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Glossary

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    90344
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    Glossary Entries

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    Definition

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    Symbol a word, icon, picture, object, or number that is used to stand for or represent a concept, thing, or experience        
    Public speaking an organized, face-toface, prepared, intentional (purposeful) attempt to inform, entertain, or persuade a group of people (usually five or more) through words, physical delivery, and (at times) visual or audio aids.ample Definition 1         
    Noise anything that disrupts, interrupts, or interferes with the communication process        
    Glossophobia a severe fear of public speaking        
    Feedback direct or indirect messages sent from an audience (receivers) back to the original sender of the message        
    Encode the process of the sender putting his/her thoughts and feelings into words or other symbols        
    Denotative the objective or literal meaning shared by most people using the word        
    Decode the process of the listener or receiver understanding the words and symbols of a message and making meaning of them        
    Culture the system of learned and shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another        
    Connotative the subjective or personal meaning the word evokes in people together or individually        
    Communication sharing meaning between two or more people        
    Channel the means through which a message gets from sender to receiver        
    Audience analysis examining and looking at your audience first by its demographic characteristics and then by their internal psychological traits        
    Demographic characteristic the outward characteristics of the audience        
    Stereotyping generalizing about a group of people and assuming that because a few persons in that group have a characteristic, all of them do        
    Totalizing taking one characteristic of a group or person and making that the “totality” or sum total of what that person or group is        
    Heterogeneous a mixture of different types of people and demographic characteristics within a group of people        
    Homogeneous a group of people who are very similar in many characteristics.        
    Psychographic characteristic the inner characteristics of the audience; beliefs, attitudes, needs, and values        
    Beliefs statements we hold to be true        
    Attitude a stable positive or negative response to a person, idea, object, or policy        
    Values goals we strive for and what we consider important and desirable        
    Needs important deficiencies that we are motivated to fulfill        
    Hearing the physical process in which sound waves hit the ear drums and send a message to the brain        
    Listening an active process where you are specifically making an effort to understand, process, and retain information        
    Comprehensive listening listening focused on understanding and remembering important information from a public speaking message        
    Empathetic listening listening for understanding the feelings and motivations of another person, usually with the goal of helping the person deal with a personal problem        
    Appreciative listening type of informed listening needed to listen to and interpret music, theatre, or literature        
    Critical listening listening to evaluate the validity of the arguments and information and deciding whether the speaker is persuasive and whether the message should be accepted        
    Planned redundancy the use of a clear central idea statement, preview of the main points, connective statements, and overall summary in the conclusion to reinforce the main ideas or points of a speech; the deliberate repeating of structural aspects of speech        
    Confirmation bias a tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions        
    Ethics the branch of philosophy that involves determinations of what is right and moral        
    Defamatory speech a false statement of fact that damages a person’s character, fame, or reputation        
    Initial credibility A speaker’s credibility at the beginning of or even before the speech        
    Derived credibility a speaker’s credibility and trustworthiness (as judged by the audience members) throughout the process of the speech, which also can range from point to point in the speech        
    Terminal credibility a speaker’s credibility at the end of the speech        
    Plagiarism the act of using another person’s words or ideas without giving credit to that person        
    General purpose the broad, overall goal of a speech; to inform, to persuade, to entertain, etc.        
    Specific purpose statement an infinitive phrase that builds upon the speaker’s general purpose to clearly indicate precisely what the goal of a given speech is        
    Central idea statement a statement that contains or summarizes a speech’s main points        
    Primaryresearch new research, carried out to acquire data first-hand rather from previously published sources to answer specific questions or issues and discover knowledge        
    Primary sources information that is first-hand or straight from the source; information that is unfiltered by interpretation or editing        
    Secondary sources information that is not directly from the firsthand source; information that has been compiled, filtered, edited, or interpreted in some way        
    Periodical works that are published on a regular, ongoing basis, such as magazines, academic journals, and newspapers        
    Peer-review a review process in which other scholars have read a work of scholarly writing (usually articles, but sometimes books) and evaluated whether it meets the quality standards of a particular publication and/or discipline        
    Chronological pattern an organizational pattern for speeches in which the main points are arranged in time order        
    Spatial pattern an organizational pattern for speeches in which the main points are arranged according to movement in space or direction        
    Parallelism the repetition of grammatical structures that correspond in sound, meter, and meaning        
    Connectives a phrase or sentence that connects various parts of a speech and shows the relationship between them        
    Internal summary a type of connective that emphasizes what has come before and reminds the audience of what has been covered        
    Internal preview a type of connective that emphasizes what is coming up next in the speech and what to expect with regard to the content        
    Transition a type of connective that serves as a bridge between disconnected (but related) material in a speech        
    Signpost a type of connective that emphasizes physical movement through the speech content and lets the audience know exactly where they are; commonly uses terms such as First, Second, Finally        
