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2.9: Summary, References and Resources

  • Page ID
    44681
  • Summary

    We have now seen that academic IEPs can be designed and taught within the cognitive hierarchies of the major content areas, as well as in those of the daily living skills and employability-training curriculum. Hence, higher-order cognitive skills can be taught to all children in all curricular areas.

    We have also seen that long-term IEPs, although general, convey what should be accomplished in the subsequent short-term objectives, which must contain a high-degree of specificity. Moreover, this specificity should be present in the conditions, behaviors, and minimal standards of performance, thus eliminating any need for translation. In essence, the conditions should describe, when, where, or under which circumstances the behavior should occur; the behavior should be observable; and the minimal standards should be measurable.

    Chapter 2 References

    Anderson, L.W. (Ed.) & Krathwohl, D.R. (Ed.), Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., & Wittrock. M.C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.

    Bloom, B.S. (Ed.), Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H., & Krathwohl, D.R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.

    Fair, D. (retired professor of special education) in discussion with the authors, October 12, 2018.

    Gagne, R. M., (1985) The conditions of learning and theory of instruction. New York: CBS College Publishing.

    Krathwohl, D.R. (1994). Reflections on the taxonomy: Its past, present, and future. In L. W. Anderson & L.A. Sosniak (Eds.), Bloom's taxonomy: A forty-year retrospective, ninety-third yearbook of the national society for the study of education (pp. 181-202). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Kubiszyn, T. & Borich, G. (2003). Educational testing and measurement: Classroom application and practice. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Moser, Barry (2001). The three little pigs. Boston: Little, Brown, & Company.

    Popham, J.W. (2018). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know (8 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Porter, A.C., McMaken, J., Hwang, J., & Yang, R. (2011). Are content standards being implemented in the classroom? A methodology and some tentative answers. In S.H. Fuhrman (Ed.) From the capitol to the classroom: Standards-based reform in the states – One hundredth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II (pp. 60-80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Rosenberg, M.S., O’Shea, L.J., & O’Shea, D.J. (2002). Student teacher to master teacher: A practical guide for educating students with special needs (3 rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Scieszka, J. & Smith, L. (1996). The true story of the 3 little pigs. New York: Puffin.

    Webb, N.L. (2002). Alignment study in language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies of state standards and assessments for our states. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.


    Chapter 2 Resources

    Black, P. & William, D. (2009). Developing the theory for formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 21, 5-31.

    Bookhart, S.M. & Nitko, A.J. (2015). Educational assessment of students (8 th edition). New York: Pearson.

    Butler, S.M. & NcMunn, N.D. (2014). A teacher’s guide to classroom assessment: understanding and using assessment to improve student learning. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

    Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R.J., Chappuis, S. & Arter, J.A. (2011). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right – using it well (2 nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). State-wide student assessment: 2009-10. Washington, DC: Author.

    Chatterji, M. (2003). Designing and using tools for educational assessment.

    Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Grounlund, N.E. & Brookhart, S.M. (2009). Gronlund’s writing instructional objectives (8 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    McClure, P. (2005). Where standards come from. Theory Into Practice, 44 (1), 4-10.

    McMillan, J.H. (2017). Classroom assessment: Principles and practices that enhance student learning and motivation (7 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    McTighe, J., & Brown, J. (2005). Differentiated instruction and educational standards: Is détente possible? Theory Into Practice, 44 (3), 234-244.

    McTighe J. & Wiggins G. (2005). Understanding by design (2 nd Expanded Edition). Alexandra, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

    Porter, A.C., McMaken, J., Hwang, J., & Yang, R. (2011). Are content standards being implemented in the classroom? A methodology and some tentative answers. In S.H. Fuhrman (Ed.) From the capitol to the classroom: Standards-based reform in the states – One hundredth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II (pp. 60-80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Reynolds, C.R., Livingston, R.B., & Willson, V. (2008). Measurement and assessment in education (2 nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Spinelli, C.G. (2011). Classroom assessment for students in special and general education (3 rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.