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7.2: Portfolio

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    44655
  • The contents of a portfolio should not simply reflect the components of a given curriculum, but they should also include representative samples of the student’s performances within each of the levels of the cognitive hierarchy within a particular area. Specifically, the portfolio should allow for the display of selective but representative examples of pupil processes that lead to demonstrated accomplishments within each of the levels of a cognitive hierarchy. Then, as assurance that the display reflects curricular content as well as performances within each of the levels, you should use your long-term unit and short-term lesson plan objectives and even test results, as exemplified in earlier chapters, as guidelines for the student’s portfolio entries.

    Encourage your students to participate in the selection of their portfolio entries and stress the importance of representing their growth. Hence, the portfolio should show not only finished products but also the sequential steps leading to them. Note that presenting only a student’s best or worst work provides a misrepresentation, which can be prevented through teacher guidance.

    Once portfolios have been assembled, set aside time for your students to review them and then write and enter their reflections for later review. Although these reflections can be time- consuming, they can provide valuable insight into your students’ reactions to their academic involvements. Also, regularly set aside time for teacher-student conferences to discuss the progress that your students have achieved to date. Such pupil involvement is designed to allow the students to assess their own learning, and enable them to assume ownership of their learning as well. Moreover, whether the portfolios are housed in folders or electronically, the students should work with you in dating and categorizing the material according to topic, cognitive level, and process-to-product sequence, in compliance with national, state, or CEC standards (chapter 1). Furthermore, the students should construct tables of contents both for their own use and for teacher-student and parent-teacher conferences. Box 2.1 contains a vignette regarding a portfolio’s development.

    When portfolios contain an overabundance of your students’ work, they become less meaningful. By inserting carefully selected representative samples of the students’ performances according to the cognitive hierarchy, you, your students, and their parents can better understand the students’ areas of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Box 2.2 contains a vignette showing the use of a portfolio in a parent conference.

    Rather than using traditional portfolio containers, you may wish to enter your students’ work samples electronically. Electronic portfolios can include graphics as well as video and sound, and they are easily accessible. Moreover, meaningful connections among different subject matter areas can be made.

    KNOWLEDGE: Recognition and recall of previously learned information; no comprehension or understanding of the information is implied.

    Mathematics

    Knowledge of addition combinations is prerequisite to most mathematical performances. With this acknowledgement, you and your student may wish to select a representative sample of the student’s past performances with addition combinations as a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: As an oral activity, the student will recite the answer to each of five, single-digit addition problems within two attempts.

    If selected, the scored rubric of this short-term lesson plan performance would be inserted into the portfolio either as a growth or as a product entry, as determined collectively by you and your student.

    Science

    Knowledge of the names and chronological order of the seasons is important factual information for any child. Hence, you and your student can consider evidence of such knowledge as a representative portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher, the student will recite the names of the four seasons in sequence, within two attempts and with no prompting.

    Rubrically scored, the student’s performance can be considered as a portfolio entry. If several attempts are necessary for her to meet the standards of the objective, the scored rubrics can be interpreted as process entries, with the final completion included as a product entry.

    Social Studies

    Essential to a student’s political awareness is knowledge of the name of his state, its capital, and its governor. Hence, you and your student may consider documented evidence of the student’s demonstration of such knowledge.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher, the student will recite the names of her state, its capital, and its governor.

    If mutually agreed upon as a portfolio entry, the rubric of an unsuccessful attempt to meet the standards of the objective could be inserted as a process-oriented entry, while the rubric showing performance that met the objective’s standards could be enclosed in the portfolio as a product entry.

    English-Language Arts

    Knowledge of sight words is an essential component of reading. Acknowledging this, you will probably want to give you students opportunities to familiarize themselves with such words. Moreover, documented evidence of the student’s involvement with these words can be considered as a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: When presented with 10 sight words on individual flash cards, the student will correctly recite the name of each within two attempts.

    The scored rubrics for this objective could be entered as both growth-oriented and process-oriented additions to the student’s portfolio. Specifically, an unsuccessful attempt to comply with the standards of the objective could be entered as growth-oriented, whereas a successful attempt could be entered as product-oriented.

