2.5: Bloom’s Basic Cognitive Domain - Application
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APPLICATION: Here, the student is required to take information that has previously been acquired and comprehended, and use it in concrete situations.
You may want to determine if your student can apply her counting skills in concrete situations. As a means of making this determination, you could ask your student to select a specified number of objects from separate assortments, and then total the number of objects.
Example: The student will apply counting skills in concrete situations.
With its call for the student to apply her acquired counting skills in concrete situations, this is an observable application-level objective.
Example: Upon instruction from her teacher, the student will select four chips from an assortment of red chips and five chips from an assortment of white chips, total the number, and then state the total number of the combined chips to her teacher.
Clear and detailed, this is an application-level objective, as reflected in the student’s first carrying out specific instructions, and then applying her counting skills to an actual problem. The conditions need no interpretation (“Upon instruction from the teacher”), or do the behaviors (“select,” “total,” “state”), or do the minimal standards (“four chips from the red assortment and five chips from the white assortment, which are to be totaled”).
After a lesson on plant growth, you may decide to give your student the opportunity for hands-on involvement in the initiation of plant growth.
Example: The student will participate in the planting and nurturing of plants.
The term “participate” alludes to observable student behavior, and the terms “planting” and “nurturing” insinuate the application of such acquisitions.
Example: Presented with a terrarium filled with potting soil, a trowel, a packet of seeds, and a watering can, the student will apply the four-step process in sequence, as discussed in class, for planting a seed.
This objective requires the application of previously learned information. The conditions are (“presented with a terrarium filled with potting soil, a trowel, a packet of seeds, and a watering can,”) behavior (“apply,”) and minimal standards (“the four-step process, in sequence, as discussed in class, for planting a seed”).
Following discussion with your student on interviewing techniques, you may want her to apply some of these techniques.
Example: The student will demonstrate acquired and comprehended interviewing techniques.
Interviewing a classmate to obtain previously determined personal information is a hands-on application involvement.
Example: After a discussion with her teacher on interviewing techniques, the student will meet with a classmate, determine and list the following information, excluding spelling errors: first and last name; favorite activity; type of pets, if any; favorite part of school.
Following her teacher’s instruction to determine and list the following information, the student is applying information that she has acquired and comprehended. In this objective, the conditions are (“After a discussion with her teacher on interviewing techniques”); as is the behavior (“list”); and the minimal standards are (“first and last name; favorite activities; type of pets, if any; favorite part of school”).
English Language Arts
Example: After defining and explaining the three major types of sentences to your student, you may want to see if the student can use these sentences conversationally.
Example: The student will use declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences in conversation.
The term “use” is indicative of observable pupil behavior at the application level. Also, the objective is definite in mandating what should be prescribed in the following short-term objectives.
Example: When prompted by her teacher during a two-way conversation, the student will: make a statement; ask a question; and give a command.
Here, the student is applying previously acquired information by using the three types of sentences in a conversation with her teacher. Moreover, the conditions, behaviors, and minimal standards are clearly stated: conditions (“when prompted by her teacher during a two-way conversation”); behaviors (“make,” “ask,” “give”); and minimal standards of performance (“a statement,” “a question,” “a command”).
Daily Living Skills
The ability to tell time by reading a face clock is an essential life skill. Recognizing the necessity of this skill, you would most probably teach your student the essentials of telling time, and then give him opportunities to apply this skill.
Example: The student will tell time.
Every time an individual checks her watch or nearby clock, she is applying a previously learned skill. Hence, this objective requires the student to demonstrate the acquisition of this skill in a concrete situation.
Example: When shown a face clock, the student will state its time within a one-minute degree of accuracy.
To meet the requirements of this objective, the student must apply a previously learned skill. In addition, the objective is precise with respect to its: conditions (“When shown a face clock”), behavior (“state”), and minimal standards of performance (“within a one-minute degree of accuracy”).
Employability Training Skills
The ability to take measurements is an integral component of most manual vocations. With this understanding, you would probably want to give your student opportunities to apply her acquired measuring skills on actual phenomena.
Example: The student will demonstrate proficiency in measuring different objects.
Measuring virtually anything is a form of application, in that the individual is applying a previously learned and observable skill.
Example: Presented with a 12-foot tape measure, paper, and a pencil, the student will measure and record the perimeter of the classroom within a 5-inch margin of error.
An application-level objective in that the student is required to apply a previously learned skill in a concrete situation, this objective is precise with respect to: conditions (“presented with a 12-foot tape measure, paper, and a pencil”), behavior (“measure and record”), and minimal standards of performance (“within a 5-inch margin of error”).