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Glossary

  • Page ID
    186210

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    Example and Directions
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    Glossary Entries

    Word(s)

    Definition

    Image Caption Link Source
    “Breathe and Release” a short-cut version of systematic de-sensitization appropriate for public speaking preparation        
    Ableism the system of beliefs and practices that produces a physical and mental standard that is projected as normal for a human being and labels deviations from it abnormal, resulting in unequal treatment and access to resources        
    Abstract Language language that evokes many different visual images in the minds of your audience        
    Academic Books books that are primarily written for other academics for informational and research purposes        
    Acculturated learning and using a code that other group members will be able to recognize        
    Achievement-Oriented Leaders strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and exhibiting confidence that group members can meet their high expectations        
    Action-Oriented Listeners primarily interested in finding out what the speaker wants        
    Adjourning this stage of group development occurs when a group dissolves because it has completed its purpose or goal, membership is declining and support for the group no longer exists, or it is dissolved because of some other internal or external cause        
    After Dinner Speeches a humorous speech that makes a serious point        
    Ageism prejudice or discrimination against a particular age-group and especially the elderly        
    Alliteration the repetition of initial consonant sounds in a sentence or passage        
    Analysis making the connection between your support and your argument        
    Anaphora the succession of sentences beginning with the same word or group of words        
    Antithesis the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced or parallel words, phrases, or grammatical structures        
    APA Style style scholars in the various social science fields (e.g., psychology, human communication, business) are more likely to use        
    Appropriateness how persons and groups should be referred to and addressed based on inclusiveness and context        
    Argument set of logical premises leading to a clear conclusion        
    Ascribed Identity personal, social, or cultural identities that are placed on us by others        
    Assonance the repetition of vowel sounds in a sentence or passage        
    Assumptions are gaps in a logical sequence that listeners passively fill with their own ideas and opinions and may or may not be accurate        
    Attention-Getter first sentence of a speech that is meant to pull the audience's attention to the speaker and topic at hand        
    Audience Analysis the process of gathering information about the people in your audience so that you can understand their needs, expectations, beliefs, values, attitudes, and likely opinions        
    Avowed Identity personal, social, or cultural identities that we claim for ourselves        
    Backtracking after you’ve finished reading useful sources, see who those sources cited on their bibliographies or reference pages        
    Bar Graph a graph designed to show the differences between quantities        
    Best Example demonstrates the “best” way someone should behave within a specific context        
    Bias predisposition or preconception of a topic that prevents impartiality        
    Brakelight transitional phrase that lets the audience know the speech is coming to a close        
    Captive Audience audiences that are required to be present or feel obligated to do so        
    Causal Pattern organizational pattern that reasons from cause to effect or from effect to cause        
    Channel the speaker's use of verbal and nonverbal communication        
    Character a person's reputation in regards to trustworthiness and goodness        
    Chart a graphical representation of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered process        
    Chronocentrism
    the assumption that people today are superior to people who lived in earlier eras (Russell, 1991)        
    Chronological Pattern main points are delivered according to when they happened and could be traced on a calendar or clock        
    Claim a statement that is supported with evidence        
    Clichés predictable and generally overused expressions; usually similes        
    Code-Switching changing from one way of speaking to another between or within interactions; happens most frequently in interracial communication        
    Coercive Power comes from the ability of a group member to provide a negative incentive        
    Cognitive Dissonance a psychological phenomenon where people confronted with conflicting information or viewpoints reach a state of dissonance (generally the disagreement between conflicting thoughts and/or actions), which can be very uncomfortable, and results in actions to get rid of the dissonance and maintain consonance        
    Cognitive Restructuring (CR) an internal process through which individuals can deliberately adjust how they perceive an action or experience        
    Communication attempts to reproduce what is in our minds in the minds of our audience        
    Communication Apprehension Communication Apprehension        
    Competence demonstrated skill or knowledge in a particular area or topic        
    Conclusion statement that can be clearly drawn from the provided premises        
