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3.2: Three Kinds of Test Items

  • Page ID
    44647
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    True-False Items

    The true-false test is an effective and economical instrument for measuring the acquisition of specific facts. Like the multiple-choice test, it provides for wide sampling in a relatively short period of time. Unlike the multiple-choice test, it is restricted in its measurement of higher-order thought processes. True-false tests can measure cognitive functions well at the Knowledge level and in some instances, also the Comprehension level within any area, as we demonstrate.

    Some test constructors have attempted to measure higher-level though processes by designing a more sophisticated alternative to the standard true-false item. In this variation, students are asked to fill in a blank that will make a false statement true (Linn & Gronlund, 2000). Although items that are partially true and partially false have certain merit, they can be confusing and potentially interfere with maximum test performance. For this reason, we advocate essay or short-answer items for measuring higher-order thought processes. We recommend that true-false items be used primarily at the Knowledge level and sparingly at the Comprehension level.

    Guidelines for Constructing True-False Questions

    True-false items, like any other items, should be clear, precise, and understandable to students. They should be short, concise, and contain one single thought, free of ambiguities and contradictions. Box 3.1 gives you both poor and good examples.

    Box 3.1

    Poor Example: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Abraham

    Lincoln each served as president of the United States.

    With its inclusion of five names, this item is excessively long and confusing. Moreover, four of the names make it a true statement, whereas the name of Benjamin Franklin makes it a false statement.

    • Good Example: Thomas Jefferson served as president of the United States.
    • Good Example: Benjamin Franklin served as president of the United States.

    An exception to the single-thought principle is the occasional use of a qualifying clause within an item. However, it should be remembered that qualifying clauses often indicate to the examinees that the item is true, regardless of whether they actually know the answer. Qualifiers such as “possibly,” “often,” and “occasionally” are usually indicators of true responses. Students learn to recognize that items are proportionately longer also have a tendency to be true. Conversely, absolutes such as “every,” “never,” or “all” indicate to the students, very early in their academic careers, that the item is false. Also, many students easily recognize patterns such as TTFF; but these unintentional clues can be avoided through the random placement of correct responses, accomplished through the toss of a coin.

    Completion or Fill-In-the-Blank Items

    The completion item can be a highly objective medium for measuring the acquisition of factual information. However, to use it for measurement beyond the Knowledge level is asking it to do something it’s not built to do. For example, you would not use a completion item to measure an Analysis-level achievement, such as knowing what characteristics are shared by birds and butterflies.

    Guidelines for Constructing Completion Items

    The answer blank should always be placed at the end of the item, not at the beginning and not in the middle. The reason is that the stem should clearly present a problem to be solved in the answer blank. If the blank is in the middle or at the beginning of the stem, or even worse, if there is more than one blank, the examinees are likely to waste considerable time and patience in attempting to determine exactly what is expected. With the stem forming a problem to be answered in the blank, students know what is expected of them. Box 3.2 gives you examples.

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    Another problem that many neophyte test constructors have with the completion item lies in devising items that provide for one and only one correct answer.

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    Although we do not want to confuse our students with the structure or wording of the item, we also do not want to give unintentional clues by the number of blank lines in the answer blank. Hence, there should be one uniform line for all of the completion items on the test, regardless of whether the item can be answered with a single word or date, or with a phrase or a list. Box 3.4 gives examples.

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    The indefinite articles ( a and an ) should be excluded from the stem, as well as any numbers (Box 3.5).

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    In the two good examples, the indefinite article a and the number three are excluded. The absence of these two terms enables students to complete the item without the assistance of a hint or a clue.

    The completion or fill-in-the-blank item lends itself to Knowledge-level testing in the four major content, daily living skills, and employability training areas.

    Matching Exercises

    Because of its compact efficiency, the matching exercise can cover a broad latitude of associative information. It can measure a multiplicity of relationships between various phenomena. Although most of these associations are restricted to facts, they can extend into understanding, as defined at the Comprehension level, and even into categorization of data and determination of cause-effect relationships, at the Analysis level.