    Bridging statement a type of connective that emphasizes moving the audience psychologically to the next part of a speech        
    Probative having the quality or function of proving or demonstrating something; affording proof or evidence        
    Hypothetical narrative a story of something that could happen but has not happened yet        
    Define to set limits on what a word or term means, how the audience should think about it, and/or how you will use it        
    Stipulated definition a definition with clearly defined parameters for how the word or term is being used in the context of a speech        
    Kinesthetic issues related to the movement of the body or physical activity        
    Organic feelings or issues related to the inner workings of the body        
    Statistics the collection, analysis, comparison, and interpretation of numerical data, understanding its comparison with other numerical data        
    Mean the mathematical average for a given set of numbers        
    Median the middle number in a given set of numbers        
    Mode the number that is the most frequently occurring within a given set of numbers        
    Testimony the words of others used as proof or evidence        
    Expert someone with recognized credentials, knowledge, education, and/or experience in a subject        
    Peer testimony any quotation from a friend, family member, or classmate about an incident or topic        
    Perception how people organize and interpret the patterns of stimuli around them        
    Attention focus on one stimulus while ignoring or suppressing reactions to other stimuli        
    Attention getter the statement or question that piques the audience’s interest in what you have to say at the very beginning of a speech        
    Anecdote a brief account or story of an interesting or humorous event        
    Rhetorical question A question to which no actual reply is expected        
    Rapport a relationship or connection a speaker makes with the audience        
    Clincher something memorable with which to conclude your speech        
    Inspire to affect or arouse someone’s emotions in a specific, positive manner        
    Presentation aid the resources beyond the speech itself that a speaker uses to enhance the message conveyed to the audience        
    Olfactory of or relating to the sense of smell        
    Gustatory of or relating to the sense of taste        
    Chart graphical representation of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered process        
    Graph a pictorial representation of the relationships of quantitative data using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like        
    Line graph a graph designed to show trends over time        
    Bar graph a graph designed to show the differences between quantities        
    Pie graph a graph designed to show proportional relationships within sets of data        
    Pictograph a graph using iconic symbols to dramatize differences in amounts        
    Diagram drawings or sketches that outline and explain the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen        
    Tone the attitude of a given artifact (humorous, serious, light-hearted, etc.)        
    Language any formal system of gestures, signs, sounds, and symbols used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, either through written, enacted, or spoken means        
    Euphemism language devices often used to make something unpleasant sound more tolerable        
    Abstract language language that evokes many different visual images in the minds of your audience        
    Literal language language that does not use comparisons like similes and metaphors        
    Figurative language language that uses metaphors and similes to compare things that may not be literally alike        
    Simile a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind (specifically using the terms “like” or “as”), used to make a description more emphatic or vivid        
    Metaphor a figure of speech that identifies something as being the same as some unrelated thing for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two        
    Cliché predictable and generally overused expressions; usually similes        
    Imagery language that makes the recipient smell, taste, see, hear, and feel a sensation; also known as sensory language        
    Jargon language used in a specific field that may or may not be understood by others        
    Slang a type of language that consists of words and phrases that are specific to a subculture or group that others may not understand        
    Assonance the repetition of vowel sounds in a sentence or passage        
    Alliteration the repetition of initial consonant sounds in a sentence or passage        
    Antithesis the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced or parallel words, phrases, or grammatical structures        
    Anaphora the succession of sentences beginning with the same word or group of words        
    Hyperbole intentional exaggeration for effect        
    Irony the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect        
    Appropriateness how persons and groups should be referred to and addressed based on inclusiveness and context        
    Ethnic identity a group an individual identifies with based on a common culture        
    Impromptu speaking the presentation of a short message without advance preparation        
    Manuscript speaking the word-for-word iteration of a written message        
    Extemporaneous speaking the presentation of a carefully planned and rehearsed speech, spoken in a conversational manner using brief notes        
    Memorized speaking the rote recitation of a written message that the speaker has committed to memory        
    Vocal cues the subtle but meaningful variations in speech delivery, which can include the use of pitch, tone, volume, and pace        
    Lectern a small raised surface, usually with a slanted top, where a speaker can place notes during a speech        
    Volume the relative softness or loudness of your voice        
    Pitch the relative highness or lowness of your voice        
    Monotone a continuing sound, especially of someone’s voice, that is unchanging in pitch and without intonation        
    Rate the speed at which you speak; how quickly or slowly a speaker talks        
    Vocalized pauses pauses that incorporate some sort of sound or word that is unrelated to what is being said; “uh,” “um,” and “like” are wellknown examples        
    Informative speech a speech based entirely and exclusively on facts and whose main purpose is to inform rather than persuade, amuse, or inspire        
    Irrefutable a statement or claim that cannot be argued        
    Opinion a personal view, attitude, or belief about something        
    Proposition The central idea statement in a persuasive speech; a statement made advancing a judgment or opinion        
    Abstract the summary of a document commonly found at the beginning of academic journal articles.        
    Ad hominem a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.        
