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14.3: Summary of the research

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    Assessment for learning

    Highlights of research findings in this area include the following work

    Inside the black box: raising standards through classroom assessment

    The publication Inside the black box: raising standards through classroom assessment is an influential pamphlet that summarizes the main findings arising from 250 assessment articles (covering nine years of international research) which were studied by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. The document is well known and widely used, and acts as a touchstone for many professionals in the field of assessment.

    Assessment for learning: beyond the black box

    This publication by the Assessment Reform Group follows up the work of Black and Wiliam and identifies five key factors

    • providing effective feedback to students;
    • actively involving students in their own learning;
    • adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment;
    • recognizing the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self- esteem of students, both of which are crucial to learning;
    • considering the need for students to be able to assess themselves and to understand how to improve.

    The research also identifies a number of risks with regard to assessment

    • valuing quantity and presentation rather than the quality of learning;
    • lowering the self-esteem of students by over-concentrating on judgements rather than advice for improvement;
    • demoralizing students by comparing them negatively and repeatedly with more successful learners;
    • giving feedback, which serves social and managerial purposes rather than helping students to learn more effectively;
    • working with an insufficient picture of students’ learning needs.


    14.3: Summary of the research is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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