    Guidelines for Constructing Matching Exercises

    In a matching exercise, items that typically fall on the left-hand side of the page are called premises such as the names of states. The items on the right-hand side are called responses , such as the name of the state capitals. The premises and responses should be homogenous to ensure the associative nature of the exercise, as in the following example:

    Match the states with their capital cities.

    __1. Louisiana a. Austin

    __2. Texas b. Raleigh

    __3. Pennsylvania c. Baton Rouge

    __4. Nevada d. Harrisburg

    __5. North Carolina e. St. Paul

    f. Carson City

    As with any other test exercise, the format and wording of the matching exercise should be easy to understand. However, neither the wording nor the format should give clues to the correct response. As prevention against unintentional clues, the number of possible responses should be greater than the number of premises- as in the previous example. This narrows the probability that the student will arrive at the correct answer through the process of elimination, as opposed to informed selection. However, an exception to this may occur in instances where responses may be used more than once; in such cases, the directions should specify that responses may be used more than once.

    Linn and Miller (2005) contend that “There certainly should be no more than ten items in either column” (p. 183) to make instructional adjustments directed toward the enhancement of students’ performance. However, we feel that the number of premises should not be fewer than five or more than ten. Should you determine that more associations are necessary, fine; simply include more matching exercises. Make certain that each matching exercise is contained on one page; turning back and forth can cause students to lose their train of thought.

    For ease of understanding, both the premises (on the left) and the responses (on the right) should be brief, with the response items shorter: for instance, an event (left) and its date (right). The principle is analogous to that of the multiple-choice item, whose stem presents a problem (premise) that is solved by the correct option (response).

    KNOWLEDGE: Recognition and recall of previously learned information; no comprehension or understanding of the information is implied.

    Mathematics (May be administered orally)

    You may want your student not only to be able to recite or write her addition combinations, but also to be able to recognize whether written combinations are correct or incorrect.

    _ F _ The sum of 3+2 is 6.

    This knowledge-level item, involving recognition, is terse, direct, and contains a single, clearly stated thought.

    Science (May be administered orally)

    You may decide to determine if your student remembers which organisms belong either to the plant or the animal kingdom. The true-false test is an economical means for making this determination.

    _ T _ Trees are members of the plant kingdom.

    Brief, direct, and containing a single thought, this item tests the student’s memory of trees’s placement in either the plant or the animal kingdom.

    Social Studies (May be administered orally)

    You may wish to determine the extent to which your student can make chronological comparisons among the periods during which U.S. Presidents served. The true-false test is a relatively efficient means for making such determinations.

    _ F_ Abraham Lincoln was the first President of the United States.

    Clear and simply stated, this item tests the student’s knowledge of which individual occupied the first U.S. Presidency.

    English Language Arts (May be administered orally)

    As a teacher you are very much aware that correct grammar can be an enhancement to the student’s academic, vocational, and social pursuits. Hence, you can use the true-false test as an instrument for sampling your student’s knowledge of certain grammatical rules.

    _ F _ An adjective modifies a verb.

    This item measures the student’s knowledge of the definition of adjective.

    Daily Living Skills (May be administered orally)

    Knowing the names of significant others is certainly an important life skill. Acknowledging this, you may want to determine whether your student knows her teacher’s name.

    _ T_ Your teacher’s name is Mr. Washington.

    Terse and understandable, this item tests the student’s acquisition of a memory-level, but important fact.

    Employability Training Skills (May be administered orally)

    As opposed to vocational counseling, vocational information may be given at virtually any level. Hence, you will probably want to determine the extent of your student’s knowledge of the roles of certain workers.

    _ T_ A butcher cuts meat.

    Direct, succinct, and to-the-point, this item economically tests the student’s knowledge of one of the segments of a butcher’s responsibilities.

    COMPREHENSION: At this level, the student should demonstrate the ability to understand or summarize information, translate information from one form or level to another, or predict continuations in trends of data.

    Mathematics (May be administered orally)

    You can use the true-false item to determine whether your student understands that the same number may have different forms.

    _ F _ “Three” is the same number as ▲▲.

    A common misconception is that learning takes place before the test or afterwards, as the teacher goes over the test, item-by-item. However, a well-constructed test can be a vehicle to learning in itself because the student learns as he/she scrutinizes the different items in search of the correct response. This is such an item in that the student must determine whether “three” and “▲▲” represent the same number. Additionally, the item is brief, to-the-point, and contains a single thought.

