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10.8: Summary, Key Words and References

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    Chapter Summary

    In the United States, broad educational goals for most subject areas are published by many national professional associations and by all state departments of education. Usually the state departments of education also publish curriculum framework or curriculum guides that offer somewhat more specific explanations of educational goals, and how they might be taught.

    Transforming the goals into specific learning objectives, however, remains a responsibility of the teacher. The formulation can focus on curriculum topics that can analyzed into specific activities, or it can focus on specific behaviors expected of students and assembled into general types of outcomes. Taxonomies of educational objectives, such as the ones originated by Benjamin Bloom, are a useful tool with either approach to instructional planning.

    In addition to planning instruction on students' behalf, many teachers organize instruction so that students themselves can influence the choice of goals. One way to do so is through emergent curriculum; another way is through multicultural and anti-bias curriculum.

    Whatever planning strategies are used, learning is enhanced by using a wide variety of resources, including the Internet, local experts, field trips, and service learning, among others. It is also enhanced if the teacher can build bridges between curriculum goals and students' experiences through judicious use of modeling, activation of prior knowledge, anticipation of students' preconceptions, and an appropriate blend of guided and independent practice.

    Key terms

    • Affective objectives
    • Anti-bias education
    • Bloom's taxonomy
    • Content integration
    • Curriculum framework
    • Educational goals
    • Emergent curriculum
    • Equity pedagogy
    • Guided practice
    • Independent practice
    • Indicators
    • Instructional planning
    • Learning commons
    • Learning objectives
    • Modeling as demonstration
    • Modeling as simplified representation
    • Multicultural education
    • National standards
    • Psychomotor objectives
    • Scope and sequence
    • Service learning
    • State standards
    • Taxonomy of educational objectives

    On the Internet

    These are some of many websites that explains what behavioral objectives are, and how to write them. They give more detail than is possible in this chapter.