    Daily Living Skills

    Knowledge of basic personal information is an essential life skill. Accepting this, you can assist your student in memorizing and maintaining this information. Then, in light of the importance of such knowledge, the two of you can document evidence of this knowledge through a scored rubric in the student’s portfolio.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with his teacher, the student will recite: his first and last name; telephone number, including area code; address, including sip code; age and day, month, and year of birth.

    The specificity of this objective is conductive to a clearly defined rubric, which makes for an appropriate and representative portfolio entry as a growth-and/or a product-oriented inclusion, depending on the student’s initial mastery of the objective.

    Employability Training Skills

    Basic knowledge of technology is prerequisite to most vocations. With this awareness, you and your student could decide to include the student’s recorded performance in his portfolio.

    SAMPLE: When presented with the names of two software programs on a worksheet, the student will correctly list at least three functions of each.

    The relative complexity of the task could necessitate more than one student attempt to meet the objective’s standards. Hence, if selected, the scored rubrics could be entered into the portfolio as both process and product evidences of growth.

    COMPREHENSION LEVEL: The ability to understand or summarize information; translating information from one form or level to another; predicting continuations in trends of data.

    Mathematics

    As a comprehension-level exercise, you may decide to provide your student with the opportunity to demonstrate his understanding that numbers may be represented in a variety of ways, thus transferring information from one form to another. After demonstrating such comprehension, you could then mutually determine whether to include evidence of this understanding in the student’s portfolio, as a comprehension-level entry.

    SAMPLE: When shown three, individual single-digit numbers on flash cards, the student will remove from an assortment of manipulatives a corresponding number of objects for each of the numbers presented on the flash cards.

    Depending on the pupil’s assessed performance, you two could decide to include his scored rubric in his portfolio either as a representative process or as a product comprehension-level entry.

    Science

    A component of the comprehension-level is the ability to summarize information. With this understanding, you may want to ask your student to summarize an observed activity, and include specific components of the activity as evidence of her understanding.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher following a film about mammals, the student will summarize the film by correctly naming three different categories of mammals and two characteristics common to all mammals.

    The student’s performance is clearly specified, which is conducive to a clearly defined rubric. Since the objective’s requirements are relatively stringent, it could possibly take more than one attempt for the student to meet its standards. Therefore, you and your student could consider the scored rubric as either a growth-oriented or as a product-oriented portfolio entry.

    Social Studies

    The ability to summarize, a criterion of the comprehension-level, can be demonstrated orally or in writing. However, as assurance of student understanding, you should predetermine specific components for inclusion in the summary. Then, following the student’s summary, the two of you could examine the scored rubric of her summary for possible entry into her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher, following her oral reading of a trade book on the Battle of Gettysburg, the student will summarize the battle, mentioning two officers from both the Union and the Confederacy, the approximate number of persons killed, and the name of the U.S. President who later gave a famous speech at this site.

    After discussing the scored rubric of the student’s summary, you and she may consider entering it in her portfolio as a representative process or product sample of her ability to summarize material that she has read.

    English-Language Arts

    You may want to guide your student toward the understanding that most phenomena have concrete, semi-concrete, and abstract forms. Moreover, the two of you should consider evidence of such understanding as a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: After examining a kick ball presented by the teacher, the student will sort through and select a picture of a ball from a stack of picture cards; and then sort through and select the word “ball” from a stack of word cards.

    Meeting the standards of this objective is evidence that the student understands the different forms of objects. Thus, the two of you can consider the scored rubric as a possible growth or product portfolio entry representing the student’s ability to understand that objects have different norms.

    Daily Living Skills

    The ability to explain or summarize social situations is an important, if not vital life skill. With this understanding, you may give your student the opportunity to summarize relevant social scenarios that may be considered for portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with his teacher, following the viewing of a vignette involving the four-step sequence of a child’s riding a bicycle, his failure to obey a stop sign, a car braking to miss the child, and the frightened child walking his bike to the sidewalk, the student will explain the event, including the four steps in sequence.

    The student’s performance here, as rubrically recorded, could be considered by the two of you as a representative process- or product- oriented sample of the student’s ability to summarize important outcomes.