    Science (May be administered orally)

    Aware that a component of comprehension involves an understanding of the different forms of a phenomenon, you may decide to determine whether your student understands that different names can be used interchangeably in describing the same scientific occupation.

    _ T _ A meteorologist is a weather forecaster.

    This is a comprehension-level item in that it requires the student to understand that a meteorologist is involved in weather forecasting or that a meteorologist may also be termed a “weather forecaster.” Succinct and definite in its structure, the item contains a single thought and no contradictions.

    Social Studies (May be administered orally)

    Knowing that understanding continuations in trends of data is a comprehension skill, you can use the true-false item to determine whether your student can comprehend the sequence of presidential elections.

    _ T _ If presidential elections were held in 2016 and 2020, the next one would be held in 2024.

    In this comprehension-level item, the student is expected to understand a continuation in a trend of data. Structurally, the item clearly specifies this expectation with a single and consistent thought.

    English Language Arts (May be administered orally)

    You will may want to determine whether your student has a general understanding of the content of a particular piece of literature. The true-false item is an adequate means for making this determination.

    _ T_ Peter Pan’s Never-Never Land is a place where children never grow up.

    By its requirement that the student understand a unique characteristic of Never-Never Land, this is a comprehension-level item. Additionally, it is brief, to-the-point, and contains a single thought.

    Daily Living Skills (May be administered orally)

    Comprehending the general merchandise offerings of various business establishments is an important life skill. With this in mind, you can use the true-false item to gauge your student’s understanding of such offerings.

    _ F _ A hardware store would most likely sell fresh produce.

    This comprehension-level item tests the student’s general understanding of the contents of a hardware store. Also, the item is clear, straightforward, and contains a single, consistent thought.

    Employability Training Skills (May be administered orally)

    Comprehension of patterns and sequences is prerequisite to many vocational responsibilities. Accepting this premise, you can use the true-false item to determine your student’s ability to continue a pattern.

    _ F _ In the pattern ▲■●▬▲, the next shape is ●.

    This comprehension-level item tests the student’s ability to continue a trend of data. Structurally, it is precise in its intent and contains one, clearly stated thought.

    LEVELS SUITABLE FOR COMPLETION OR FILL-IN-THE-BLANK ITEMS

    KNOWLEDGE: Recognition and recall of previously learned information; no comprehension or understanding of the information is implied.

    Mathematics (May be administered orally)

    You could decide to use the completion item to sample the student’s knowledge of the definitions of geometrical figures.

    The name of a rectangle having four equal sides is __ a _ square___.

    A knowledge-level item, involving a definition, its stem presents a problem that has only one answer, and the definite article a is omitted from the stem so as to avoid giving an unnecessary clue. Additionally, a single answer blank is placed at the end of the item.

    Science (May be administered orally)

    You may determine to sample your student’s knowledge of significant temperature levels. The completion test is an excellent device for making such determinations.

    The Fahrenheit temperature at which water boils is ___ 212°­­­__.

    This is a knowledge-level item in that it calls for the reproduction of memorized material in the answer blank at the end of the item. Moreover, the stem clearly presents a problem, is devoid of any clues, and has a single correct answer.

    Social Studies (May be administered orally)

    During a unit on the Presidents of the United States, you may want to use the completion test to sample your student’s knowledge of important accomplishments of the different presidents.

    The first and last name of the U.S. president who freed the slaves is __ Abraham Lincoln__.

    In that it necessitates knowledge of a significant act performed by a U.S. president, this is a knowledge-level item. Structurally, the item contains a central problem in its stem, with no ambiguities or unwarranted clues, that is answered in a single answer blank at the end of the item.

    English Language Arts (May be administered orally)

    You can use the completion item to sample your student’s knowledge of the parts of speech and their functions.

    A word that names a person, place, or thing is called ___ a noun___ .

    This is a knowledge-level item in that it tests the student’s recall of a term that is associated with a given definition. Structurally, its stem distinctly presents a problem providing for one correct answer. Also, as assurance against an unwarranted clue, the indefinite article a is precluded from the stem.

