Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts


  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)

    Anderson, B. (1983, 2005) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and the Spread of Nationalism (2nd ed.). London: Verso.

    Andersen, R. (1988) The Power and the Word: Language, Power and Change. London: Paladin Grafton Books.

    Apple, M.W. (1990) Ideology and Curriculum (2nd ed.). New York and London: Routledge.

    Arnold, M. (1869, 2006) Culture and Anarchy: an Essay in Political and Social Criticism, Bibliolife.

    Atkinson, P. et al. (2001, 2007) Editorial Introduction In: Handbook of Ethnography. London: Routledge.

    Austin, J.L. (1962) How to do Things with Words, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bailey, S.N. (1994) ‘Literature in the modern languages curriculum of British universities’. Language Learning Journal. 9, pp. 41-45.

    Bakhtin, M. (1981) The Dialogic Imagination (Four Essays) ed. M. Holquist, Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Bakhtin (1986, 1996) The Problem of Speech Genres. In: Speech Genres & Other Late Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Barnett, R. (1997) Higher Education: A Critical Business. Buckinghamshire: Open University Press.

    Bartlett, F.C. (1932) Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Barro, A. et al. (1998) ‘Cultural practice in everyday life: the language learner as ethnographer’. In: M. Byram and M. Fleming (eds) Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective: approaches through drama and ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Baumann, G. (1996) Contesting Culture: discourses of identity in multi-ethnic London, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Beheydt, L. Review article of ‘Hoe maakt u het? De Nederlandse taal in haar culturele context’. Neerlandia Extra Muros, XXXVI, 2 mei 1998.

    Beheydt, L. (2003) ‘Vreemde ogen dwingen’. Kroniek cultuur en maatschappij der Nederlanden; jaargang 41, 2. Also available online at: [Last accessed October, 2013].

    Besamusca, E. (2006) ‘Landeskunde: wat is dat?’ Paper at Neerlandistiek in Contrast, Zestiende Colloquium Neerlandicum. Univerisity of Gent, 20-26 August, 2006.

    Besamusca, E. and Verheul, J. (2010) Discovering the Dutch. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    Billig, M. (1995) Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publications.

    Blommaert, J. (1998) Different approaches to intercultural communication: A critical survey. Centrum voor Islam in Europa. Available online at: http:// [Last accessed October, 2013].

    Blommaert, J. and Jie, D. (2010) Ethnographic Fieldwork: A Beginner’s Guide. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Brumfit, C. et al. (2005) Language study in higher education and the development of criticality. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 15 (2), pp. 45-168.

    Byram, M. (1989) Cultural Studies in Foreign Language Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Byram, M. (1991) ‘Teaching culture and language: towards an integrated model’. In: D. Buttjes and M. Byram (eds), Mediating languages and cultures, Clevedon and Philadelphia, Multilingual Matters.

    Byram, M. (1992) ‘Language and culture learning for European citizenship’. In Language and Education 6 (2-4) pp. 165-176.

    Byram, M. (1997) ‘Cultural Awareness as vocabulary learning’. Language Learning Journal. 16, pp. 51-57.

    Byram, M. (1997) Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Byram, M. et al. (1994) Teaching-and-Learning Language-and-Culture, Clevedon, Philadelphia and Adelaide: Multilingual Matters.

    Byram, M., and Zarate G. (1994) Definitions, Objectives and Assessment of Socio-cultural Objectives. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

    Byram, M. and Fleming, M. (eds) (1998) Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective: approaches through drama and ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Byram, M. et al. (2001) Developing Intercultural Competence in Practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Canale, M and Swain, M. (1980) ‘Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing’. Applied Linguistics, (1), 1.

    Canning, J. (2009) ‘A skill or discipline? An examination of employability and the study of modern foreign languages.’ In: Journal of Employability and the Humanities. 3, 1-12.

    Carr, W. (1995) ‘Education and Democracy: confronting the post-modern challenge’. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 29 (1), pp. 75-91.

    Clark, R. (1992) ‘Principles and practice of CLA in the classroom’. In: Fairclough, N. (ed), Critical Language Awareness, London and New York: Longman, 1992, pp. 134-137.

    Cohen, L. and Manion, L. (1985) Research Methods in Education (2nd ed.). Hampshire USA: Croom Helm.

    Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2007) Research Methods in Education. London and New York: Routledge.