    Connotative the subjective or personal meaning the word evokes in people together or individually        
    Consensus Rule a decision-making technique in which all members of the group must agree on the same decision        
    Console to offer comfort in a time of grief        
    Content the stuff you add to the book        
    Content-Oriented Listeners are interested in the message itself, whether it makes sense, what it means, and whether it’s accurate        
    Context considering the context of a public speech involves thinking about four dimensions: physical, temporal, social-psychological, and cultural (DeVito, 2009)        
    Conversant being conversant is the condition of being able to discuss an issue intelligently with others        
    Coordination all of the numbers or letters of points should represent the same idea        
    CRAAP Method CRAAP stands for “currency,” “relevance,” “authority,” “accuracy,” and “purpose,” or the five ways that you should evaluate each source to determine if it represents the best information available at the time        
    Credibility the perception the audience holds of you regarding your competence and character        
    Critical Listening using careful, systematic thinking and reasoning to see whether a message makes sense in light of factual evidence        
    Cultural Dimension final context dimension Joseph DeVito mentions; we interact with others from different cultures, misunderstandings can result from differing cultural beliefs, norms, and practices        
    Cultural Identity based on socially constructed categories that teach us a way of being and include expectations for social behavior or ways of acting        
    Culture the ongoing negotiation of learned and patterned beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors        
    Databases an online searchable collection of information        
    Decoding “sensing (for example, hearing or seeing) a source’s message, interpreting the source’s message, evaluating the source’s message, and responding to the source’s message” (Wrench, McCroskey & Richmond, 2008)        
    Demographic Analysis compiling information, such as the gender, age range, marital status, race, and ethnicity of the people in your audience        
    Demographic Information information such as the gender, age range, marital status, race, and ethnicity of the people in your audience        
    Denotative the objective or literal meaning shared by most people using the word        
    Designated Leaders officially recognized in their leadership role and may be appointed or elected by people inside or outside the group        
    Diagram drawings or sketches that outline and explain the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen        
    Dialectic a relationship between two opposing concepts that constantly push and pull one another        
    Dialogic Theory of Public Speaking based on three overarching principles that dialogue is more natural than monologue, meanings are in people not words, and contexts and social situations impact perceived meanings        
    Dialogue communication between two or more persons        
    Dichotomies dualistic ways of thinking that highlight opposites, reducing the ability to see gradations that exist in between concepts        
    Digital Divide refers to the unequal access to technology and related skills that exists in much of the world        
    Direct Quotation when you cite the actual words from a source with no changes        
    Directive Leaders provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures        
    Distortion occurs when someone purposefully twists information in a way that detracts from its original meaning        
    Diversity a key dimension of audience membership and, therefore, of audience analysis; while the term “diversity” is often used to refer to racial and ethnic minorities, it is important to realize that audiences can be diverse in many other ways as well        
    Division if you have an A, then you need a B; if you have a 1, then you need a 2, and so on        
    Dominant Identities historically had and currently have more resources and influence        
    Drive-by Quoting a practice that disorients your audience by not giving them everything they need to understand how the source is relevant to your own claims        
    Elitism consciousness of being or belonging to an elite        
    Encoding what a source does when “creating a message, adapting it to the receiver, and transmitting it across some source-selected channel” (Wrench, McCroskey & Richmond, 2008)        
    Encyclopedias information sources that provide short, very general information about a topic and are available in both print and electronic formats        
    Ends those outcomes that you desire to achieve        
    Entertaining Narratives stories designed purely to delight an audience and transport them from their daily concerns        
    Ethical Listening rests heavily on honest intentions; we should extend to speakers the same respect we want to receive when it’s our turn to speak        
    Ethical Pyramid developed by Elspeth Tilley; involved three basic concepts: intent, means and ends        
    Ethnic Identity a group an individual identifies with based on a common culture        
    Ethnocentrism the attitude that one's own group, ethnicity, or nationality is superior to others        
    Ethos the term Aristotle used to refer to what we now call credibility: the perception that the speaker is honest, knowledgeable, and rightly motivated        
    Eulogy a speech given in honor of someone who has died        
