformity.
    beatbloggers Professional journalist who writes a blog to gain better access to readers and their ideas.
    beatbloggers Professional journalist who writes a blog to gain better access to readers and their ideas.
    below-the-line costs Costs in the production of a film that are generally fixed.
    below-the-line costs Costs in the production of a film that are generally fixed.
    Big Four Term used in the music industry to refer to the four major record labels: Universal Music Group, EMI, Warner Music Group, and Sony Music Entertainment.
    Big Four Term used in the music industry to refer to the four major record labels: Universal Music Group, EMI, Warner Music Group, and Sony Music Entertainment.
    bits per second The most common measure of Internet bandwidth. Bit is a computing term meaning a one or a zero.
    bits per second The most common measure of Internet bandwidth. Bit is a computing term meaning a one or a zero.
    blockbuster syndrome The publishing industry’s focus on books with bestseller potential.
    blockbuster syndrome The publishing industry’s focus on books with bestseller potential.
    blogs Short for weblog, a blog features news and commentary from one or many authors.
    blogs Short for weblog, a blog features news and commentary from one or many authors.
    blues A 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar that originated in the Mississippi Delta at the turn of the 20th century.
    blues A 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar that originated in the Mississippi Delta at the turn of the 20th century.
    border stations Stations located just over the United States–Mexico border that broadcast into the United States without being subject to its regulations.
    border stations Stations located just over the United States–Mexico border that broadcast into the United States without being subject to its regulations.
    branding The association of a particular brand with cultural values or lifestyles.
    branding The association of a particular brand with cultural values or lifestyles.
    broadband A high-speed network connection that can carry data, voice, television, and video at higher speeds and in greater quantities than traditional connections.
    broadband A high-speed network connection that can carry data, voice, television, and video at higher speeds and in greater quantities than traditional connections.
    broadband Internet access Higher-speed connections to the Internet that make things like live video, audio, and file sharing possible.
    broadband Internet access Higher-speed connections to the Internet that make things like live video, audio, and file sharing possible.
    bylines The credit line identifying the author of the article.
    bylines The credit line identifying the author of the article.
    cable television A system of providing television and other media services to consumers via coaxial cable. Subscribers are connected through a central community antenna, which picks up satellite signals for distribution.
    cable television A system of providing television and other media services to consumers via coaxial cable. Subscribers are connected through a central community antenna, which picks up satellite signals for distribution.
    carriage fees Fees paid to cable operators by broadcasters for transmitting their channels on the operators’ systems.
    carriage fees Fees paid to cable operators by broadcasters for transmitting their channels on the operators’ systems.
    celebrity magazines A publication that provides an inside look into the lives of popular celebrities.
    celebrity magazines A publication that provides an inside look into the lives of popular celebrities.
    Censorship The institution of suppressing or removing anything considered objectionable.
    Censorship The institution of suppressing or removing anything considered objectionable.
    chapbooks An inexpensive, pocket-sized booklet popular from the 16th to 19th centuries, usually containing popular literature such as folk ballads, religious tracts, or children’s stories.
    chapbooks An inexpensive, pocket-sized booklet popular from the 16th to 19th centuries, usually containing popular literature such as folk ballads, religious tracts, or children’s stories.
    Chicago blues Electrified style of blues created in Chicago when migrant bluesmen from the South combined elements of Delta blues and urban blues.
    Chicago blues Electrified style of blues created in Chicago when migrant bluesmen from the South combined elements of Delta blues and urban blues.
    Cinématographe Lightweight film projector, created by Auguste and Louis Lumière, that also functioned as a camera and printer, and allowed multiple people to view moving images at the same time.
    Cinématographe Lightweight film projector, created by Auguste and Louis Lumière, that also functioned as a camera and printer, and allowed multiple people to view moving images at the same time.
    circulation The number of copies of a magazine distributed.
    circulation The number of copies of a magazine distributed.
    codex A book with pages bound together and enclosed within a cover; the format used for modern books.
    codex A book with pages bound together and enclosed within a cover; the format used for modern books.
    Columbine High School massacre The 1999 high school shooting that many people connected with the first-person shooter genre of video games.
    Columbine High School massacre The 1999 high school shooting that many people connected with the first-person shooter genre of video games.
    computer virus A program that spreads itself from computer to computer, often with adverse effects.
    computer virus A program that spreads itself from computer to computer, often with adverse effects.
    conflict journalism A style of journalism that focuses on events, issues, or experiences outside of the social norm.
    conflict journalism A style of journalism that focuses on events, issues, or experiences outside of the social norm.
    console A video game system designed to be attached to a television to simulate arcade video games.
    console A video game system designed to be attached to a television to simulate arcade video games.
    consolidation The purchase of multiple radio stations by a single owner.
    consolidation The purchase of multiple radio stations by a single owner.
    contemporary hit radio (CHR) A Top 40-derived radio format that pulls from many different genres.
    contemporary hit radio (CHR) A Top 40-derived radio format that pulls from many different genres.
    Content analysis A research method in which the content of media is analyzed.
    Content analysis A research method in which the content of media is analyzed.
    content integration The ability of a company to use the same content across platforms.
    content integration The ability of a company to use the same content across platforms.
    cookies Text files that web page servers embed in users’ hard drives to help search engines keep track of their customers’ search histories, buying habits, and browsing patterns.
    cookies Text files that web page servers embed in users’ hard drives to help search engines keep track of their customers’ search histories, buying habits, and browsing patterns.
    Copyright A form of protection provided by U.S. law, under which the creator of an original artistic or intellectual work is automatically granted certain rights, including the right to distribute, copy, and modify the work.
    Copyright A form of protection provided by U.S. law, under which the creator of an original artistic or intellectual work is automatically granted certain rights, including the right to distribute, copy, and modify the work.
    Copyright law Law that regulates the exclusive rights given to the creator of a work.
    Copyright law Law that regulates the exclusive rights given to the creator of a work.
    credible sources Generally, any source with authorial or editorial backing. Anonymous sources, or people who do not give their real names, are often not credible, unless they are vouched for by a known credible source.
    credible sources Generally, any source with authorial or editorial backing. Anonymous sources, or people who do not give their real names, are often not credible, unless they are vouched for by a known credible source.
    Crisis management The PR strategies used to deal with potentially damaging information or events so as to minimize negative publicity.