    Daily Living Skills (May be administered orally)

    As a component of your student’s daily living skills, you may wish for her to know the official emergency telephone number. The completion of this item is most suitable for determining this knowledge.

    The official emergency telephone number is ___ 911___ .

    This knowledge-level item requires the recall of a memorized, three-digit telephone number. Clear and to-the-point, it presents a problem in the stem that is solved in a single answer blank.

    Employability Training Skills (May be administered orally)

    To determine your student’s knowledge of various vocational positions and their respective functions, you can use the completion item.

    The title of the person who operates the register at a supermarket checkout stand is ___ a cashier__ .

    This item requires the recall of a memorized title of a given definition. It is direct, necessitates one answer, gives no clues, and has a single, uniform answer blank at the end of the item.

    MATCHING EXERCISES

    As mentioned, a primary strength of the matching exercise is its effectiveness in measuring knowledge of factual associations. There are instances, however, when it can be a useful tool for measuring understanding of general ideas (Comprehension) and the ability to categorize and determine cause and effect relationships (Analysis).

    KNOWLEDGE: At this level, the student should be able to recognize and recall previously learned information. No understanding or comprehension of the information is implied at this level.

    Mathematics (May be administered orally)

    As an efficient means of checking your student’s knowledge of his addition combinations, you can use the matching exercise.

    On the line to the left of each of the problems in Column A, write the letter of its sum, found in Column B. No sum may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ C_ 1. 2+5 A. 8

    _ F_ 2. 7+2 B. 13

    _ G_ 3. 2+8 C. 7

    _ D_ 4. 6+6 D. 12

    _ B _ 5. 8+5 E. 5

    _ E_ 6. 4+1 F. 9

    _ H_ 7. 3+3 G. 10

    H. 6

    This is a knowledge-level exercise in that it measures the student’s knowledge of his addition combinations. Structurally, it has more possible responses than premises.

    Science (May be administered orally)

    You may want to measure your student’s memory of the names of adult animals and their offspring. The matching exercise is an economical means for determining student knowledge of this.

    On the line to the left of each of the adult animals in Column A, write the letter of its baby, from Column B. No baby may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ C_ 1. Cow A. Foal

    _ A_ 2. Mare B. Shoat

    _ B_ 3. Sow C. Calf

    _ F_ 4. Dog D. Kitten

    _ D_ 5. Cat E. Cub

    F. Puppy

    This memory-level exercise contains an additional and plausible response option, and the directions instruct that no response choice may be used more than once.

    Social Studies (May be administered orally)

    You may wish to determine the extent to which your student remembers which of the presented geographical locations are cities, states, or countries. The matching exercise is a suitable means for making this determination.

    On the line beside each of the geographical locations in Column A, write the letter of its type of location, in Column B. The locations in Column B may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ A _ 1. Los Angeles A. City

    _ A _ 2. Pittsburgh B. State

    _ C_ 3. Canada C. Nation

    _ B _ 4. Texas

    _ C_ 5. Argentina

    _ C _ 6. Russia

    _ B _ 7. Ohio

    _ C _ 8. Mexico

    Knowledge-level in that it involves the memorization of previously presented material, this matching exercise provides for multiple use of all of its responses, as specified in the directions.

    English-Language Arts (May be administered orally)

    As a step in the enhancement of your student’s language usage, you can use the matching exercise as an instrument for measuring her knowledge of the parts of speech.

    On the line to the left of each definition in Column A, write the letter of the part of speech, from Column B. No part of speech may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ D _ 1. A person, place, or thing A. Adverb

    _ E_ 2. A word that shows action, existence, of occurrence B. Adjective

    _ B_ 3. A word that modifies a noun C. Preposition

    _ A _ 4. A word that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb D. Noun

    _ F_ 5. A word that connects other words E. Verb

    F. Conjunction

    With the definitions (premises) in Column A, and the corresponding parts of speech (responses) in Column B, along with an additional one, this is a knowledge-level exercise.

    Daily Living Skills (May be administered orally)

    A general knowledge of the services performed by community workers is an important life skill. With this in mind, you can use the matching exercise to measure your student’s knowledge of community workers and the respective services they perform.