    Ad misericordium Inappropriate appeal to pity or emotions to hide lack of facts or argument        
    After-dinner speeches humorous speeches that make a serious point.        
    Analogical reasoning drawing conclusions about an object or phenomenon based on its similarities to something else.        
    Appeal to tradition -arguing that traditional practice and long-term history is the only reason for continuing a policy.        
    Argument from silence making an converse argument from lack of evidence or information about a conclusion        
    Boolean search –a method of using search engines in databases and the Internet that allows the user to combine key terms or words with the “operators” AND, NOT, or OR to find more relevant results.        
    Causal reasoning a form of inductive reasoning that seeks to make cause-effect connections.        
    Console to offer comfort in a time of grief.        
    Construct a tool used in psychology to facilitate understanding of human behavior; a label for a cluster of related but co-varying behaviors.        
    Deductive reasoning a type of reasoning in which a conclusion is based on the combination of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true.        
    Domain name a section of the Internet that is made up of computers or sites that are related in some way (such as by use or source); examples include .com, .edu. .net, and .gov.        
    Eulogy a speech given in honor of someone who has died.        
    False analogy a fallacy where two things are compared that do not share enough (or key) similarities to be compared fairly        
    False cause a fallacy that assumes that because something happened first, that subsequent events are a result.        
    False dilemma a fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.        
    Figurative analogy an analogy where the two things under comparison are not essentially the same; “My love is like a red, red rose.”        
    Generalization – a form of inductive reasoning that draws conclusions based on recurring patterns or repeated observations.        
    Guilt by association a form of false analogy based on the idea that if two things bear any relationship at all, they are comparable        
    Hasty generalization a fallacy that involves making a generalization with too few examples.        
    Hero speech a motivational speech given by someone who is considered a hero in society.        
    Hypothetical narrative a story of something that could happen but has not happened yet.        
    Inductive reasoning a type of reasoning in which examples or specific instances are used to supply strong evidence for (though not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion; the scientific method.        
    Information literacy the ability to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and effectively use the needed information.        
    Lament to express grief or sorrow.        
    Logical fallacy mistakes in reasoning; erroneous conclusions or statements made from poor inductive or deductive analyses.        
    Logos logical and organized arguments and the credible evidence to support the arguments within a speech; arguments based on logic.        
    Mental dialogue an imagined conversation the speaker has with a given audience in which the speaker tries to anticipate what questions, concerns, or issues the audience may have to the subject under discussion.        
    Motivational speech a speech designed not only to make an audience experience emotional arousal but also to motivate the audience to do something with that emotional arousal.        
    Non sequitur a fallacy where the conclusion does not follow from its premise.        
    Pathos the use of emotions such as anger, joy, hate, desire for community, and love to persuade the audience of the rightness of a proposition; arguments based on emotion.        
    Persuasion a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an issue through the transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice.        
    Plain Folks A tactic for portraying elite, famous, powerful, or wealthy persons as “the common man or woman        
    Red herring a fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.        
    Religious speech a speech designed to incorporate religious ideals into a motivational package to inspire an audience into thinking about or changing aspects of their religious lives.        
    Roast a humorous speech designed to both praise and good-naturedly insult a person being honored.        
    Selective exposure the decision to expose ourselves to messages that we already agree with, rather than those that confront or challenge us.        
    Sign reasoning a form of inductive reasoning in which conclusions are drawn about phenomena based on events that precede (not cause) a subsequent event.        
    Slippery slope a fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent events that cannot be prevented.        
    Special occasion speech a speech designed to address and engage the context and audience’s emotions on a specific occasion.        
    Speech of acceptance a speech given by the recipient of a prize or honor.        
    Speech of commencement a speech designed to recognize and celebrate the achievements of a graduating class or other group of people.        
    Speech of dedication a speech delivered to mark the unveiling, opening, or acknowledging of some landmark or structure.        
    Speech of farewell a speech allowing someone to say good-bye to one part of his or her life as he or she is moving on to the next part of life.        
    Speech of introduction a mini-speech given by the host of a ceremony that introduces another speaker and his or her speech.        
    Speech of presentation a brief speech given to accompany a prize or honor.        
    Straw man a fallacy that shows a weaker side of an opponent’s argument in order to more easily tear it down.        
    Success speech a speech given by someone who has succeeded in some aspect of life and is giving back by telling others how they too can be successful.        
    Survivor speech a speech given by someone who has survived a personal tragedy or who has faced and overcome serious adversity.        
    Syllogism a three-sentence argument composed of a major premise (a generalization or principle that is accepted as true), a minor premise (and example of the major premise), and a conclusion.        
    Target audience the members of an audience the speaker most wants to persuade and who are likely to be receptive to persuasive messages.        
    Toast a speech designed to congratulate, appreciate, or remember.        
    Two-tailed argument a persuasive technique in which a speaker brings up a counter-argument to their own topic and then directly refutes the claim.        
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
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