    • Anderson, L. & Krathwohl, D. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing. New York: Longman.
    • Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Journal of Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 269-290.
    • Banks, C. & Banks, J. (1995). Equity pedagogy: An essential component of multicultural education. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 152-158.
    • Banks, J. & Banks, C. (2005). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives, 5" 1 edition. New York: Wiley.
    • Beagle, D. Bailey, R., & Tierney, B. (2004). The information commons handbook. New York: Neal-Shuman Publishers.
    • Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: David McKay Publishers.
    • Brumfiel, G. (2005). Intelligent design: Who has designs on your students' minds? Nature, 434, 1062-1065.
    • Bryan, T. & Burstein, K. (2004). Improving homework completion and academic performance: Lessons from special education. Theory into Practice, 43(3), 213-219.
    • Buchanan, A., Baldwin, S., & Rudisill, M. (2002). Service learning as scholarship in teacher education. Educational Researcher 32(8), 28-34.
    • Chi, M. (2005). Commonsense conceptions of emergent processes: Why some misconceptions are robust. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(2), 161-199.
    • Chiu, M. & Lin, J. (2005). Promoting 4 th -graders' conceptual change of their understanding of electrical current via multiple analogies. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(4), 429-464.
    • Clark, D. (2006). Longitudinal conceptual change in students' understanding of thermal equilibrium: An examination of the process of conceptual restructuring. Cognition and Instruction, 24(4), 467-563.
    • Clark, K. (2006). Computer Based Virtual Field Trips in the K-12 Classroom. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2006, pp. 3974-3980. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
    • Cooper, H. & Valentine, J. (2001). Using research to answer practical questions about homework. Educational Psychology, 36(3), 143-153-
    • Corno, L. &Xu, J. (2004). Homework as the job of childhood. Theory into Practice, 43(3), 227-233.
    • Crow, C. (2005). Multicultural education: Equity pedagogy on perspectives and practices of secondary teachers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Waco, TX: Baylor University.
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    • Reading /Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools. Sacramento, CA:
    • California Department of Education.
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    • In D. Butin (Ed.), Service-learning in higher education: Critical issues and directions, pp. xxx-yyy. New
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    • Gibson, S. (2004). Social learning (cognitive) theory and implications for human resources development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(2), 192-210.
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    • Theory into practice, 43(3), 174-181.
    • Gronlund, N. (2004). Writing instructional objectives for teaching and assessment, 6 th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    • Gulitt, J., Renkl, A., Motes, M., & Hauser, S. (2006). How can we use concept maps for prior knowledge activation? Proceedings of the 7" 1 International Conference on Learning Sciences, 217-220.
    • Haas, L. & Robertson, J. (Eds). (2004). The information commons. Washington, D.C.: Association of Research Libraries.
    • Harrow, A. (1972). A taxonomy of the psychomotor domain. New York: David McKay.
    • Hawkins, J. (2006). Accessing multicultural issues through critical thinking, critical inquiry, and the student research process. Urban Education, 41(2), 169-141.
    • Haywood, K. & Getchell, N. (2005). Life span motor development, 4 th edition. Champaign, IL: Human
    • Kinetics Press.
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    • Jacobson, T. (2003). Confronting out discomfort: Clearing the way for anti-bias in early childhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Johnson, B. & O'Grady, C. (Eds.). (2006). The spirit of service: Exploring faith, service, and social justice in higher education. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishers.
    • Jones, S., Gilbride-Brown, J., & Gasiorski, A. (2005). Getting inside the "underside" of service-learning: Student resistance and possibilities. In D. Butin (Ed.), Service-learning in higher education: Critical issues and directions, pp. xxx-yyy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Kohn, A. (1999). The schools our children deserve. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    • Kohn, A. (2004). Challenging students, and how to have more of them. Phi Delta Kappan,86{3), 184-194.
    • Lester, P. & Ross, S. (2003). Images that injure: Pictorial stereotypes in the media. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    • Mager, R. (2005). Preparing instructional objectives, 3 rd edition. Atlanta, GA: Center for Effective Performance.
    • Marzano, R. (2006). Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Books.
    • Notar, C, Wilson, J., Yunker, B., & Zuelke, D. (2004). The table of specifications: Insuring accountability in teacher-made tests. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 3^(3).
    • Ohio Department of Education. (2003). Academic Content Standards. Columbus, Ohio: Author.
    • Owens, C. (2003). Nonsense, sense and science: Misconceptions and illustrated trade books. Journal of children's literature, 29(1), 55-62.
    • Parsad, B. & Jones, J. (2005). Internet access in U.S. public schools and classrooms: 1994-2003.
    • Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
    • Perkins, D. & Mebert, C. (2005). Efficacy of multicultural education for preschool children. Journal ofCross- Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 497-512.
    • Peterson, E. (2002). A practical guide to early childhood curriculum: Linking thematic, emergent, and skill-based planning to children's outcomes, 2 nd edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    • Popham, J. (2002). What every teacher should know about educational assessment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    • Ragains, P. (2006). Information literacy instruction that works. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
    • Rebellon, C. (2006). Do adolescents engage in delinquency to attract the social attention of peers? An extension and longitudinal test of the social reinforcement hypothesis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(4), 387-411.
    • Riley, R. (2002). Education reform through standards and partnerships, 1993-2000. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(9), 700-707.
    • Rogoff, B. (2003). Cultural nature of human development, Chapter 7, "Thinking with the tools and institutions of culture," pp. 236-281.
    • Seitz, H. (2006). The plan: building on children's interests. Young Children, 61(2), 36-41.
    • Skinner, H., Biscope, S., & Poland, B. (2003). Quality of Internet access: Barriers behind Internet use statistics, 57(5), 875-880.
    • Slotta, J. & Chi, M. (2006). Helping students understand challenging topics in science through ontology training. Cognition and Instruction, 24(2), 261-289.
    • Tanner, K. & Allen, D. (2005). Approaches to biology teaching and learning— understanding the wrong answers: Teaching toward conceptual change. Cell Biology Education, 4, 112-117.
    • Thomsen, K. (2006). Service-learning in grades K-8: Experiential learning that builds character and motivation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Vartuli, S. & Rohs, J. (2006). Conceptual organizers of early childhood curriculum content. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(4), 231-237.
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