    Crisis management The PR strategies used to deal with potentially damaging information or events so as to minimize negative publicity.
    crowd-sourcing The act of taking tasks traditionally performed by an individual, and delegating them to a (usually unpaid) crowd.
    crowd-sourcing The act of taking tasks traditionally performed by an individual, and delegating them to a (usually unpaid) crowd.
    cultivation analysis A theory stating that heavy exposure to media cultivates an illusory perception of reality.
    cultivation analysis A theory stating that heavy exposure to media cultivates an illusory perception of reality.
    cultural imperialism The theory that certain cultures are attracted or pressured into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of a different culture, one that generally wields more economic power.
    cultural imperialism The theory that certain cultures are attracted or pressured into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of a different culture, one that generally wields more economic power.
    Cultural imperialism The takeover of a local culture by a more powerful foreign one.
    Cultural imperialism The takeover of a local culture by a more powerful foreign one.
    cultural period A time marked by a particular way of understanding the world through culture and technology.
    cultural period A time marked by a particular way of understanding the world through culture and technology.
    cultural product A product that has some influence on or connection to cultural attributes.
    cultural product A product that has some influence on or connection to cultural attributes.
    culture The expressed and shared values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of a social group, organization, or institution.
    culture The expressed and shared values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of a social group, organization, or institution.
    Death Race A 1978 arcade game that drew protest over its depiction of violence.
    Death Race A 1978 arcade game that drew protest over its depiction of violence.
    decentralization The principle that there should be no central hub that controls information flow. Instead, information is transferred via protocols that allow any computer to communicate directly with any other computer.
    decentralization The principle that there should be no central hub that controls information flow. Instead, information is transferred via protocols that allow any computer to communicate directly with any other computer.
    demographic A single statistic of a human population, such as age or income.
    demographic A single statistic of a human population, such as age or income.
    depth interview A research method in which researchers conduct lengthy interviews with test subjects.
    depth interview A research method in which researchers conduct lengthy interviews with test subjects.
    deregulation The removal of government regulations from an industry. Government deregulation of the cable industry in the 1980s enabled its extensive growth throughout the next two decades.
    deregulation The removal of government regulations from an industry. Government deregulation of the cable industry in the 1980s enabled its extensive growth throughout the next two decades.
    derivatives Media that uses the narratives and aesthetics of other forms of media.
    derivatives Media that uses the narratives and aesthetics of other forms of media.
    digital decay The breakdown of data stored in digital form.
    digital decay The breakdown of data stored in digital form.
    Digital democracy The use of the Internet and other online tools to engage citizens in government and civic action.
    Digital democracy The use of the Internet and other online tools to engage citizens in government and civic action.
    digital divide The difference between those who derive the benefits of Internet access and those who do not.
    digital divide The difference between those who derive the benefits of Internet access and those who do not.
    digital library A library that stores its collections digitally so they are accessible by computer.
    digital library A library that stores its collections digitally so they are accessible by computer.
    Digital Millennium Copyright Act The piece of 1998 legislation that made digital piracy illegal while exempting Internet service providers from liability.
    Digital Millennium Copyright Act The piece of 1998 legislation that made digital piracy illegal while exempting Internet service providers from liability.
    digital rights management (DRM) A collection of systems used to protect the copyrights of electronic media. Apple used DRM software to limit music purchased on iTunes so that it could only be played on Apple products. It removed these restrictions in 2009.
    digital rights management (DRM) A collection of systems used to protect the copyrights of electronic media. Apple used DRM software to limit music purchased on iTunes so that it could only be played on Apple products. It removed these restrictions in 2009.
    digital signals Signals transmitted as binary code. Digital signals replaced analog signals as the universal method of transmitting television broadcasts in 2009.
    digital signals Signals transmitted as binary code. Digital signals replaced analog signals as the universal method of transmitting television broadcasts in 2009.
    digital television Television that uses signals that translate television images and sounds into binary code. Digital television replaced analog television in 2009.
    digital television Television that uses signals that translate television images and sounds into binary code. Digital television replaced analog television in 2009.
    direct broadcast satellite (DBS) A small-dish satellite-delivered program service specifically intended for home reception.
    direct broadcast satellite (DBS) A small-dish satellite-delivered program service specifically intended for home reception.
    direct effects model A theory that assumes audiences passively accept media messages and react predictably to those messages.
    direct effects model A theory that assumes audiences passively accept media messages and react predictably to those messages.
    direct-to-fan Business model used by independent artists and labels to market and distribute their music directly to fans, bypassing major record labels. New Internet technology has made it possible for artists to use the direct-to-fan model successfully. It has been embraced by high-profile bands such as Radiohead and Nine Inch Nails.
    direct-to-fan Business model used by independent artists and labels to market and distribute their music directly to fans, bypassing major record labels. New Internet technology has made it possible for artists to use the direct-to-fan model successfully. It has been embraced by high-profile bands such as Radiohead and Nine Inch Nails.
    disco Commercialized dance music that became popular in the 1970s and is associated with extravagant glittery costumes.
    disco Commercialized dance music that became popular in the 1970s and is associated with extravagant glittery costumes.
    distributed network A web of computers connected to one another, allowing intercomputer communication.
    distributed network A web of computers connected to one another, allowing intercomputer communication.
    domestic comedy Generic family comedy popular in the 1950s that was identified by its character-based humor and was usually set within the home.
    domestic comedy Generic family comedy popular in the 1950s that was identified by its character-based humor and was usually set within the home.
    economy of scale An economic model with high first costs and low marginal costs that heavily rewards expansion.
    economy of scale An economic model with high first costs and low marginal costs that heavily rewards expansion.
    electronic television All-electronic television system that scanned images using an electronic camera and received images by cathode ray tube. Electronic television replaced mechanical television in the 1930s.
    electronic television All-electronic television system that scanned images using an electronic camera and received images by cathode ray tube. Electronic television replaced mechanical television in the 1930s.
    encrypted A process in which information is encoded to protect it from being stolen. Online “shopping carts,” for example, are on encrypted web pages resistant to hackers.
    encrypted A process in which information is encoded to protect it from being stolen. Online “shopping carts,” for example, are on encrypted web pages resistant to hackers.
    Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) The organization that creates ratings for video games.
    Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) The organization that creates ratings for video games.
    epistolary novel A book made up of letters of correspondence.
    epistolary novel A book made up of letters of correspondence.
    experience good A good that requires the customer to experience it in order to judge its value.
    experience good A good that requires the customer to experience it in order to judge its value.