    Employability Training Skills

    The ability to comprehend sequences (understanding trends in data) is essential to many vocations. With this acknowledgement, you may wish to present your student with the opportunity to demonstrate this ability and then involve him in determining whether evidence of his performance should be considered as a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: Presented with an assortment of floor covering tiles and the illustrated sequence of “flower,” “tree,” “water,” “sun,” “flower,” the student will select the next three tiles from the assortment and continue the pattern.

    With respect to this comprehension-level performance objective, you and your student may decide to include the scored rubric as either a growth or as a product portfolio entry, depending on the student’s performance.

    APPLICATION LEVEL : The ability to take information that has been previously acquired and comprehended and use it in concrete situations.

    Mathematics

    Following a set of directions can often involve an application level of performance. With this in mind, you may ask your student to use manipulatives in the solution of a problem involving counting. Then, the two of you may collectively determine whether to include the scored rubric of the exercise as a representative application-level sample in the student’s portfolio.

    SAMPLE: Following instruction from the teacher, the student will select four chips from an assortment of red chips and five chips from an assortment of white chips, and then state the total number of combined chips to the teacher.

    The student’s performance, involving following the directions to solve a problem by counting, would be assessed according to a predetermined rubric. Then, after discussing the student’s performance on the basis of the scored rubric, the two of you could decide to include the document either as a representative growth-oriented or as a product-oriented entry in the student’s portfolio.

    Science

    Relatively long-term projects in which the student can see the results of his efforts can be both meaningful and enjoyable. Additionally, since such projects lend themselves to both immediate and extended assessments, you and your student could decide to enter the scored rubrics as process as well as product inclusions.

    SAMPLE: Presented with a terrarium filled with potting soil, a trowel, a packet of seeds, and a watering can, the student will apply the four-step process, as discussed in class, for planting a seed.

    Since this assignment could probably completed in a single session, you and your student could discuss rubrically scored results of his efforts immediately after the performance to determine whether to enter the document as a process or product portfolio inclusion, keeping in mind that the student’s extended nourishment of the plant is also conducive to assessment.

    Social Studies

    Following an initial discussion on the individual attributes of people, you may decide to pair your students so as to allow them to interview each other to obtain predetermined information. Following these interviews, you would meet with each individual to assess what he has learned about his partner; after which, the two of you could mutually determine whether to include the recorded assessment as an entry in the student’s portfolio.

    SAMPLE: In groups of two, the students will interview each other to determine the following information about each other: first and last name; two favorite activities; best friend and why.

    Following this discussion, you and your student could mutually decide whether to enter the scored rubric of his conversation as a portfolio inclusion. If agreed upon as an entry, the two of you could decide whether to include it as a growth or as a product entry.

    English-Language Arts

    Important to the student’s speaking and writing skills are her comprehension and use of the basic sentence types. Hence, the two of you could insert documentation of her ability to use these sentence types in her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: When prompted by her teacher during a two-way conversation, the student will: make a statement; ask a question; give a command.

    Following this conversation, you and your student may wish to consider your written assessment of the student’s performance for a representative portfolio process-or product- oriented entry, depending on the student’s performance.

    Daily Living Skills

    Virtually every time an individual looks at a face clock or watch, he is applying an important life skill that he has acquired and comprehended. Documentation of the ability to apply this important skill could be considered by student and teacher as a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: When shown a face clock, the student will state its time within a one-minute degree of accuracy.

    Depending on the number of attempts before meeting the standards of the objective, you and your student could consider documenting and then entering an unsuccessful attempt as a product entry.

    Employability Training Skills

    The ability to perform measurements is an important aspect of many vocations. To provide each student with opportunities to measure actual phenomena, neither you nor the student has to leave the classroom. Following the student’s measurement of classroom objects, the two of you may want to decide whether to enter evidence of the student’s performance in her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: Presented with a twelve-foot tape measure, the student will measure the perimeter of the classroom within a five-inch margin of error.

    Depending on the number of attempts needed for the student to meet the standards of the objective, you may discuss whether to include an unsuccessful attempt as a representative growth-oriented portfolio entry, preceding a successful attempt that could possibly be entered as a product-oriented sample.

    ANALYSIS LEVEL : The ability to break down a unified whole into its basic parts and understand the relationship among these parts; determining cause and effect relationships; understanding analogies and metaphors.

