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19.5: Support, structure and scaffolding
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- Sentence frames, which provide tools to support mathematical conversations.
- Teacher modeling and think-alouds.
- Word walls and posters displaying commonly used terms, operations, and math processes.
- Graphic organizers, which provide visual representations of mathematical information.
- Artifacts and Manipulatives upon which to build shared meaning and support sensemaking.
- Structured peer interactions, to communicate ideas and clarify understanding (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2009; Zwiers et. al., 2017).
- Adoniou, M., & Qing, Y. (2014). Language, Mathematics and English language learners. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 70(3), pp. 3-13.
- Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2012).
- Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: CCSSO.
- Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. (2009). The SIOP Model for Teaching Mathematics to English Learners. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
- Ernst-Slavit, G., & Slavit, D. (2015). Mathematically Speaking. Language Magazine.
- Hill, J., & Miller, K. (2013). Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners, 2nd Edition. Denver, Colorado: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
- Pierce, M. E., & Fontaine, M. (2009). Designing Vocabulary Instruction in Mathematics. The Reading Teacher, 63(3), pp. 239-243.
- Roberts, N. S., & Truxaw, M. P. (2013). For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the definitions. Mathematics Teacher, 107(1), pp. 28-34.
- Slavit, D., & Ernst-Slavit, G. (2007). Teaching Mathematics and English to English Language Learners Simultaneously. Middle School Journal, 39(2), pp. 4-11.
Background and Philosophy
- Wagganer, E. L. (2015). Creating Math Talk Communities. Teaching Children Mathematics, 22(4), pp. 248-254.
- Walqui, A. (2009). Improving Student Achievement in Mathematics by Addressing the Needs of English Language Learners. NCSM: Leadership in Mathematics Education, No. 6.
- Zwiers, J., Dieckmann, J., Rutherford-Quach, S., Daro, V., Skarin, R., Weiss, S., & Malamut, J. (2017). Principles for the Design of Mathematics Curricula: Promoting Language and Content Development.