    Euphemisms language devices often used to make something unpleasant sound more tolerable        
    Evaluating fourth stage of the listening process; judging the value of the message        
    Execution involves actually reading a quotation, paraphrasing a speaker or author’s words, summarizing a speaker or author’s ideas, providing numerical support, or showing pictographic support        
    Expert Testimony expresses the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors recommended by someone who is an acknowledged expert on a topic        
    Expertise someone having considerable knowledge on a topic or considerable skill in accomplishing something        
    Extemporaneous Speaking the presentation of a carefully planned and rehearsed speech, spoken in a conversational manner using brief notes        
    Eyewitness Testimony given by someone who has direct contact with the phenomenon of your speech topic        
    Fact a truth that is arrived at through the scientific process        
    Feedback when a receiver sends a message back to a source        
    Figurative Analogies compare two ideas or objects from two different classes, or a group that has common attributes, characteristics, qualities, or traits        
    Figurative Language language that does not use comparisons like similes and metaphors        
    Focus Group a small group of people who give you feedback about their perceptions        
    Frame of Reference the unique set of perspectives, experience, knowledge, and values belonging to every individual        
    Free Speech according to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law, free speech entails “the right to express information, ideas, and opinions free of government restrictions based on content and subject only to reasonable limitations (as the power of the government to avoid a clear and present danger) esp. as guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution” (Freedom of speech)        
    General-Interest Periodicals magazines and newsletters published on a fairly systematic basis        
    Globalization a complex system of interconnecting structural and cultural forces that aid the spread of ideas and technologies and influence the social and economic organization of societies        
    Glossophobia a subset of social phobia, the fear of social situations        
    Graph a pictorial representation of the relationships of quantitative data using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like        
    Gustatory of or relating to the sense of taste        
    Headings a title at the head of a page or section of a book        
    Hearing an accidental and automatic brain response to sound that requires no effort        
    Hero Speech a motivational speech given by someone who is considered a hero in society        
    Heterosexism a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of female–male sexuality and relationships        
    Hyperbole intentional exaggeration for effect        
    Idiom a word or phrase where the meaning cannot be predicted from normal, dictionary definitions        
    Imagery language that makes the recipient smell, taste, see, hear, and feel a sensation; also known as sensory language        
    Impromptu Speaking the presentation of a short message without advance preparation        
    Informative Narratives provide information or explanations about a speaker’s topic        
    Informative Speaking the primary purpose of informative presentations is to share one’s knowledge of a subject with an audience        
    Intent to be an ethical listener or speaker, one must begin with ethical intentions; for example, if we agree that honesty is ethical, it follows that ethical speakers will prepare their remarks with the intention of telling the truth to their audiences        
    Interactional Model of Public Speaking a theory of public speaking that includes the source, channel, receiver, encoding, decoding, and feedback        
    Interlibrary Loan a process where librarians are able to search other libraries to locate the book a researcher is trying to find        
    Interview a one-on-one exchange in which you ask questions of a respondent        
    Irony the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect        
    Jargon language used in a specific field that may or may not be understood by others        
    Journals a scholarly publication containing articles written by researchers, professors and other experts        
    Keywords a word or concept of great significance        
    Lament to express grief or sorrow        
    Language any formal system of gestures, signs, sounds, and symbols used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, either through written, enacted, or spoken means        
    Lectern a small raised surface, usually with a slanted top, where a speaker can place notes during a speech        
    Lexical Definition specifically states how a word is used within a specific language        
    Line Graph a graph designed to show trends over time        
    Linear Model of Public Speaking a model of public speaking that includes the source, channel, and receiver        
    Listening at its best, is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker        
    Listening or Receiver Apprehension the fear that you might be unable to understand the message or process the information correctly or be able to adapt your thinking to include the new information coherently        
    Literal Analogies compare two objects or ideas that clearly belong to the same class        
    Literal Language language that does not use comparisons like similes and metaphors        