    Mathematics

    The ability to compare and contrast phenomena and then rank according to a predetermined hierarchy is an analysis-level procedure. With this acknowledgement, you may wish to provide your student with the opportunity to perform this procedure with numbers.

    SAMPLE: On a worksheet with five random columns of four, two-digit numbers, the student will total each and then rank and label each column from highest to lowest.

    Since this object requires demonstration of the interdependent relationship between application (totaling the columns) and analysis (ranking the columns), you and your student could consider entering the assessed paper in his portfolio as either a representative growth or product inclusion, depending on the quality of the student’s performance.

    Science

    With the performance of classifying being an analysis-level behavior, you could determine to give your student the opportunity to classify animals according to their respective classes; after which the two of you could mutually consider including documentation of the student’s performance in his portfolio.

    SAMPLE: When presented with ten flashcard pictures of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, the student will place each n a stack that is commensurate with the animal’s respective class.

    Your rubric for this assessment would include both criterion- (number correct) and temporally-based (time for completion) components. Then, depending on the quality of the student’s performance, the two of you could consider entering the scored rubric either as a growth or as a product portfolio inclusion.

    Social Studies

    Making comparisons to determine relative positions among phenomena is an analysis-level performance. With this in mind, you may want to assess your student’s ability to make comparisons among specified states on a map. Then, you and this student could consider entering her scored paper as a portfolio inclusion.

    SAMPLE: When shown three, highlighted eastern states on a U.S. map, the student will determine which is closest to the Atlantic Ocean, and then orally relate her answer to her teacher.

    Requiring a convergent answer obtained through an analytic procedure, this short-term objective could serve as a representative sample of the student’s analytical skills. Then, after reviewing the rubrically scored assessment of her performance, the two of you may consider including it either as a growth or as a process portfolio entry.

    English-Language Arts

    Comparing and contrasting different literature elections is an analysis-level activity. With this acceptance, you may decide to assess your student’s ability to make such analyses. Then, on the basis of the complexity of the activity, the two of you may consider the documentation of your student’s performance for a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher following the reading of The Three Little Pigs (Moser, 2001) and The True Story of The 3 Little Pigs (Scieszka and Smith, 1996), the student will state three similarities and three differences between the two accounts of the story.

    The rubrically scored assessment of the student’s analytic comparison of the two versions of the story could be mutually considered as a possible portfolio entry. Then, on the basis of the student’s performance, you can collectively decide to enter the recorded assessment of her performance either as a process-oriented or as a product-oriented portfolio inclusion.

    Daily Living Skills

    With the acknowledgement that a demonstrated understanding of cause and effect relationships is an analysis-level behavior, you may want to give your student the opportunity to determine how her own behavior can have personal consequences. Then, you and your student could examine the recorded assessment of her performance for possible entry into her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher, the student will relate at least two personal consequences that could result from her swallowing unknown pills.

    The understanding that one’s personal behavior can have detrimental effects is an important life skill. On this basis, the two of you may want to consider entering the scored rubric of her explanation of the consequences of swallowing the unknown pills as a portfolio inclusion. Then, depending on the quality of the student’s explanation, you could collectively consider including the document either as a process-oriented or as a product-oriented portfolio entry.

    Employability Training Skills

    Understanding the commonalities as well as the differences between tools is an essential employability training skill. With this understanding, you may want to give your student an authentic opportunity to determine such similarities and differences, after which you and your student could examine the assessed results of his determination as a possible portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: When shown a hammer, saw, screwdriver, and trowel, the student will tell her teacher: which tool is different and one reason why; and one commonality that the other three share.

    This is an analysis-level objective in that it requires the classification of tools. Moreover, the student’s recorded performance could merit collective consideration as a possible process or product portfolio entry, depending on the quality of the student’s performance.

    SYNTHESIS LEVEL: The assemblage of parts into a new whole; the formulation of a new hypothesis or plan of action; consulting a solution to an unfamiliar problem.

    Mathematics

    Understanding that the demonstrated ability to assemble parts into a new whole is a synthesis component, you may ask you student to demonstrate this ability with manipulatives; after which, the two of you could consider entering the documented assessment of the performance as a portfolio inclusion.

    SAMPLE: Presented with separate assemblages of blue, red, and yellow chips, the student will demonstrate three ways to select chips from all three assortments to equal ten chips.

