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3.3: Summary, References and Resources

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  • Summary

    This chapter has covered three types of assessment items: true-false, completion or fill-in-the-blank, and matching. The true-false and completion items are best used for measurement in the lower cognitive levels as defined by Bloom’s Taxonomy. The matching exercise is conducive to Analysis-level measurement in addition to its suitability for measurement in the two lower levels.

    True-False Items

    True-false items provide for wide sampling of Knowledge- and Comprehension-Level performance in a comparatively short time period. We feel true-false items that go beyond these first two levels are confusing to students, thus preventing maximum performance. These items should be short, for ease of reading and understanding, and contain a single, noncontradictable statement. True-false items are an effective measurement tool within the major content areas, daily living skills, and employability training areas.

    Completion or Fill-In-the-Blank Items

    Not to be confused with the short-answer item, the completion or fill-in-the-blank item is excellent for assessing the acquisition of factual information. Regrettably, however, this item is often poorly structured, to the confusion of the student, or its wording provides unintentional clues to the correct response. However, with uniform structure and direct wording devoid of clues or insinuations, you can construct items that will neither confuse nor assist your students. This item is an effective measurement tool in all of the major content areas, daily living skills, and employability training areas.

    Matching Exercises

    The matching exercise allows for a wide sampling of associative information within a relatively short period of time. This assessment tool is not confined to the Knowledge level: It can also effectively test students at the Comprehension and Analysis levels in all the areas. Yet valid assessment is dependent on clarity and specificity. Thus, the wording and format should be understandable to the students, but neither the wording nor the format should serve as clues to correct responses.


    1. In three- or four-member groups, select a content area and then write a true-false item that samples student behavior in the following levels: Knowledge and Comprehension. Be sure to review the guidelines for constructing true-false items, as well as the definitions of the Knowledge and Comprehension levels. Along with members from the other groups, put your Knowledge-level item on the board for discussion. Then do the same for your Comprehension-level item.

    2. In your groups, write a Knowledge-level completion item. Review the guidelines carefully, remembering that the stem should present a problem to be answered in a single answer blank that will complete the sentence. Also, provide for one correct answer, but give no clues in the stem. Upon completion, put your item on the board for discussion, along with the items of the other groups.

    3. In your groups, write one matching exercise for each of the following levels:

    1. Knowledge

    2. Comprehension

    3. Analysis.

    Review your definitions for each of these cognitive levels and review the guidelines for constructing the matching exercise. You can use the chapter examples that pertain to your subject area as templates.

    Chapter 3 References

    Linn, R.L. & Gronlund, N.E. (2000). Measurement and assessment in teaching (8 th edition). Des Moines, IA: Prentice-Hall.

    Linn, R.L. & Miller, M.D. (2005). Measurement and assessment in teaching (9 th edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.

    Lofting, H. (1920). Dr. Doolittle . New York: Frederick A. Stokes.

    Montgomery, L.M. (1908). Anne of Green Gables . Boston, MA: Louis Coues Page.

    Rawls, W. (1961). Where the red fern grows . New York: Doubleday.

    Rowling, J.K. (1997). Harry potter and the sorcerer’s stone . United Kingdom: Bloomsbury.

    Sewell, A. (1877). Black beauty . Norwich: The Jarrold Company.

    White, E.B. (1952). Charlotte’s web . New York: Harper.

    Wyss, J.W. (1812). The swiss family robinson . Switzerland: Johann Rudolph Wyss.

    Chapter 3 Resources

    Black, P. & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 , 139-144.

    Black, P. & William, D. (2009). Developing the theory for formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 21 , 5-31.

    Bookhart, Susan, M. & Nitko, Anthony, J. (2015). Educational assessment of students (8 th edition). New York: Pearson.

    Butler, S.M. & NcMunn, N.D. (2014). A teacher’s guide to classroom assessment: understanding and using assessment to improve student learning . San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

    Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R.J., Chappuis, S. & Arter, J.A. (2011). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right – using it well (2 nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Grounlund, N.E. & Brookhart, S.M. (2009). Gronlund’s writing instructional objectives (8 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    McMillan, J.H. (2017). Classroom assessment: Principles and practices that enhance student learning and motivation (7 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Miller, M.D., Linn, R.L. & Gronlund, N.E. (2013). Measurement and assessment in teaching (11 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Oosterhof, A. (2008). Developing and using classroom assessments (4h edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Popham, J.W. (2018). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know (8 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Reynolds, C.R., Livingston, R.B., & Willson, V. (2008). Measurement and assessment in education, (2 nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Russell, M.K. & Airasian, P.W. (2012). Classroom assessment: Concepts and applications . New York: McGraw Hill.

    Tanner, David E. (2001). Assessing academic achievement . Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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