    Logos logical and organized arguments and the credible evidence to support the arguments within a speech; arguments based on logic        
    Main Points the main ideas in the speech        
    Manuscript Speaking the word-for-word iteration of a written message        
    Means the tools or behaviors we employ to achieve a desired outcome        
    Media Convergence refers to the merging of technologies that were previously developed and used separately        
    Media Imperialism the domination of other countries through exported media and the values and ideologies they contain        
    Media Literacy involves our ability to critique and analyze the potential impact of the media        
    Mediated visual images or items to help the speaker communicate or clarify their message        
    Memorized Speaking the rote recitation of a written message that the speaker has committed to memory        
    Mental Dialogue an imagined conversation the speaker has with a given audience in which the speaker tries to anticipate what questions, concerns, or issues the audience may have to the subject under discussion        
    Message the verbal and/or nonverbal communication conveyed by the speaker        
    Metaphors a figure of speech that identifies something as being the same as some unrelated thing for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two        
    MLA style the style scholars in the various humanities fields (e.g., English, philosophy, rhetoric) are more likely to use        
    Monologue a prolonged speech by a single person        
    Monotone too little variation in pitch        
    Monroe’s Motivated Sequence organizational pattern used for persuasive speeches involving five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action        
    Motivational Speech a speech designed not only to make an audience experience emotional arousal (fear, sadness, joy, excitement) but also to motivate the audience to do something with that emotional arousal        
    Narratives stories that help an audience understand the speaker’s message        
    Negative Example used to illustrate what not to do        
    Noise a wide range of distractions that can inhibit an audience member from accurately attending to a speaker’s speech        
    Nonexample used to explain what something is not        
    Nonverbal Communication the transfer of information through the use of body language including eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and more        
    Note of Finality last statement that wraps up your entire presentation and lets the audience know the speech is finished        
    Numerical Support citing data and numbers within a speech        
    Olfactory of or relating to the sense of smell        
    Opinions a personal view, attitude, or belief about something        
    Parallelism the repetition of grammatical structures that correspond in sound, meter, or meaning        
    Paraphrase to take a source’s basic idea and condense it using your own words        
    Pathos the use of emotions such as anger, joy, hate, desire for community, and love to persuade the audience of the rightness of a proposition; arguments based on emotion        
    Peer-Reviewed Sources an article that has been reviewed by a group of experts in the field, sometimes called a board of editors        
    People-Oriented Listeners interested in the speaker; listens to the message in order to learn how the speaker thinks and how they feel about their message        
    Persuade to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade others to change their beliefs, take an action, or reconsider a decision        
    Persuasion symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an issue through the transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice        
    Persuasive Definitions motivate an audience to think in a specific manner about the word or term        
    Persuasive Narratives stories used to persuade people to accept or reject a specific attitude, value, belief, or behavior        
    Persuasive Speaking the primary purpose of persuasive speaking is to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade others to change their beliefs, take an action, or reconsider a decision        
    Physical Dimension involves the real or touchable environment where communication occurs        
    Physical Noise consists of various sounds in an environment that interfere with a source’s ability to hear        
    Physiological Noise consists of distractions to a speaker’s message caused by a listener’s own body        
    Pictograph a graph using iconic symbols to dramatize differences in amounts        
    Pictographic Support any drawn or visual representation of an object or process        
    Pie Graph a graph designed to show proportional relationships within sets of data        
    Pitch the relative highness or lowness of your voice        
    Plagiarism using someone else’s words or ideas without giving credit        
    Popular Sources (also called non-scholarly) sources inform and entertain the public or allow practitioners to share industry, practice, and production information        
    Positive Example used to clarify or clearly illustrate a principle, method, or phenomenon        
    Premise statement that is designed to provide support or evidence        
    Preparation Outline used to work through the various components of your speech in an organized format        
    Presentation Aids the resources beyond the speech words and delivery that a speaker uses to enhance the message conveyed to the audience        