    The rubric for this assignment could include both criterion (number correct) and time (time for completion) components. Then, following a collective examination of the scored rubric, you and your student could determine whether to enter it in the student’s portfolio. If mutually accepted as an entry, the two of you could then decide whether to include it as a growth or product entry.

    Science

    As part of a unit on the many facets of motion, you could decide to provide your student with the opportunity to use his creativity in constructing a device that demonstrates some of the concepts presented in class. Following the assessment of his project, the two of you could consider including the recorded assessment as a portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: Given aluminum foil, masking tape, a rubber band, and a Popsicle stick, as an out-of-class assignment, the student will use each of the materials to construct a boat that will self-propel at least five feet in a water filled gutter.

    The scored rubric, highly detailed because of the complexity and demands of the objective, could be considered by you and your student as a possible portfolio entry. If selected, it could be entered as a growth or as a product inclusion, depending on the quality and date of the student’s performance.

    Social Studies

    Service learning is an essential component of most social studies curricula. Aware of this, you would want your student to become involved in such learning. Then, the two of you may consider the rubrically scored assessment of the student’s performance as an inclusion in her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: In a conversation with her teacher, following earlier discussions on the aspects of service learning, the student will design a school clothing drive that will include: one means of publicizing the drive; provisions for depositing the collected clothing in school; and a method of distributing the clothing.

    The complexity of this objective would necessitate a clearly defined and detailed rubric. Then, after examining the scored rubric, you and your student could decide to examine it for possible inclusion in the student’s portfolio. If accepted for inclusion, the two of you could then determine whether to enter it as a growth- or as a product-oriented inclusion, depending on the quality of the performance.

    English Language Arts

    Providing each student with opportunities to construct their own endings to stories is an effective means of enhancing their creativity. With this in mind, you could give your student a story to complete, according to specific criteria. Additionally, the inclusion of standards within this synthesis-level assignment enhances rather than inhibits the student’s creativity because it provides avenues for creativity that, otherwise, could have been unknown to the student. Hence, after the student’s performance has been assessed, you and she may consider the scored rubric as a possible inclusion in her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: Presented with an unfinished story, read by her teacher, the student will construct an oral ending to the story that will include: two of the characters from the original story, and a happy ending.

    After examining the rubrically scored assessment of the student’s performance, the two of you decide to consider it for either a process- or for a product-oriented entry in her portfolio, depending on the quality and date of the student’s performance.

    Daily Living Skills

    Self-enhancing leisure activities are important daily living skills. With this thought, you may decide to give your student the opportunity to develop creative leisure activities, while simultaneously honing his fine motor skills. Then, after assessing his performance, the two of you may consider entering the scored rubric as a portfolio inclusion.

    SAMPLE: Presented with a pint milk carton, a can of icing, Graham crackers, jelly beans, club mints, sprinkles, decorating gel, and nonpareils, the student will construct a “gingerbread” house using at least some of each of the materials.

    This project could possibly be assessed as an extended performance. Nevertheless, regardless of the time allotted for completion, you will want to assess the student’s performance on the basis of clearly defined and detailed rubric. Then, the two of you could decide whether to include the scored rubric as a process or product portfolio entry.

    Employability Training Skills

    Positive people skills are important in any vocation. With this awareness, you may want to present hypothetical workplace problems for your student to solve through a creative plan of action. Following your assessment of the student’s plan, you and she could decide to enter the rubrically scored assessment as a portfolio inclusion.

    SAMPLE: Following a scenario, presented by the teacher, of an irate and confrontational customer harassing the student because her workplace does not have an item the customer wants, the student will devise a plan, for an oral presentation, that includes a technique that will calm the customer while simultaneously maintaining the dignity of the student.

    After examining the scored rubric of her presentation, you and your student may wish to consider it as a portfolio growth or product entry, depending on the date and quality of the performance.

    EVALUATION LEVEL: The ability to judge phenomenon on the basis of predetermined criteria or internal consistency.