    On the line next to each of the duties in Column A, write the letter of the name of the community worker who performs it, from Column B. No worker may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ B _ 1. Directs traffic A. Pharmacist

    _ F_ 2. Helps students learn B. Police Officer

    _ A_ 3. Fills prescriptions C. Bus Driver

    _ D_ 4. Helps people get well D. Nurse

    _ C_ 5. Takes kids to and from school E. Dog Officer

    F. Teacher

    With more possible responses than premises, this Knowledge level exercise measures the student’s recognition of the services performed by community workers.

    Employability Training Skills (May be administered orally)

    As a point of vocational information, you will probably want to acquaint your student with various hand tools and their uses. Afterward, you can use the matching exercise to test his recall of memorized associations between specific tools and the instruments with which they are used.

    On the line to the left of each tool in Column A, write the letter of what it is most commonly used with, from Column B. No item from Column B may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ C _ 1. Crow Bar A. Tin

    _ D_ 2.Wrench B.Wood

    _ A _3.Snips C.Nails

    _ F_ 4.Phillips D.Bolts

    _ B_ 5. Lathe E. Paper

    F. Screws

    This is a knowledge-level exercise in that it requires the student to make memorized associations. As instructed in the directions, no response may be used more than once; and the additional response should serve as a deterrent to guessing.

    COMPREHENSION: At this level, the student should be able to: understand or summarize information; translate information from one form or level to another; predict continuations in trends of data.

    Mathematics

    Understanding that the ability to see translations of information from one form or level to another is a component of the comprehension level, you can use the matching exercise as a means of sampling your student’s understanding that Arabic numbers have Roman numeral equivalents.

    On the line beside each of the numbers in column A, write the letter of its Roman numeral equivalent, from Column B. No Roman numeral may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ C_ 1. 3 A. XI

    _ D _ 2. 6 B. XVI

    _ A _3. 11 C. III

    _ F _ 4. 14 D. VI

    _ B _ 5. 16 E. XV

    F. XIV

    This is a comprehension-level exercise because it requires the student to understand the translation of Arabic numbers to Roman numerals. Additionally, there are more possible responses than premises, and the directions instruct that no Roman numeral may be used more than once.

    Science

    As a teacher, you understand that a demonstrated ability to see the synonyms of given words is a comprehension-level accomplishment. Hence, you can use the matching exercise to sample your student’s comprehension of the synonyms of weather-related words.

    In the blanks to the left of each of the weather terms in Column A, write the letter of its synonym, from Column B. No synonym may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ C _ 1. Windy A. Precipitation

    _ F_ 2. Sunny B. Turbulence

    _ B _ 3. Storm C. Blustery

    _ A _ 4. Rain D. Dampness

    _ D _ 5. Humidity E. Dangerous

    F. Fair

    This is a comprehension-level exercise in that it requires the student to understand that two terms can be used to describe the same phenomenon. Also, there are more possible choices than problems, and the directions specify that no choice may be used more than once.

    Social Studies (May be administered orally)

    As part of a unit on the Constitution, you may wish to sample your student’s understanding of the Amendments. The matching exercise is a suitable device for sampling such understanding.

    On the line to the left of each of the Amendments in Column A, write the letter of what it provides for, from Column B. No description may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ F _ 1. 1 st Amendment A. No excessive bail

    _ D _ 2. 2 nd Amendment B. Military can not be quartered in a private home

    _ B _ 3. 3 rd Amendment C. Trial by jury

    _ C _ 4. 4 th Amendment D. Right to bear arms

    _ E _ 5. 5 th Amendment E. No unreasonable search and seizure

    F. Freedom of speech

    This is a comprehension-level exercise because it necessitates a summarized understanding of the presented Amendments. Furthermore, there are more possible responses than premises, and the directions specify that no description may be used more than once.

    English-Language Arts

    Understanding the general focus of a literary work is a comprehension-level process. With this understanding, you could use the matching exercise to sample your student’s comprehension of the basic contents of her reading assignments.