    Facebook A social networking service that allows users to instant message and to publicly post thoughts, photographs, videos, links, and more.
    Facebook A social networking service that allows users to instant message and to publicly post thoughts, photographs, videos, links, and more.
    Facebook Connect Technology that enables users of social networking site Facebook to connect their account with any partner website using an authentication method.
    Facebook Connect Technology that enables users of social networking site Facebook to connect their account with any partner website using an authentication method.
    fair use An aspect of copyright law that specifies the ways in which a work (or parts of a work) under copyright can legally be used by someone other than the copyright holder.
    fair use An aspect of copyright law that specifies the ways in which a work (or parts of a work) under copyright can legally be used by someone other than the copyright holder.
    Fairness Doctrine A 1949 FCC ruling that required station owners to allocate equal time to opposing points of view.
    Fairness Doctrine A 1949 FCC ruling that required station owners to allocate equal time to opposing points of view.
    fan magazines A publication that provides audiences with a behind-the-scenes look at the entertainment industry.
    fan magazines A publication that provides audiences with a behind-the-scenes look at the entertainment industry.
    FarmVille A game that interacts with the social platform Facebook, in which players grow, harvest, and profit from farming.
    FarmVille A game that interacts with the social platform Facebook, in which players grow, harvest, and profit from farming.
    FCC The government agency charged with overseeing interstate communications in the United States.
    FCC The government agency charged with overseeing interstate communications in the United States.
    feature narratives Feature films that tell a story.
    feature narratives Feature films that tell a story.
    Federal Communications Commission Federal commission charged with regulating the communications industries.
    Federal Communications Commission Federal commission charged with regulating the communications industries.
    fifth network Term used to describe the potential for video games to rival the top four television networks.
    fifth network Term used to describe the potential for video games to rival the top four television networks.
    file sharing The practice of swapping media files over the Internet.
    file sharing The practice of swapping media files over the Internet.
    first-person shooter A video game genre developed in the 1990s that puts the player in the perspective of a character who primarily uses guns to defeat enemies.
    first-person shooter A video game genre developed in the 1990s that puts the player in the perspective of a character who primarily uses guns to defeat enemies.
    focus groups A group interview in which participants respond to questions posed about a certain subject.
    focus groups A group interview in which participants respond to questions posed about a certain subject.
    folk rock Folk music played with electric instruments.
    folk rock Folk music played with electric instruments.
    format The physical appearance and specifications of a magazine.
    format The physical appearance and specifications of a magazine.
    Freedom of Information Act A piece of legislation that permits the public at large, including the news media, to request access to many government documents.
    Freedom of Information Act A piece of legislation that permits the public at large, including the news media, to request access to many government documents.
    FTC The government agency charged with overseeing interstate business and trade practices in the United States.
    FTC The government agency charged with overseeing interstate business and trade practices in the United States.
    game cartridges Interchangeable cartridges containing video games for use in home consoles.
    game cartridges Interchangeable cartridges containing video games for use in home consoles.
    gaming culture The unique set of aesthetics and principles that characterize video games.
    gaming culture The unique set of aesthetics and principles that characterize video games.
    gangsta rap Controversial form of hip-hop that highlights gang violence.
    gangsta rap Controversial form of hip-hop that highlights gang violence.
    Gatekeepers The people who help determine which stories make it to the public, including reporters who decide what sources to use, and editors who pick what gets reported on, and which stories make it to the front page.
    Gatekeepers The people who help determine which stories make it to the public, including reporters who decide what sources to use, and editors who pick what gets reported on, and which stories make it to the front page.
    globalization The lowering of economic and cultural impediments to communication and commerce between countries.
    globalization The lowering of economic and cultural impediments to communication and commerce between countries.
    Gnutella network A peer-to-peer system without a centralized database. The Gnutella network includes clients such as LimeWire, BearShare, and WinMX. Because it does not have a central network, the Gnutella network would be difficult to close down.
    Gnutella network A peer-to-peer system without a centralized database. The Gnutella network includes clients such as LimeWire, BearShare, and WinMX. Because it does not have a central network, the Gnutella network would be difficult to close down.
    gold farmers Players in World of Warcraft who work to get virtual gold so that they can sell it for actual money.
    gold farmers Players in World of Warcraft who work to get virtual gold so that they can sell it for actual money.
    Golden Age Period in the late 1930s and early 1940s when the movie industry found unparalled success in terms of attendance and production.
    Golden Age Period in the late 1930s and early 1940s when the movie industry found unparalled success in terms of attendance and production.
    Google Buzz Google’s social networking service that is built into its Gmail service.
    Google Buzz Google’s social networking service that is built into its Gmail service.
    gramophone The U.S. brand name for the phonograph; the gramophone used a disc instead of a cylinder.
    gramophone The U.S. brand name for the phonograph; the gramophone used a disc instead of a cylinder.
    grand narratives Large-scale theories that attempt to explain the totality of human experience.
    grand narratives Large-scale theories that attempt to explain the totality of human experience.
    Great Migration The mass exodus of rural Southern Black individuals to urban Northern cities in the United States during the first half of the 20th century.
    Great Migration The mass exodus of rural Southern Black individuals to urban Northern cities in the United States during the first half of the 20th century.
    grunge Subgenre of alternative rock named for its characteristic sludgy, distorted guitar sound.
    grunge Subgenre of alternative rock named for its characteristic sludgy, distorted guitar sound.
    Gutenberg Revolution The period of immense cultural and technological change after Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of mechanical movable type.
    Gutenberg Revolution The period of immense cultural and technological change after Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of mechanical movable type.
    HD radio Digital transmission of radio signals that allows separate subchannels to be broadcast on the same analog frequency.
    HD radio Digital transmission of radio signals that allows separate subchannels to be broadcast on the same analog frequency.
    hegemons of capitalism An important part of Gramsci’s theory, it referrs to the powerful states or state actors who seek and find control often without resorting to military dominance.
    hegemons of capitalism An important part of Gramsci’s theory, it referrs to the powerful states or state actors who seek and find control often without resorting to military dominance.
    High-definition television Wide-screen television system with a much higher resolution than standard televisions, creating a cinematic experience for the viewer.
