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5.1: Introduction to Chapter 5

  • Page ID
    • Angela Blums & Sally Nyblad Holloway

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    Image 5.1 Bubbles is licensed under CC by 1.0

    Key Points from this chapter

    • Young children’s development can be conceptualized in four main areas: physical, intellectual, emotional, and social.
    • Understanding how children develop is important to ensure healthy developmental progression.
    • While there are many commonalities, there are also individual and cultural differences in development such that development is not identical for each child.
    • High-quality classroom settings and practices should support individual and cultural developmental needs.

    Terminology Found Throughout this Chapter

    1. Atypical development: When a child does not develop in the way that is congruent with averages for a given age, causing a disturbance to everyday activities.
    2. Child development: The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through adolescence.
    3. Culturally relevant pedagogy: The practice of including ideas and artifacts that refer to a child’s individual culture.
    4. Developmentally appropriate practice: Methods that promote each child’s optimal development and learning through a strengths-based, play-based approach to joyful, engaged learning.
    5. Developmental domains: Specific areas in which growth occurs – Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Social.
    6. Differentiation: The thoughtful practice of tailoring activities to meet children’s individual needs.
    7. Early childhood period: Ages birth through age eight.
    8. Executive function: Collection of processes that encompass attention, working memory, and inhibition.
    9. Fine motor skills: Movement related to small muscle groups in the body.
    10. Gross motor skills: Movement related to the large muscle groups in the body.
    11. Joint attention: The action of a child and a caregiver focusing on the same object or concept at the same time.
    12. Metacognition: Self-reflection; an ability to think about one’s own thoughts.
    13. Open-ended questions: Questions that do not have a yes or no answer.
    14. Separation anxiety: A fear of being separated from their primary caregiver.
    15. Temperament: An infant’s regular way of reacting with their environment.
    16. Toxic stress: Physical or emotional abuse, neglect, witnessing of physical or emotional abuse of another person, or extreme poverty.
    17. Typical development: When a child develops in the way that is congruent with averages for a given age.

    This page titled 5.1: Introduction to Chapter 5 is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Angela Blums & Sally Nyblad Holloway.