    Coleman, J.A. (1996) Studying Languages: A survey of British and European students. Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

    Cook, G. (1989) Discourse Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Cooke, M. and Wallace, C. with Shrubshall, P. (2004) ‘Inside Out/Outside In: a study of reading in ESOL classrooms’. In: Celia Roberts et al (eds) Research Report: English for Speakers of Other Languages – case studies of provision, learners’ needs, and resourses. National Research and Development Centre for adult literacy and numeracy.

    Cope, B. And Kalantzis (1993) ‘Introduction’. In B. Cope and M. Kalantzis (eds) The Powers of Literacy: A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing, London and Washington, D.C.: The Falmer Press.

    Cope, B. and Kalantzis, M. (1993) ‘Histories of Pedagogy, Cultures of Schooling’ In: The Powers of Literacy: A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing (eds), B. Cope and M. Kalantzis, London and Washington D.C.: The Falmer Press. pp. 41-45.

    Council of Europe (2001) Common European framework of reference for languages: learning, teaching and assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Cummins, J. (1979) ‘Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the Optimal Age Question and some other matters’. Working Papers on Bilingualism 19, pp. 121-129.

    De Leeuw, E. et al. Contact! Nederlands voor andertaligen. Amsterdam: Intertaal.

    Dearing, D. (chairman) (1997) ‘Higher Education in the learning society’. The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education.

    Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1988) A Thousand Plateaus. London: Athlone.

    Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (eds) (1994) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Devos, R. et al. (2009a) Vanzelfsprekend. Leuven, Den Haag: Acco.

    Devos, R. et al. (2009b) Nederlands voor anderstaligen: van theorie naar praktijk. Leuven, Den Haag: Acco.

    Eagleton, T. (1984) The function of criticism. London: Verso.

    Eagleton, T. (2000) The Idea of Culture Malden, Oxford, Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.

    Emig, J. (1983) ‘The Relation of Thought and Language Implicit in Some Early American Rhetoric and Composition Texts’. In J. Emig (ed) The Web of Meaning: essays on writing, teaching, learning and thinking. Upper Montclair, N.J.: Boynton/Cook Publishers Inc.

    Fairclough, N. (1989) Language and Power. London: Longman.

    Fairclough, N. (1992) Critical Language Awareness. London and New York: Longman.

    Fairclough, N. and Wodak, R. (1996) Critical Discourse Analysis. In T. van Dijk (Ed.) Discourse analysis. London: Sage.

    Fenoulhet, J. (2007) Making the Personal Political: Dutch Women Writers 1919 – 1970 London: Legenda, Modern Humanities Research Association and Maney Publishing.

    Fenoulhet, J. and Ros i Solé, C. (2010) Mobility and Localisation in Language Learning. Oxford: Peter Lang.

    Foucault, M. (1965) Madness and Civilization: a history of insanity in the age of reason. New York: Random House.

    Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum (M.B. Ramos, trans).

    Gee, J.P. (2009, 1990) Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses (3rd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.

    Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures New York: Basic Books.

    Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.

    Giroux, H.A. (1992) Border Crossings: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. New York: Routledge.

    Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from Prison Notebooks. Edited and translated by Hoare, Q. and Nowell Smith, G. London: Lawrence and Wishart.

    Grice, H.P. (1975) ‘Logic and Conversation’ In: P. Cole and J.L. Morgan (eds) Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts, New York: Academic Press.

    Guilherme, M. (2002) Critical Citizens for an Intercultural World. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Gumperz, J.J. et al. (1979) Crosstalk: a study of crosscultural communication. Southall: NCILT.

    Gumperz, J.J. (1982) Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Habermas, J. (1984) The Theory of Communicative Action: Reason and the Rationalisation of Society (Vol. 1). London: Heinemann.

    Hall, E.T. (1956) The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday.

    Hall, S., (1983) ‘The problem of ideology – Marxism without guarantees’ In: B. Matthews (ed), Marx 100 years on. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

    Hall, S. (1985) ‘The rediscovery of ‘ideology’: return of the repressed in media studies’. In: V. Beechey and J. Donald (eds), Subjectivity and Social Relations, Milton Keynes and Philadelpia: Open University Press. p. 46.

    Hall, S. (1996) ‘Who Needs Identity?’ In S. Hall and P. Du Gay (eds) Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage, pp. 1-17.

    Hall, S. (1997) ‘Cultural Revolutions’, a dialogue between Martin Jacques and Stuart Hall. In: New Statesman, 5 December 1997, pp. 24-26.