    High-definition television Wide-screen television system with a much higher resolution than standard televisions, creating a cinematic experience for the viewer.
    hip-hop Urban culture that incorporates activities such as break dancing and graffiti art with the musical techniques of rapping, sampling, and scratching records.
    hip-hop Urban culture that incorporates activities such as break dancing and graffiti art with the musical techniques of rapping, sampling, and scratching records.
    homogenization The process of making things the same.
    homogenization The process of making things the same.
    Hulu Website founded in 2007 that gives users access to an entire library of video clips without charge and syndicates its material to partner distribution sites such as MySpace and Facebook.
    Hulu Website founded in 2007 that gives users access to an entire library of video clips without charge and syndicates its material to partner distribution sites such as MySpace and Facebook.
    illuminated manuscripts A handwritten document in which the text is embellished by decorative additions, including borders and illustrations.
    illuminated manuscripts A handwritten document in which the text is embellished by decorative additions, including borders and illustrations.
    indie record labels Independent record companies, also known as indies, not affiliated with any of the Big Four.
    indie record labels Independent record companies, also known as indies, not affiliated with any of the Big Four.
    information economy An economic model based on selling intangible information rather than products.
    information economy An economic model based on selling intangible information rather than products.
    information superhighway The idea that the Internet will make the transfer of information very fast. Also, related to how Eisenhower’s national highway system led to more people buying cars, the information superhighway would lead to more people buying computers.
    information superhighway The idea that the Internet will make the transfer of information very fast. Also, related to how Eisenhower’s national highway system led to more people buying cars, the information superhighway would lead to more people buying computers.
    Internet A web of interconnected computers and all of the information publicly available on these computers.
    Internet A web of interconnected computers and all of the information publicly available on these computers.
    Internet memes Any catchphrase, video, or piece of media that becomes a cultural symbol on the Internet.
    Internet memes Any catchphrase, video, or piece of media that becomes a cultural symbol on the Internet.
    Internet paradox The contradictory proposition of the American Psychological Association that says that the supposed social service of the Internet is actually making children antisocial. It has been more or less disproved, but still exists as a cultural stigma.
    Internet paradox The contradictory proposition of the American Psychological Association that says that the supposed social service of the Internet is actually making children antisocial. It has been more or less disproved, but still exists as a cultural stigma.
    Internet radio Radio broadcasts streamed over the Internet.
    Internet radio Radio broadcasts streamed over the Internet.
    interpretive journalism A style of writing that goes beyond providing basic facts to include context and analysis of an event or issue.
    interpretive journalism A style of writing that goes beyond providing basic facts to include context and analysis of an event or issue.
    inverted pyramid style A journalistic style in which the most important information is placed in the lead paragraph, with additional information appearing in order of importance.
    inverted pyramid style A journalistic style in which the most important information is placed in the lead paragraph, with additional information appearing in order of importance.
    iPod A portable MP3 player, launched by Apple in 2001, that is compatible with iTunes software. The iPod is the best-selling brand of MP3 player on the market.
    iPod A portable MP3 player, launched by Apple in 2001, that is compatible with iTunes software. The iPod is the best-selling brand of MP3 player on the market.
    jazz An improvisational style of music that emerged in New Orleans in the 1930s, characterized by syncopation and heavily accented rhythms.
    jazz An improvisational style of music that emerged in New Orleans in the 1930s, characterized by syncopation and heavily accented rhythms.
    joint operating agreements Agreements between multiple newspapers that allow them to share the cost of business, advertising, and circulation operations.
    joint operating agreements Agreements between multiple newspapers that allow them to share the cost of business, advertising, and circulation operations.
    kinetograph Thomas Edison’s early motion picture display that allowed a single viewer to experience the illusion of a moving image.
    kinetograph Thomas Edison’s early motion picture display that allowed a single viewer to experience the illusion of a moving image.
    laggards Individuals who are resistant to new technology and may be critical of its use by others.
    laggards Individuals who are resistant to new technology and may be critical of its use by others.
    legacy news organizations News organizations that were around before online news caused a shift in the industry. These organizations have not been replaced, but they have had to diversify.
    legacy news organizations News organizations that were around before online news caused a shift in the industry. These organizations have not been replaced, but they have had to diversify.
    literary journalism A style of journalism that combines journalistic and fictional styles.
    literary journalism A style of journalism that combines journalistic and fictional styles.
    Literary magazines A magazine that specializes in the publication of fictional stories.
    Literary magazines A magazine that specializes in the publication of fictional stories.
    machinima Animated films created by recording character actions inside of video games.
    machinima Animated films created by recording character actions inside of video games.
    marginal costs The costs per unit of a good, such as a print newspaper.
    marginal costs The costs per unit of a good, such as a print newspaper.
    Mass communication Communication transmitted to large segments of the population.
    Mass communication Communication transmitted to large segments of the population.
    mass media Those means of transmission that are designed to reach a wide audience; some examples are radio, newspapers, magazines, books, and video games, as well as Internet media such as blogs, podcasts, and video sharing.
    mass media Those means of transmission that are designed to reach a wide audience; some examples are radio, newspapers, magazines, books, and video games, as well as Internet media such as blogs, podcasts, and video sharing.
    massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) A genre of video games that allows a large number of players to simultaneously engage in a role-playing game.
    massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) A genre of video games that allows a large number of players to simultaneously engage in a role-playing game.
    McDonaldization An economic force that promotes efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control.
    McDonaldization An economic force that promotes efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control.
    mechanical movable type Method of printing created by Johannes Gutenberg that uses small, movable letters.
    mechanical movable type Method of printing created by Johannes Gutenberg that uses small, movable letters.
    Mechanical television A television system that used mechanical moving parts to capture and display images. Mechanical television was phased out during the 1930s in favor of electronic television.
    Mechanical television A television system that used mechanical moving parts to capture and display images. Mechanical television was phased out during the 1930s in favor of electronic television.
    media bias The allegation that media consistently favors one political position.
    media bias The allegation that media consistently favors one political position.
    Media conglomerates The name for all the media outlets owned by a single company.
    Media conglomerates The name for all the media outlets owned by a single company.
    media convergence The process by which previously distinct technologies come to share content, tasks, and resources.
    media convergence The process by which previously distinct technologies come to share content, tasks, and resources.
    media literacy The skill of being able to decode and process the messages and symbols transmitted via media.
    media literacy The skill of being able to decode and process the messages and symbols transmitted via media.
    Merseybeat Term used to describe the music of bands originating in the Mersey area of England during the 1960s, e.g. the Beatles.
