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12.10: Summary, Key Words and References

  • Page ID
    87454
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    Chapter summary

    The purpose of classroom assessment can be assessment for learning or assessment of learning. Essential steps of assessment for learning include communicating instructional goals clearly to students; selecting appropriate high quality assessments that match the instructional goals and students' backgrounds; using assessments that enhance student motivation and confidence, adjusting instruction based on assessment, and communicating assessment results with parents and guardians. Action research can help teachers understand and improve their teaching. A number of questions are important to consider when devising grading systems.

    Key terms  
    Absence of bias Authentic assessment
    Action research Constructed response items
    Alternative assessment Evaluation
    Assessment Formative assessment
    Assessment for learning Formal assessment measurement
    Assessment of learning Informal assessment
    Performance assessment Selected response items
    Portfolios Summative assessment
    Reliability Validity

    References

    Airasian, P. W. (2000). Classroom Assessment: A concise approach 2 nd ed. Boston: McGraw Hill.

    Airasian, P. W. (2004). Classroom Assessment: Concepts and Applications 3 rd ed. Boston: McGraw Hill.

    Bangert-Downs, R. L.,Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C-L, C. (1991). Effects of frequent classroom testing. Journal of Educational Research, 85 (2), 89-99.

    Black, P., Harrison, C, Lee, C, Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box.: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86 (1) 9-21.

    Black, P., & Wiliam,D. (2006). Assessment for learning in the classroom. In J. Gardner (Ed.). Assessment and learning (pp. 9-25). Thousand Oaks, GASage.

    Bishop, J. H. (1999). Nerd harassment, incentives, school priorities, and learning. In S. E. Mayer & P. E. Peterson (Eds.) Earning and learning: How school matters (pp. 231-280). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

    Borko, H. & Livingston, C. (1989) Cognition and Improvisation: Differences in Mathematics Instruction by Expert and Novice Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 473-98.

    Cross, L. H., & Frary, R. B. (1999). Hodgepodge grading: Endorsed by students and teachers alike. Applied Measurement in Education, 2i{i) 53-72.

    Dempster, F. N. & Perkins, P. G. (1993). Revitalizating classroom assessment: Using tests to promote learning. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 20 (3) 197-203.

    Dweck, C. S. (2000) Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality , and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

    Elliott, A., McGregor, H., & Thrash, T. (2004). The need for competence. In E. Deci & R. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 361-388). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

    Harlen, W. The role of assessment in developing motivation for learning. In J. Gardner (Ed.). Assessment and learning (pp. 61-80). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Hubbard, R. S., & Power, B. M. (2003). The art of classroom inquiry, A handbook for teachers-researchers (2 nd ed.). Portsmith, NH: Heinemann.

    Koretz, D. Stecher, B. Klein, S. & McCaffrey, D. (1994). The evolution of a portfolio program: The impact and quality of the Vermont program in its second year (1992-3). (CSE Technical report 385) Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Research on Evaluation Standards and student Testing. Accessed January 25, 2006 from www.csr.ucla.edu .

    Linn, R. L., & Miller, M. D. (2005). Measurement and Assessment in Teaching 9 th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson .

    Mertler, C. A. (2006). Action research: Teachers as researchers in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Popham, W. J. (2005). Classroom Assessment: What teachers need to know. Boston, MA: Pearson.

    Rowe, M. B. (2003). Wait-time and rewards as instructional variables, their influence on language, logic and fate control: Part one-wait time. Journal of Research in science Teaching, 40 Supplement, S19-32.

    Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Assessment crisis: The absence of assessment FOR learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83 (10), 758-765-

    Sutton, R. E. (2004). Emotional regulation goals and strategies of teachers. Social Psychology of Education, X4)> 379-398. Teel, K. M., Debrin-Parecki, A., & Covington, M. V. (1998). Teaching strategies that honor and motivate inner-city African American students: A school/university collaboration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14(5), 479-495.

    Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk-Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248.


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