    On the line to the left of each of the descriptions in Column A, write the letter of the corresponding book, from Column B. No book may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ D_ 1. An attempt to save a pig’s life A. Black Beauty

    _ A _ 2. The story of a horse’s life B. Swiss Family Robinson

    _ F _ 3. A man who communicates with C. Where the Red Fern Grows

    animals

    _ E _ 4. The story of an orphan girl’s life D. Charlotte’s Web

    _ G _ 5. An apprentice wizard E. Anne of Green Gables

    _ C _ 6. A boy’s love for his dogs F. Dr. Doolittle

    G. Harry Potter

    This is a comprehension-level exercise in that it samples the student’s generalized understanding of the essence of a variety of literary sources. Moreover, it contains more possible responses than premises, and the directions specify that no book may be used more than once.

    Daily Living Skills (May be administered orally)

    Understanding the roles of different community workers is an important life skill. Acknowledging this, you could use the matching exercise to sample your student’s understanding of their roles.

    On the line beside each of the services in Column A, write the letter of the community worker most likely to perform it, from Column B. No worker may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ F_ 1. Helps us recover stolen property A. Sales Person

    _ G _ 2. Helps us learn to read better B. Fire Fighter

    _ C _ 3. Helps us locate tools C. Hardware Clerk

    _ D _ 4. Delivers letters and magazines to us D. Mail Carrier

    _ A _ 5. Helps us choose a winter coat E. Pharmacist

    _ E _ 6. Fills our prescriptions for us F. Police Officer

    G. Teacher

    This is a comprehension-level matching exercise because it measures a general understanding as opposed to a rote definition. Additionally, there are more workers than services, and the directions instruct that no worker may be used more than once.

    Employability Training Skills

    Understanding the general responsibilities associated with different vocational positions is an important component of vocational information. Accepting this, you could use the matching exercise to sample your student’s understanding of specific vocational responsibilities.

    On the line beside each of the vocational responsibilities in Column A, write the letter of the worker who carries it out, from Column B. No worker may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ A _ 1. Removes dishes from restaurant tables A. Bus Person

    _ H _ 2. Brings food to customers B. Carpenter

    _ F _ 3. Removes bed linens and vacuums C. Electrician

    _ E _ Mows lawns and trims shrubs D. Hostess

    _ D _ Seats customers at a restaurant E. Landscaper

    _ I _ Seats people at a movie theater F. Housekeeper

    _ B _ Builds and remodels G. Plumber

    _ G _ Repairs and installs bathroom and kitchen fixtures H. Server

    ANALYSIS: At this level, the student should be able to demonstrate the ability to: break down a unified whole into its basic parts and understand the relationship among these parts; determine cause and effect relationships; understand analogies and metaphors.

    Mathematics

    Comparing and contrasting as a means of determining relationships among phenomena is an analysis-level process. Thus, you can use the matching exercise as an efficient instrument for sampling your student’s ability to determine the relative sizes of numbers.

    In the blank beside each of the descriptions in Column A, write the letter of the number it describes, from Column B. No figure from Column B may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ C _ 1. Larger than 3 but smaller than 6 A. 6

    _ D _ 2. Larger than 1 but smaller than 5 B. 11

    _ A _ 3. Larger than 5 but smaller than 8 C. 5

    _ E _ 4. Larger than 8 but smaller than 11 D. 3

    _ F _ 5. Larger than 7 but smaller than 9 E. 9

    F. 8

    The requirement to locate given numbers through specific clues places this exercise in the analysis category. Also, there are more figures than descriptions, and the directions make clear that no figure from Column B may be used more than once.

    Science

    Deducing answers through given clues is an analysis-level activity. With this in mind, you can use the matching exercise to sample your student’s ability to analyze clues toward determining the identities of wild animals.

    On the line to the left of each characteristic in Column A, write the letter of the corresponding animal from Column B. No animal may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ D _ 1. Lives in trees A. Bobcat

    _ E _ 2. Lives in the desert B. Jaguar

    _ A _ 3. North American predator C. Duckbill platypus

    _ G _ 4. Marsupial D. Rhesus monkey

    _ B _ 5. South American predator E. Pocket mouse

    _ F _ 6. Hibernates F. Groundhog

    G. Wallaby

    If the student can arrive at the correct answers by examining only the premises (Column A) or the possible responses (Column B), it is probably a knowledge-level matching exercise. In the sample exercise, this is not the case because many animals live in trees or in the desert, there are many North American and South American predators, many animals are classified as marsupials, and many more animals hibernate. Hence, in this exercise, the correct associations must be obtained through the process of analysis.