    Merseybeat Term used to describe the music of bands originating in the Mersey area of England during the 1960s, e.g. the Beatles.
    micro magazines A digital subscription magazine with a specific target audience, delivered via email or RSS feed.
    micro magazines A digital subscription magazine with a specific target audience, delivered via email or RSS feed.
    Modern Age The post-Medieval era; a wide span of time marked in part by technological innovations, urbanization, scientific discoveries, and globalization. It is also referred to as modernity.
    Modern Age The post-Medieval era; a wide span of time marked in part by technological innovations, urbanization, scientific discoveries, and globalization. It is also referred to as modernity.
    Modernism An artistic movement of late-19th and early-20th centuries that arose out of the widespread changes that swept the world during that period, and that questioned the limitations of “traditional” forms of art and culture.
    Modernism An artistic movement of late-19th and early-20th centuries that arose out of the widespread changes that swept the world during that period, and that questioned the limitations of “traditional” forms of art and culture.
    monopolistic competition The control of a product or service by numerous companies offering relatively limited products and services.
    monopolistic competition The control of a product or service by numerous companies offering relatively limited products and services.
    Motion Picture Association of America, An association of major Hollywood studios designed to set industry standards and give filmmakers artistic freedom.
    Motion Picture Association of America, An association of major Hollywood studios designed to set industry standards and give filmmakers artistic freedom.
    Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) A monopolistic trade agreement among the earliest major motion picture studios.
    Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) A monopolistic trade agreement among the earliest major motion picture studios.
    Motown Successful record label founded by Berry Gordy Jr. in Detroit; the Motown sound is characterized by smooth, soulful R&B tunes.
    Motown Successful record label founded by Berry Gordy Jr. in Detroit; the Motown sound is characterized by smooth, soulful R&B tunes.
    multicultural literature Works that promoted cross-cultural understanding by examining different value systems, histories, traditions, and speech patterns of people in America.
    multicultural literature Works that promoted cross-cultural understanding by examining different value systems, histories, traditions, and speech patterns of people in America.
    MySpace A social networking service geared toward younger users.
    MySpace A social networking service geared toward younger users.
    Napster A centralized online file-sharing system that enabled users to download and share free music. Napster was closed down for copyright infringement in 2000 and relaunched 3 years later as a subscription service.
    Napster A centralized online file-sharing system that enabled users to download and share free music. Napster was closed down for copyright infringement in 2000 and relaunched 3 years later as a subscription service.
    narrowcasting The process of seeking out a niche audience within a particular demographic group as opposed to seeking the widest possible audience.
    narrowcasting The process of seeking out a niche audience within a particular demographic group as opposed to seeking the widest possible audience.
    net neutrality The concept that service providers should treat all online content equally, rather than developing a tiered system that allows companies to pay for faster delivery of information.
    net neutrality The concept that service providers should treat all online content equally, rather than developing a tiered system that allows companies to pay for faster delivery of information.
    netlets A term coined by Variety magazine for minor-league networks that lack a full week’s worth of programming.
    netlets A term coined by Variety magazine for minor-league networks that lack a full week’s worth of programming.
    networks Originally groups of radio stations that shared the same programming, these became large broadcasting corporations in control of radio programming.
    networks Originally groups of radio stations that shared the same programming, these became large broadcasting corporations in control of radio programming.
    New media Media that encompass all the forms of communication in the digital world, including electronic video games and the Internet.
    New media Media that encompass all the forms of communication in the digital world, including electronic video games and the Internet.
    New Wave movement The French New Wave was characterized by an independent production style that showcased the personal authorship of its young directors.
    New Wave movement The French New Wave was characterized by an independent production style that showcased the personal authorship of its young directors.
    news aggregators Services like Google News that aggregate stories from major professional news sources and present them in a streamlined format.
    news aggregators Services like Google News that aggregate stories from major professional news sources and present them in a streamlined format.
    newsmagazine A journal that specializes in reporting and commenting on current events.
    newsmagazine A journal that specializes in reporting and commenting on current events.
    Niche newspapers Newspapers designed to reach a specific target group.
    Niche newspapers Newspapers designed to reach a specific target group.
    nickelodeons The earliest motion picture theaters, often housed in converted storefronts.
    nickelodeons The earliest motion picture theaters, often housed in converted storefronts.
    Nostalgia Radio formats that play a particular era or combination of eras.
    Nostalgia Radio formats that play a particular era or combination of eras.
    novel franchises A series of books with recurring characters and high marketability.
    novel franchises A series of books with recurring characters and high marketability.
    nowism The instant gratification that can be achieved by real-time content on the web.
    nowism The instant gratification that can be achieved by real-time content on the web.
    NVOD (near video on demand) A system that broadcasts multiple copies of a film or program over short time intervals but does not allow viewers to control the video by pausing or rewinding it.
    NVOD (near video on demand) A system that broadcasts multiple copies of a film or program over short time intervals but does not allow viewers to control the video by pausing or rewinding it.
    objectivity Impartiality in writing.
    objectivity Impartiality in writing.
    obscenity Indecency that goes against public morals and exerts a corrupting influence. Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.
    obscenity Indecency that goes against public morals and exerts a corrupting influence. Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.
    oligopoly A market condition in which a few firms dominate an industry’s production and distribution.
    oligopoly A market condition in which a few firms dominate an industry’s production and distribution.
    online-only newspaper A newspaper that does not publish a print version.
    online-only newspaper A newspaper that does not publish a print version.
    op-ed An abbreviation of opposite the editorial page. An op-ed is an article written by an unaffliated journalist that expresses opinions.
    op-ed An abbreviation of opposite the editorial page. An op-ed is an article written by an unaffliated journalist that expresses opinions.
    opposing frames Explaining an issue as a two-sided struggle for the sake of fast and easy audience comprehension.
    opposing frames Explaining an issue as a two-sided struggle for the sake of fast and easy audience comprehension.
    orphan works Works still protected by copyright, but the copyright owner is unknown or difficult to determine.
    orphan works Works still protected by copyright, but the copyright owner is unknown or difficult to determine.
    paperback originals A book with an initial print run in paperback instead of hardcover.
    paperback originals A book with an initial print run in paperback instead of hardcover.
    participant observation A research method in which researchers try to become a part of the groups they are studying.
    participant observation A research method in which researchers try to become a part of the groups they are studying.
    participatory culture A culture in which media consumers are able to annotate, comment on, remix, and otherwise respond to culture.
    participatory culture A culture in which media consumers are able to annotate, comment on, remix, and otherwise respond to culture.
    partisan news networks News networks that cater to niche political audiences by offering a right-wing or left-wing viewpoint rather than attempting to remain impartial.
    partisan news networks News networks that cater to niche political audiences by offering a right-wing or left-wing viewpoint rather than attempting to remain impartial.
    payola The illegal practice of receiving money from record companies for playing particular songs on the radio.
    payola The illegal practice of receiving money from record companies for playing particular songs on the radio.
