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Feedback is typically viewed as information given to the student which is designed to cause modifications of actions and result in learning.
- Feedback can be directive and tell students where they went wrong or facilitative and provide guidance on how to improve.
- Feedback that includes elaborations about how to improve is more likely to lead to improvements in learning efficiency and student achievement.
- Improvement based feedback that includes guidance is more effective than statements about whether work is right or wrong as it takes into consideration how feedback is received by learners.
Immediate feedback vs. delayed feedback
- Clarifying expectations and standards for the learner.
- Scheduling ongoing, targeted feedback within the learning period.
- Fostering practices to develop self-assessment, and
- Providing feed forward opportunities to close the feedback loop.
Let’s have a look at each of these conditions in more detail.