    Hall, S. (2001) ‘Foucault: Power, Knowledge and Discourse’. In Wetherell, M., Taylor, S. and Yates, S.J. (eds) Discourse Theory and Practice. London: Sage.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (1978) Language as a social semiotic, London: Edward Arnold.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (1985, 1989) In: Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan (eds) Language, context, and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold.

    Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (1983, 1995) Ethnography: principles in practice (2nd ed.). London and New York: Routledge.

    Hannerz, U. (1999) ‘Reflections of Varieties of Culturespeak’, European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2:3 pp. 393-407.

    Hawkins E. (1984) Awareness of Language: an introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    HEFCE (1995-96) Quality Assessment of French 1995-96 Subject Overview report QO 2/96 (1995-96) Quality Assessment of German and Related languages 1995-96 Subject Overview Report QO 3/96.

    Herder, J. G. (1952 (1782-91)) Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menscheit. In: Zur Philosophie der Geschichte. Eine Auswahl in zwei Bänden. Berlin: Aufbau Verlag.

    Hermans, Theo (2007) The Conference of the Tongues. Manchester and Kinderhook (NY): St. Jerome Publishing.

    Hofstede, G. (1994) Cultures and Organizations. London: Harper Collins Publishers.

    Hofstede, G. personal website:

    Hoggart, R. (1995) The way we live now. London: Pimlico.

    Holliday, A. et al. (2004) Intercultural Communication: an Advanced Resource Book. London, New York: Routledge.

    Holliday, A. (2007) Doing and Writing Qualitative Research (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

    Holliday, A. (2010) ‘Complexity in cultural identity’. In: Language and Intercultural Communication. 10, 2.

    Holquist, M. (1990) Dialogism: Bakhtin and his world. London and New York: Routledge.

    Huntington, S. (1998) The Clash of Civilizations: The Remaking of the World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Hymes, D. H. (1972) ‘On Communicative Competence’. In J.B. Pride and J. Holmes (eds) Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

    Hymes, D. (1967) ‘Models of the interaction of language and social setting’ In: Journal of Social Issues, 23, pp. 8-28.

    Hymes, D. (1996) Ethnography, linguistics, narrative inequality: Toward understanding of voice. London: Taylor & Francis.

    Inglis, F. (1992) Relativism and Canonicality: culture and socialism Language and Education, 6 (2, 3 & 4), pp. 219-229.

    Inglis, F. (1995) Raymond Williams, London and New York: Routledge, paperback edition 1998.

    Jonathan, R. (1995) Liberal Philosophy of Education: a paradigm under strain Journal of Philosophy of Education Vol. 29:1, pp. 75-91.

    King, L. (1998) Language Learning Futures: the way ahead. Conference: Language Learning Futures in the University Sector, CILT and SCML, Leeds Metropolitan University.

    Kramsch, C. (1993) Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Kramsch, C. (1998) Language and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Kramsch, C. (2002) ‘Review article: In search of the intercultural’. In Journal of Sociolinguistics, 6:3, pp. 275-285.

    Kramsch, C. (2009) The Multilingual Subject. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Kress, G. (1985) Linguistic processes in sociocultural practice. Victoria: Deakin University.

    Kress, G. (1994) ‘Against arbitrariness: the social production of the sign as a foundational issue in critical discourse analysis’. In: Discourse and society, Sage,Vol/2, pp. 169-191.

    Kress, G. and Hodge, R. (1979) Language and Ideology. London: Routledge.

    Kristeva, J. (1986, 1966) ‘Word, Dialogue and Novel’. In Toril Moi (ed) The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia Univeristy Press.

    Kumaravadivelu, B. (2007) Cultural Globalisation and Language Education. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

    Lancashire University, The intercultural language project. Available online at: [Last accessed: October, 2013].

    Lantolf, J. P. (1997) Lecture on ‘Second Culture Acquisition: Cognitive Considerations’. Institute of Education, University of London.

    Law, J. (2004) After Method: Mess in Social Science Research. London: Routledge.

    Lucy, J. (1996) The scope of linguistic relativity: an analysis and review of empirical research. In Gumperz and Levinson (eds). Rethinking linguistic relativity. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37-69.

    Luke, A. et al. (2001) ‘Making community texts objects of study.’ In: H. Fehring and P. Green (eds) Critical Literacy. Delaware: International Reading Association.

    Malinowski, B. (1923) ‘The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages.’ In: C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards (eds) The Meaning of Meaning. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World Inc. pp. 296-336.