    Peer-to-peer A communications model in which participants access shared files on each other’s computers via the Internet.
    Peer-to-peer A communications model in which participants access shared files on each other’s computers via the Internet.
    penny press A newspaper format popular in the 1830s, printed on small paper sizes with a fast printing press and sold for one penny.
    penny press A newspaper format popular in the 1830s, printed on small paper sizes with a fast printing press and sold for one penny.
    persuasive communication model A PR model that uses persuasive techniques to elicit a particular response from the target group.
    persuasive communication model A PR model that uses persuasive techniques to elicit a particular response from the target group.
    picture magazines A journal that specializes in photography and typically features large spreads of photos with short captions and few articles.
    picture magazines A journal that specializes in photography and typically features large spreads of photos with short captions and few articles.
    plagiarism Using someone else’s information, writing, or speech without properly documenting or citing the source.
    plagiarism Using someone else’s information, writing, or speech without properly documenting or citing the source.
    podcasting Prerecorded programs that can be downloaded from the Internet.
    podcasting Prerecorded programs that can be downloaded from the Internet.
    podcasts Audio content broadcast over the Internet.
    podcasts Audio content broadcast over the Internet.
    Popular culture The media, products, and attitudes considered to be part of the mainstream of a given culture and the everyday life of common people; it is often distinct from more formal conceptions of culture that take into account moral, social, religious beliefs and values; it ia also distinct from what some consider elite or high culture.
    Popular culture The media, products, and attitudes considered to be part of the mainstream of a given culture and the everyday life of common people; it is often distinct from more formal conceptions of culture that take into account moral, social, religious beliefs and values; it ia also distinct from what some consider elite or high culture.
    postmodern era A cultural period that began during the second half of the 20th century and was marked by skepticism, self-consciousness, celebration of difference, and the reappraisal of modern conventions.
    postmodern era A cultural period that began during the second half of the 20th century and was marked by skepticism, self-consciousness, celebration of difference, and the reappraisal of modern conventions.
    precision journalism A style of journalism that employs social and behavioral science and research.
    precision journalism A style of journalism that employs social and behavioral science and research.
    presales Sales of distribution rights for a film in different sectors before the film’s release.
    presales Sales of distribution rights for a film in different sectors before the film’s release.
    prime-time television Programming screened between the hours of 7 and 11 p.m., when the largest audience is available.
    prime-time television Programming screened between the hours of 7 and 11 p.m., when the largest audience is available.
    print run All the copies of a book created in one setup of the printing apparatus.
    print run All the copies of a book created in one setup of the printing apparatus.
    Print-on-demand A printing technology in which new copies of a book are not created until an order is received.
    Print-on-demand A printing technology in which new copies of a book are not created until an order is received.
    Privacy Act A piece of legislation designed to protect how individuals’ personal information is collected, used, and published.
    Privacy Act A piece of legislation designed to protect how individuals’ personal information is collected, used, and published.
    producers The person in charge of the overall recording process, from contracting session musicians to overseeing the budget. A producer is usually a talented musician with knowledge of the technical processes in the recording studio.
    producers The person in charge of the overall recording process, from contracting session musicians to overseeing the budget. A producer is usually a talented musician with knowledge of the technical processes in the recording studio.
    product endorsements Support from a celebrity or well-known person for a particular product or service.
    product endorsements Support from a celebrity or well-known person for a particular product or service.
    propaganda Communication that intentionally attempts to persuade its audience for ideological, political, or commercial purposes.
    propaganda Communication that intentionally attempts to persuade its audience for ideological, political, or commercial purposes.
    propaganda The organized spreading of information to assist or weaken a cause.
    propaganda The organized spreading of information to assist or weaken a cause.
    protocols An agreed-upon set of rules for two or more entities to communicate over a network.
    protocols An agreed-upon set of rules for two or more entities to communicate over a network.
    Public Broadcasting Service Public television network established in 1969. The service was intended to enable universal access to television for viewers in rural areas and viewers who could not afford to pay for private television services.
    Public Broadcasting Service Public television network established in 1969. The service was intended to enable universal access to television for viewers in rural areas and viewers who could not afford to pay for private television services.
    public domain Works not covered by intellectual property law or for which copyright protection has expired. Works in the public domain are essentially public property.
    public domain Works not covered by intellectual property law or for which copyright protection has expired. Works in the public domain are essentially public property.
    public forum A social space that is open to all, and that serves as a place for discussion of important issues. A public forum is not always a physical space; for example, a newspaper can be considered a public forum.
    public forum A social space that is open to all, and that serves as a place for discussion of important issues. A public forum is not always a physical space; for example, a newspaper can be considered a public forum.
    public information model A PR model that attempts to pass information on to the public.
    public information model A PR model that attempts to pass information on to the public.
    public relations The actions used by an organization to communicate with its constituents.
    public relations The actions used by an organization to communicate with its constituents.
    pulp magazine A publication that specializes in genre-fiction stories.
    pulp magazine A publication that specializes in genre-fiction stories.
    Pulp stories Sensationalistic stories from books and magazines that were named for the cheap, wood-pulp paper they were printed on.
    Pulp stories Sensationalistic stories from books and magazines that were named for the cheap, wood-pulp paper they were printed on.
    punk Minimalist, angry form of rock that includes simple chord structures and often includes politically motivated lyrics.
    punk Minimalist, angry form of rock that includes simple chord structures and often includes politically motivated lyrics.
    radio Communication through the use of radio waves.
    radio Communication through the use of radio waves.
    radio station formats A template for radio stations that determines the type of music that will be played and the audience that will be targeted.
    radio station formats A template for radio stations that determines the type of music that will be played and the audience that will be targeted.
    ragtime A jazzy style of piano music characterized by a syncopated melody that was influenced by offbeat dance music and music.
    ragtime A jazzy style of piano music characterized by a syncopated melody that was influenced by offbeat dance music and music.
    reality television Television that attempts to capture unscripted, real-life situations. Many reality television shows are contrived or deliberately manufactured by producers.
    reality television Television that attempts to capture unscripted, real-life situations. Many reality television shows are contrived or deliberately manufactured by producers.