    Social Studies

    Virtually any problem whose solution requires the analysis of given clues should be placed at the analysis level. Accepting this, you can use the matching exercise to sample your student’s ability to determine the identity of specific states through given clues.

    Beside each of the description of what may be found in a particular state in Column A, write the letter of its corresponding state, from Column B. No state may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ D _ 1. Pirogues and rice A. New Jersey

    _ B _ 2. Cattle and wheat B. Nebraska

    _ F _ 3. Amish and milk C. South Dakota

    _ A _ 4. Beaches and chemical plants D. Louisiana

    _ C _ 5. Mountain of presidents E. North Dakota

    F. Pennsylvania

    This is an analysis-level exercise in that it requires the student to decipher the states’s identities by analyzing specific clues. Additionally, there are more states than clues, and the directions instruct that no state can be used more than once.

    English-Language Arts

    A component of the analysis level is a demonstrated ability to divide a unified whole into its basic parts, whether it is a piece of music or literature, a table, chart, or graph, or even a single word. Acknowledging this, you can sample your student’s ability to break words down into their respective syllables. The matching exercise is a suitable instrument for sampling this ability.

    On the line to the left of each of the words in Column A, write the letter of the number of syllables it has, from Column B. Some numbers may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ E _ 1. Communication A. 1

    _ B _ 2. Formal B. 2

    _ B _ 3. Novel C. 3

    _ C _ 4. Realize D. 4

    _ D _ 5. Transportation E. 5

    _ D _ 6. Vegetable

    _ A _ 7. Wish

    This is an analysis-level exercise because the student must break down each word into its basic parts; and in so doing, she is demonstrating an understanding of the relationship among the parts. Additionally, the bold-faced directions make clear that some of the numbers, in Column B, may be used more than once.

    Daily Living Skills

    In most instances, there is a cause and effect relationship between the foods we eat and how they affect us. Understanding this relationship is an important life skill. The matching exercise is a proficient and efficient means for sampling the student’s understanding of these relationships.

    Beside each of the characteristics in Column A, write the letter of the food or drink that fits it, from Column B. No food or drink may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ E _ 1. Quick energy source A. Liver and onions

    _ F _ 2. Many calories and fat grams B. Glass of water

    _ D _ 3. Good source of protein C. Toasted cheese sandwich

    _ A _ 4. Good source of iron D. Peanut butter sandwich

    _ C _ 5. Good source of calcium E. Nutra bar

    F. Chocolate Sundae

    This is an analysis-level exercise because the student must understand the cause- and- effect relationship between the food types and what they contribute to our bodies. Additionally, there are more food types than characteristics, and the directions specify that no food type may be used more than once.

    Employability Training Skills

    As a teacher, you understand that your student must realize that his on-the-job behaviors will have consequences, positive and negative. Hence, you can use the matching exercise to sample your student’s ability to determine such cause-effect relationships.

    Beside each of the job-related behaviors in Column A, write the letter of what is most likely to be the result of that behavior, from Column B. No result may be used more than once.

    A B

    _ B _ 1. Follow your supervisor’s instructions A. Patrons may not come back

    _ D _ 2. Be polite to customers B. You will learn your job better

    _ F _ 3. Be late for work often C. You will get a longer vacation

    _ A _ 4. Be rude to customers D. Patrons will probably return

    _ G _ 5. Call if you are going to be late E. You will move your team forward

    _ E _ 6. Help your co-workers F. You may be fired

    G. Your boss will see you as responsible

    In that it samples the student’s ability to determine general, on-the-job cause and effect relationships, this is an analysis-level exercise. There are more consequences than behaviors, and the directions state that no consequences may be used more than once.


    This page titled 3.2: Three Kinds of Test Items is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Edwin P. Christmann, John L. Badgett, & Mark D. Hogue.

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