    Preview a sentence that provides a clear outline of the main points that will be discussed in the presentation        
    Preview Statement the part of the speech that literally tells the audience exactly what main points you will cover        
    Primary Research carried out to discover or revise facts, theories, and applications and is reported by the person conducting the research        
    Proposition central idea statement in a persuasive speech; a statement made advancing a judgment or opinion        
    Psychographic Analysis compiling information on the beliefs, attitudes, and values that your audience members embrace        
    Psychographic Information involves the beliefs, attitudes, and values that your audience members embrace        
    Psychological Noise consists of distractions to a speaker’s message caused by a receiver’s internal thoughts        
    Public Speaking Anxiety (PSA) one of the most commonly reported social fears        
    Purpose Statement clearly states what it is you would like to achieve        
    Racism a belief that race is a fundamental determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race        
    Rate how quickly or slowly you say the words of your speech        
    Receiver the audience members listening to the speech        
    Receiver Biases can refer to two things: biases with reference to the speaker and preconceived ideas and opinions about the topic or message        
    Receiving first stage of the listening process; the intentional focus on hearing a speaker’s message, which happens when we filter out other sources so that we can isolate the message and avoid the confusing mixture of incoming stimuli        
    Religious Speech a speech designed to incorporate religious ideals into a motivational package to inspire an audience into thinking about or changing aspects of their religious lives        
    Remembering third stage of the listening process; begins with listening; if you can’t remember something that was said, you might not have been listening effectively        
    Representative Sample a group or set chosen from a larger statistical population or group of factors or instances that adequately replicates the larger group according to whatever characteristic or quality is under study        
    Research scholarly investigation into a topic in order to discover, revise, or report facts, theories, and applications        
    Research Log step-by-step account of the process of identifying, obtaining, and evaluating sources for a specific project, similar to a lab note-book in an experimental setting        
    Responding fifth and final stage of the listening process; also referred to as "feedback;" the stage at which you indicate your involvement; almost anything you do at this stage can be interpreted as feedback        
    Reverse Outline tool you can use to determine the adequacy of your speech’s support by starting with your conclusion and logically working backward through your speech to determine if the support you provided is appropriate and comprehensive        
    Roast a humorous speech designed to both praise and good-naturedly insult a person being honored        
    Scholarly Sources are written by experts in their field, usually professors in a specific discipline        
    Scrutiny Fear anxiety resulting from being in a situation where one is being watched or observed, or where one perceives themselves as being watched        
    Secondary Research research carried out to discover or revise facts, theories, and applications—similar to primary research—but it is reported by someone not involved in conducting the actual research        
    Selective Exposure the decision to expose ourselves to messages that we already agree with, rather than those that confront or challenge us        
    Semantic Noise occurs when a receiver experiences confusion over the meaning of a source’s word choice        
    Setup sentence or phrase in which you explain to your audience where the information you are using came from        
    Sexism prejudice or discrimination based on sex        
    Sign Post transition using just a word or short phrase        
    Similes a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind (specifically using the terms “like” or “as”), used to make a description more emphatic or vivid        
    Situational Analysis compiling information on characteristics related to the specific speaking situation        
    Slang a type of language that consists of words and phrases that are specific to a subculture or group that others may not understand        
    Social Learning Theory claims that media portrayals influence our development of schemata or scripts, especially as children, about different groups of people        
    Social-Psychological Dimension refers to “status relationships among participants, roles and games that people play, norms of the society or group, and the friendliness, formality, or gravity of the situation” (DeVito, 2009)        
    Socioeconomic Status refers to a combination of characteristics including income, wealth, level of education, and occupational prestige        
    Source the person who is giving the speech        
    Spatial Pattern useful organization pattern when the main point’s importance is derived from its location or directional focus        
    Speaking Outline much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts        
    Special Occasion Speech a speech designed to address and engage the context and audience’s emotions on a specific occasion        
    Special-Interest Periodicals magazines and newsletters that are published for a narrower audience        