    Mathematics

    You, the teacher, are fully aware that several methods can be used to solve the same problem. Deciding which method to use may involve a value judgment that is based on the student’s perception of her strengths and weaknesses. Allowing her to disclose these perceptions can enhance your instructional effectiveness. With this in mind, you may want to provide her with several methods from which to choose for solving a given problem. Then, the two of you can decide to examine the student’s documented reasoning for possible entry into her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: After the teacher shows the student a rectangle with the length and width of its sides labeled, the student will determine whether to compute its perimeter by adding each of the four sides, multiplying the length and width by two and then adding the two products, etc., and then cite two reasons for his choice in a conversation with his teacher.

    The rubrically scored assessment of the student’s explanation for his choice could provide valuable information for you, as well as for your student and his parents. Thus, you and your student could consider this document as a possible portfolio growth-oriented or product-oriented inclusion, depending on the student’s performance.

    Science

    Deciding on the comparative significance of inventions often involves value judgements. Understanding this, you may want to provide your student with the opportunities to make a comparative evaluation among the different inventions that he has studied. Then, after his evaluation has been assessed, the two of you may wish to consider it for possible portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: When presented with the names of three previously studied inventions, the student will select the one that he feels has made the most significant contribution, and then cite three reasons for his choice, in a conversation with his teacher.

    Since even scientists disagree about the relative significance of inventions, you should not expect agreement among your students. Hence, you should assess your student on the reasoning for his choice. After which, you and he could determine whether to include the rubrically scored assessment in his portfolio, either as a process or as a product-level entry.

    Social Studies

    As documented daily by the media, there are numerous controversies regarding the performance of government officials, most of which are based on value judgements. With this in mind, you may wish to ask your student to evaluate the performance of given officials and then substantiate her position with factual information. After you have assessed her evaluation, the two of you can consider the scored rubric of her performance for inclusion in her portfolio.

    SAMPLE: During a current events unit, the student will orally express her evaluation of the President’s performance and cite three factual reasons for her position.

    It is important that you provide for the inclusion of factual information within your rubric. If the reasoning supplied by the student is based on fact, regardless of whether you agree or disagree with her position, you must take her rationale into consideration. Then, after you have discussed the scored rubric with your student, you may collectively consider entering it in her portfolio either as a growth or as a product level inclusion.

    English-Language Arts

    Agreement or disagreement with the literary treatment of certain subjects is often a reflection of our value judgements. Therefore, when you assess your student on his evaluation of literature content, make certain that you focus on the rationale of his position rather than on his position per se . In your subsequent discussion of the assessed rubric, you and your student could consider entering it in his portfolio.

    SAMPLE: After a reading of Cinderella (Perrault, 1697), the student will determine whether she feels that Cinderella should have forgiven her stepsisters for the injustice they had inflicted on her, and present at least two oral explanations for her position.

    This objective not only allows you to assess a value judgement made by your student, but it also provides certain insight into her personal value system. If the two of you decide to enter the scored rubric of her explanations in her portfolio, either as a growth or as a product inclusion, it could be an excellent reference source in a parent-teacher conference.

    Life Skills

    Sometimes social questions do not have pre-determined right or wrong answers. Instead, they may involve value judgements that are based on the individual’s personally predetermined criteria. Moreover, you should keep this in mind when you are presenting a social scenario to your student. Then, after you have assessed her answer, the two of you could examine the scored rubric of her performance for possible portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: Presented with the scenario of a rude department store clerk giving the student $20.00 too much in change, the student will determine whether to keep the $20.00 or return it, and give at least two oral reasons for his decision.

    It is very important that you examine the student’s supporting reasons for his decision when you are assessing his performance. After you have assessed his performance, the two of you may consider entering the scored rubric as either a process or product portfolio inclusion.

    Employability Training Skills

    Resolutions of conflicts often involve value judgements, even in the workplace. On this premise, you may want to present your student with a hypothetical situation that necessitates a job-site value judgement; after which, the two of you could view the rubrically scored assessment of her performance as a possible portfolio entry.

    SAMPLE: Given the situation of a co-worker friend’s continuing to short-change disabled individuals after repeated warnings, the student will determine whether to report him to the supervisor, and give at least two oral reasons for her choice.

    The student’s performance on this assignment could provide you with valuable insight into her value priorities. When discussing her performance with her, the two of you could decide on the feasibility of including the rubrically scored assessment of her performance in her portfolio. If agreed to do so, it could be included either as a growth oriented or as a product-oriented entry, depending on the date and level of the student’s performance.

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