    Rhetorical analysis A research method that examines the styles used in media.
    Rhetorical analysis A research method that examines the styles used in media.
    rhythm and blues A combination of blues and jazz that was a precursor to rock and roll.
    rhythm and blues A combination of blues and jazz that was a precursor to rock and roll.
    rock and roll A blend of rhythm and blues, country and western, folk, and gospel music that developed in the 1950s.
    rock and roll A blend of rhythm and blues, country and western, folk, and gospel music that developed in the 1950s.
    royalties Money received by songwriters and publishers every time one of their songs is played on a radio station, television show, film soundtrack, or other for-profit arena. Performance royalties are tracked by performing rights organizations, which collect fees on the publisher’s behalf.
    royalties The money received by an artist for every unit of music sold. The rate is negotiated in the artist’s recording contract.
    royalties Money received by songwriters and publishers every time one of their songs is played on a radio station, television show, film soundtrack, or other for-profit arena. Performance royalties are tracked by performing rights organizations, which collect fees on the publisher’s behalf.
    royalties The money received by an artist for every unit of music sold. The rate is negotiated in the artist’s recording contract.
    Royalties A percentage of a book’s sales granted to its author.
    Royalties A percentage of a book’s sales granted to its author.
    RSS A content delivery vehicle used to syndicate news and other web content, enabling consumers to automatically receive new digital content from a provider.
    RSS A content delivery vehicle used to syndicate news and other web content, enabling consumers to automatically receive new digital content from a provider.
    sandbox game A video game in which the player chooses among a number of different objectives.
    sandbox game A video game in which the player chooses among a number of different objectives.
    Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA) Trade association created in 1986 that established an antipiracy task force in an effort to prevent the theft of satellite signals.
    Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA) Trade association created in 1986 that established an antipiracy task force in an effort to prevent the theft of satellite signals.
    satellite radio Subscription-based radio broadcast through satellite transmissions.
    satellite radio Subscription-based radio broadcast through satellite transmissions.
    satellite television Television system delivered by means of a communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box.
    satellite television Television system delivered by means of a communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box.
    scanning disk A large, flat metal disk with perforations arranged in a spiral pattern used as a rotating camera in early television models.
    scanning disk A large, flat metal disk with perforations arranged in a spiral pattern used as a rotating camera in early television models.
    Second Life A virtual world in which users create avatars and participate in an online community.
    Second Life A virtual world in which users create avatars and participate in an online community.
    Section 315 A component of the Communications Act of 1934 that requires broadcast media to offer equal opportunity of broadcast time to candidates.
    Section 315 A component of the Communications Act of 1934 that requires broadcast media to offer equal opportunity of broadcast time to candidates.
    segregation The post–Civil War separation of black and white individuals. Segregation was maintained by “Jim Crow” laws, which forbade interracial marriage and forced business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele separated.
    segregation The post–Civil War separation of black and white individuals. Segregation was maintained by “Jim Crow” laws, which forbade interracial marriage and forced business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele separated.
    Self-publishing A publishing system in which an author, not a third-party company, is in charge of producing and publishing a work.
    Self-publishing A publishing system in which an author, not a third-party company, is in charge of producing and publishing a work.
    server A computer in a network that provides a service to other computers linked to it.
    server A computer in a network that provides a service to other computers linked to it.
    situation comedy Comedy genre, also known as a sitcom, that features a recurring cast of characters who resolve zany situations based on their everyday lives.
    situation comedy Comedy genre, also known as a sitcom, that features a recurring cast of characters who resolve zany situations based on their everyday lives.
    Sketch comedy A series of short comedy scenes or vignettes that are often featured on variety shows, talk shows, or comedy shows. During the 1970s, comedy sketches that parodied American popular culture and politics grew in popularity.
    Sketch comedy A series of short comedy scenes or vignettes that are often featured on variety shows, talk shows, or comedy shows. During the 1970s, comedy sketches that parodied American popular culture and politics grew in popularity.
    slander Defamatatory verbal statements.
    slander Defamatatory verbal statements.
    smartphones Cell phones that provide services similar to those of a personal computer. Most contain built-in applications and Internet access.
    smartphones Cell phones that provide services similar to those of a personal computer. Most contain built-in applications and Internet access.
    social media Any social networking service. This is a blanket term for person-to-person connections on the Internet, unlike television, radio, or newspaper.
    social media Any social networking service. This is a blanket term for person-to-person connections on the Internet, unlike television, radio, or newspaper.
    Social role analysis A reseach method that analyzes the roles that individuals take in the media.
    Social role analysis A reseach method that analyzes the roles that individuals take in the media.
    socialization agents A way people learn about the norms, expectations, and values of their society.
    socialization agents A way people learn about the norms, expectations, and values of their society.
    Spanish-language radio formats Radio formats that target Spanish-speaking audiences, including talk, religious, and popular music formats.
    Spanish-language radio formats Radio formats that target Spanish-speaking audiences, including talk, religious, and popular music formats.
    spiral of silence A theory stating that individuals who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation.
    spiral of silence A theory stating that individuals who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation.
    SSL A protocol for managing the security of message transmission on the Internet.