    Specific Purpose Statement “expresses both the topic and the general speech purpose in action form and in terms of the specific objectives you hope to achieve" (O'Hair, Stewart, & Rubenstein, 2004)        
    Speech of Acceptance a speech given by the recipient of a prize or honor        
    Speech of Commencement a speech designed to recognize and celebrate the achievements of a graduating class or other group of people        
    Speech of Dedication a speech delivered to mark the unveiling, opening, or acknowledging of some landmark or structure        
    Speech of Farewell a speech allowing someone to say goodbye to one part of his or her life as he or she is moving on to the next part of life        
    Speech of Introduction a mini-speech given by the host of a ceremony that introduces another speaker and his or her speech        
    Speech of Presentation a brief speech given to accompany a prize or honor        
    Speeches to Entertain involves an array of speaking occasions ranging from introductions to wedding toasts, to presenting and accepting awards, to delivering eulogies at funerals and memorial services in addition to after-dinner speeches and motivational speeches        
    State-Anxiety derived from the external situation within which individuals find themselves        
    Statistics mathematical subfield that gathers, analyzes, and makes inferences about collected data        
    Stereotyping taking for granted that people with a certain characteristic in common have the same likes, dislikes, values, and beliefs        
    Stipulative Definition assigned to a word or term by the person who coins that word or term for the first time        
    Subheadings a heading given to a subsection of a piece of writing        
    Subordination a hierarchy to the order of the points of a speech        
    Success Speech a speech given by someone who has succeeded in some aspect of life and is giving back by telling others how they too can be successful        
    Summary clear sentence that restates the preview statement in past tense, outlining the main points that were addressed in the speech        
    Summary of Support involves condensing or encapsulating the entire text as a form of support        
    Support range of strategies that are used to develop the central idea and specific purpose by providing corroborating evidence        
    Support-Manipulation when speakers attempt to find support that says exactly what they want it to say despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of evidence says the exact opposite        
    Survey a set of questions administered to several—or, preferably, many—respondents        
    Survivor Speech a speech given by someone who has survived a personal tragedy or who has faced and overcame serious adversity        
    Target Audience the members of an audience the speaker most wants to persuade and who are likely to be receptive to persuasive messages        
    Temporal Dimension “has to do not only with the time of day and moment in history but also with where a particular message fits into the sequence of communication events” (DeVito, 2009)        
    Theoretical Definitions used to describe all parts related to a particular type of idea or object        
    Thesis single, declarative sentence that captures the essence or main point of your entire presentation        
    Thought Leader individuals who contribute new ideas; to achieve thought leader status, individuals must communicate their ideas to others through both writing and public speaking        
    Time-Oriented Listeners prefer a message that gets to the point quickly        
    Toast a speech designed to congratulate, appreciate, or remember        
    Tone the attitude of a given artifact (humorous, serious, light-hearted, etc.)        
    Topic Sentence The first sentence of each paragraph is the topic sentence, which is basically a paragraph’s thesis statement: well-written topic sentences tell the reader what the entire paragraph is about.        
    Topical Pattern main points are developed according to the different aspects, subtopics or topics within an overall topic        
    Trait-Anxiety anxiety that is aligned with, or a manifestation of, an individual’s personality        
    Transactional Model of Public Speaking basic premise of the transactional model is that individuals are sending and receiving messages at the same time        
    Transitional Statements phrases or sentences that lead from one distinct- but-connected idea to another        
    Two-Tailed Arguments persuasive technique in which a speaker brings up a counter-argument to their own topic and then directly refutes the claim        
    Understanding second stage of the listening process; we attempt to learn the meaning of the message, which is not always easy        
    Verbal Communication refers to the production of spoken language to send an intentional message to a listener        
    Vividness speaker’s ability to present information in a striking, exciting manner        
    Vocal Cue the subtle but meaningful variations in speech delivery, which can include the use of pitch, tone, volume, and pace        
    Vocalized Pauses sounds in pauses to make it appear that we haven’t actually paused. Another term for them is "fillers" or “nonfluencies"        
    Volume the relative softness or loudness of your voice        
    Voluntary Audience gathers because they want to hear the speech, attend the event, or participate in an event        
    Warrant the inference that can be drawn from the claim and evidence        
    World Wide Web an interconnected system of public webpages accessible through the Internet