    Maybin, J. (2001) ‘Language, Struggle and Voice’. In: M. Wetherell et al. (eds) Discourse Theory and Practice. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage.

    Meijer, M. (1996) In tekst gevat. Inleiding tot een kritiek van representatie. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    Michael, L. (2002) Reformulating the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Discourse, Interaction, and Distributed Cognition. In: Texas Linguistic Forum 45, pp. 107-116. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Symposium about Language and Society, Austin.

    Morgan, C. and Cain, A. (2000) Foreign Language and Culture Learning from a Dialogic Perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Neuner, G. (1997) The role of sociocultural competence in foreign langauge teaching and learning. In: M. Byram, G. Zarate and G. Neuner (eds) Sociocultural competence in language learning and teaching. Strasbourg; Council of Europe Publishing.

    O’Regan, J. (2006) The Text as a Critical Object: On Theorising Exegetic Procedure in Classroom-Based Critical Discourse Analysis. Institute of Education, London. (Unpublished dissertation).

    Pennycook, A. (1994) ‘Incommensurable Discourses?’. Applied Linguistics Vol. 15-2, pp. 119-138.

    Pennycook, A. (2001) Critical applied linguistics: a critical introduction. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

    Phipps, A. (2007) Learning the Arts of Linguistic Survival. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

    Phipps, A. and Gonzalez, M. (2004) Modern Languages: Learning and Teaching in an Intercultural Field. London: Sage.

    Phipps, A. and Guilherme, M. (2004) Critical Pedagogy: Political Approaches to Language and Intercultural Communication. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Pinto, D. (1990) Interculturele communicatie: drie-stappenmethode voor het overbruggen en managen van cultuurverschillen. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.

    Quist, G. et al. (2006) Intensive Dutch course. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.

    Quist, G. (2013) ‘Cosmopolitan Imaginings: creativity and responsibility in the language classroom’. In: J. Fenoulhet and C. Ros i Solé (guest eds), Language and Intercultural Communication, 13 (3), pp. 330-342.

    Rampton, B. (1995) Crossing: language and ethnicity among adolescents. London: Longman.

    Reddy, D.S. (2009) ‘The Predicaments of Ethnography in Collaboration.’ In: Faubion, J.D. and Marcus, G.E. (eds) Fieldwork is not what it used to be. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

    Risager, K. (2006) Language and Culture: Global Flows and Local Complexity. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Risager, K. (2007) Language and Culture Pedagogy: From a national to a Transnational Paradigm. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Roberts, C. et al. (2001) Language Learners as Ethnographers. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

    Robbins Committee of Higher Education (1963) Higher Education Report of the Committee appointed by the Prime Minister under the Chairmanship of Lord Robbins 1961-1963. London: HMSO.

    Ros i Solé, C. and Fenoulhet, J. (2013) ‘Introduction: Romanticising language learning: beyond instrumentalism’. In: J. Fenoulhet and C. Ros i Solé (guest eds), Language and Intercultural Communication, 13 (3), pp. 257-265.

    Ros i Solé, C. (2013) ‘Cosmopolitan speakers and the new cultural order’. In: The Language Learning Journal, 41, 3.

    Rossum, M. and Vismans, R. (2006) ‘Trading culture, teaching culture: the role of the Dutch language tutor in the acquisition of intercultural skills at beginner’s level’. Dutch Crossing. A journal of Low Countries Studies. 30-1 pp. 143-174.

    Saussure, F. (1973) Extract from ‘Course in General Linguistics’, reprinted in: Readings for Applied Linguistics: The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics Volume 1, Allen, J.P.B. and Pit Corder, S (eds), Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 11.

    Scott, D. et al. (1992) Language Teaching in Higher Education. Coventry: University of Warwick, Centre for Educational Development, Appraisal and Research (CEDAR reports 8).

    Searle, J.R. (1969) Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Sercu, L. et al. (2005) Foreign Language Teachers and Intercultural Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Shafak, E. (2011) The Happiness of Blond People: A Personal Meditation on the Dangers of Identity. (Penguin Special). ePub eBook.

    Shannon, C. and Weaver, W. (1949) A Mathematical Model of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

    Shetter W. (2002) The Netherlands. The Dutch way of organising a society and its setting (2nd ed.). Utrecht: Nederlands Centrum Buitenlanders.

    Snoek, K. (2000) Nederland leren kennen (3rd ed.). Groningen: Noordhoff Uitgevers B.V.