    SSL A protocol for managing the security of message transmission on the Internet.
    stereotypes An image or character that generalizes and oversimplifies a particular group of people.
    stereotypes An image or character that generalizes and oversimplifies a particular group of people.
    switching costs The cost that a user must pay to switch from one technological format to another.
    switching costs The cost that a user must pay to switch from one technological format to another.
    symbolic interactionism A theory stating that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction.
    symbolic interactionism A theory stating that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction.
    synergy The combination of media outlets across platforms.
    synergy The combination of media outlets across platforms.
    tabloids Weekly or biweekly journals that focus on entertainment or local issues. These papers typically sensationalize stories.
    tabloids Weekly or biweekly journals that focus on entertainment or local issues. These papers typically sensationalize stories.
    talkie The name people used for the earliest talking films.
    talkie The name people used for the earliest talking films.
    tastemakers People or organizations who exert a strong influence on current trends, styles, and other aspects of popular culture.
    tastemakers People or organizations who exert a strong influence on current trends, styles, and other aspects of popular culture.
    technology adoption life cycle Model that explains the process and factors influencing the diffusion of new technology.
    technology adoption life cycle Model that explains the process and factors influencing the diffusion of new technology.
    telegraph Early communication technology that used wires to transmit messages through a series of clicks.
    telegraph Early communication technology that used wires to transmit messages through a series of clicks.
    terms of service Legally binding rules that an individual must adhere to in order to use an online service or software program.
    terms of service Legally binding rules that an individual must adhere to in order to use an online service or software program.
    the Big Six The biggest North American trade publishing houses, including Hachette Book Group, HarperCollins, Macmillan, Penguin Group, Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
    the Big Six The biggest North American trade publishing houses, including Hachette Book Group, HarperCollins, Macmillan, Penguin Group, Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
    The media logic A theory stating that common media formats and styles serve as a way of perceiving the world.
    The media logic A theory stating that common media formats and styles serve as a way of perceiving the world.
    ticker An electronic banner that scrolls across the bottom of the television screen. Tickers usually provide up-to-date information about news or weather.
    ticker An electronic banner that scrolls across the bottom of the television screen. Tickers usually provide up-to-date information about news or weather.
    tracking shots Shots that travel with the movement of a scene.
    tracking shots Shots that travel with the movement of a scene.
    Trade paperbacks A paperback format that is generally of higher quality; a paperback version of a hardcover edition, with identical pagination and size.
    Trade paperbacks A paperback format that is generally of higher quality; a paperback version of a hardcover edition, with identical pagination and size.
    traditional publicity model A PR model that aims to gain media attention.
    traditional publicity model A PR model that aims to gain media attention.
    trick film Films that contained techniques, originally used by Georges Méliès, such as stop-motion photography that made objects disappear, reappear, and transform.
    trick film Films that contained techniques, originally used by Georges Méliès, such as stop-motion photography that made objects disappear, reappear, and transform.
    two-way symmetric model A PR model that seeks to achieve consensus between two groups.
    two-way symmetric model A PR model that seeks to achieve consensus between two groups.
    underground press Papers that are typically printed with a small budget and that cover stories and events of interest to members of alternative or counter cultures.
    underground press Papers that are typically printed with a small budget and that cover stories and events of interest to members of alternative or counter cultures.
    USA PATRIOT Act Statute passed in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that allowed federal officials greater authority in tracking and intercepting communications.
    USA PATRIOT Act Statute passed in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that allowed federal officials greater authority in tracking and intercepting communications.
    uses and gratifications theory A theory stating that individuals use media to satisfy specific needs or desires.
    uses and gratifications theory A theory stating that individuals use media to satisfy specific needs or desires.
    vanity labels Spin-off indie labels financially backed by one of the major record companies and headed by high-profile artists to create a “label within a label.”
    vanity labels Spin-off indie labels financially backed by one of the major record companies and headed by high-profile artists to create a “label within a label.”
    vanity presses A pejorative term for a publishing house that publishes books at the author’s expense.
    vanity presses A pejorative term for a publishing house that publishes books at the author’s expense.
    variety show A radio program genre that generally revolved around a host and cast that participated in sketch-comedy and musical numbers.
    variety show A radio program genre that generally revolved around a host and cast that participated in sketch-comedy and musical numbers.
    verifiability The key to a source that is considered usable on Wikipedia. Verifiable information is credited to a specific author or reliable news organization, and has been previously vetted in some way—“truth” does not enter into the picture.
    verifiability The key to a source that is considered usable on Wikipedia. Verifiable information is credited to a specific author or reliable news organization, and has been previously vetted in some way—“truth” does not enter into the picture.
    vertically integrated A form of organization in which studios controlled every aspect of production as it related to their films.
    vertically integrated A form of organization in which studios controlled every aspect of production as it related to their films.
    video game crash of 1983 The economic failure of the video game industry in 1983, caused by an oversupply of games and waning demand.
    video game crash of 1983 The economic failure of the video game industry in 1983, caused by an oversupply of games and waning demand.
    video game overuse The term used in lieu of “video game addiction” by the American Medical Association while further research is conducted to determine the correct classification.
    video game overuse The term used in lieu of “video game addiction” by the American Medical Association while further research is conducted to determine the correct classification.
    viral ads Advertisements that attain spontaneous and widespread popularity through the Internet.
    viral ads Advertisements that attain spontaneous and widespread popularity through the Internet.
    viral marketing An attempt by marketers to produce things that “go viral” in order to build hype for a product.
    viral marketing An attempt by marketers to produce things that “go viral” in order to build hype for a product.
    vital information premise The widely accepted foundation for principles of journalism ethics, according to which the news media have a responsibility to society as a whole to provide the information it needs to function as a democracy.
    vital information premise The widely accepted foundation for principles of journalism ethics, according to which the news media have a responsibility to society as a whole to provide the information it needs to function as a democracy.
    Vitascope Large-screen motion projector manufactured by Thomas Edison.
    Vitascope Large-screen motion projector manufactured by Thomas Edison.
    watchdog journalism Independent scrutiny by the press of the activities of government, business, and other public institutions to document, question, and investigate those activities to provide the public and officials with timely information on issues of public concern.
    watchdog journalism Independent scrutiny by the press of the activities of government, business, and other public institutions to document, question, and investigate those activities to provide the public and officials with timely information on issues of public concern.
    wholesale price The basic cost of a CD or other item to a retailer before the addition of any retail profit.
    wholesale price The basic cost of a CD or other item to a retailer before the addition of any retail profit.
    Wikipedia Collaborative, web-based encyclopedia that is freely edited by registered users.
    Wikipedia Collaborative, web-based encyclopedia that is freely edited by registered users.
    yellow journalism Made famous by Pulitzer and Hearst, this style of journalism uses sensationalism, misleading stories, and distorted images to boost sales.
    yellow journalism Made famous by Pulitzer and Hearst, this style of journalism uses sensationalism, misleading stories, and distorted images to boost sales.
    YouTube Video-sharing website founded in 2005 that enables users to upload personal videos, television clips, music videos, and snippets of movies that can be watched by other users worldwide.
    YouTube Video-sharing website founded in 2005 that enables users to upload personal videos, television clips, music videos, and snippets of movies that can be watched by other users worldwide.
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