    Starkey, H. (1999) Foreign language teaching to adults: Implicit and explicit political education. Oxford Review of Education, 25 (1-2).

    Starkey, H. (2010) ‘Language Learning for Human Rights and Democratic Citizenship’. In J. Fenoulhet and C. Ros i Solé (eds) Mobility and Localisation in Language Learning. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Steehouder, M. et al. (1979, 2006) Leren communiceren. 5e druk Groningen: Noordhoff Uitgevers.

    Stougaard-Nielsen, J. (2010) ‘Danishness, Cosmopolitanism and Democratic Citizenship in Danish Language-Learning Materials’. In: J. Fenoulhet and C. Ros i Solé (eds) Mobility and Localisation in Language Learning. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Street, B.V. (1993) ‘Culture is a Verb: Anthropological Aspects of language and cultural process.’ In: Language and Culture, Graddol, D., Thompson, L., Byram, M. (eds), Clevedon: BAAL and Multilingual Matters, pp. 23-43.

    Trim, J.L.M. (1997) Preface Byram, M. and Zarate, G. Sociocultural competence in language learning and teaching. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

    Turner, G. (1992) British Cultural Studies: an introduction. London and New York: Routledge, (first published in 1990 by Unwin Hyman Inc.).

    Van Baalen, C. (2003) ‘Crosscultureel taalonderwijs’. In: Van Baalen et al. Cultuur in taal. Utrecht: Nederlands Centrum Buitenlanders.

    Van den Toorn-Schutte, J. (1997) ‘Hoe maakt u het? De Nederlandse taal in haar culturele context.’ Baarn: Auctor.

    Van Dijk, T.A. (1993) ‘Principles of critical discourse analysis’, Discourse and Society, vol. 4, pp. 249-283.

    Van Ek, J.A. (1977) The Threshold Level for Modern Language Learning in Schools (with contributions by L.G. Alexander). Harlow: Longman [for the] Council of Europe.

    Van Ek, J.A. and Trim J.L.M. (1991) Threshold level 1990; a revised and extended version of the Threshold Level by J.A. Van Ek. Strassbourg: Council of Europe Press.

    Van Kalsbeek, A. (2003) ‘Taal en cultuur of cultuur en taal? In: Van Baalen et al. Cultuur in taal. Utrecht: Nederlands Centrum Buitenlanders.

    Verluyten, P. (2000) Intercultural Communication in Business and Organisations. Leuven: Acco.

    Vertovec, S. (2009) Transnationalism. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Verwoert, J. (2006) Bas Jan Ader: In Search of the Miraculous. Afterall Books.

    Vološinov, V.N. (1973, 1996) Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: Harvard University Press, 6th printing.

    Wallace, C. (1992) ‘Critical Literacy Awareness in the EFL classroom’, In: Fairclough, N. (ed.) Critical Language Awareness. Harlow: Longman Group UK Limited, 59-93.

    Wallace, C. (2003) Critical Reading in Language Education. Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

    Wells, G. (1991) ‘Apprenticeship in literacy’. In: C. Walsh (ed) Literacy as Praxis: Culture, Language and Pedagogy. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.

    Wenger, E. (1999) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Wetherell, M. (2001) ‘Culture and Social Relations: Editor’s Introduction.’ In: Wetherell, M., Taylor, S. and Yates, S.J. (eds) Discourse Theory and Practice. London: Sage.

    White, C., and Boucke, L. (2006) The Undutchables: an observation of the Netherlands, its culture and its inhabitants (5th ed.).White-Boucke Publishing.

    Whorf, B.J. (1966) ‘Science and Linguistics’ In: J.B. Carroll (ed) Language, Thought and Reality: selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1956, second paperback printing.

    Widdowson, H.G. (1979) Explorations in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: OUP.

    Widdowson, H, (1983) ‘New starts and different kinds of failures’. In: Freeman, A., Pringle, I., and Yalden, J. (eds) Learning to Write: First Language/Second Language. London and New York: Longman.

    Wierzbicka, A. (1997) Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Wilkins, D. 1976 Notional syllabuses. Oxford: OUP.

    Willems, G.M. (1994) ‘FL Conversational Skills in Tertiary Education: a sociocultural and autonomous approach’. In: Language, Culture and Curriculum, 7 (3).

    Williams, R. (1961) The Long Revolution. London: Chatto & Windus.

    Williams, R. (1976, 1983) Keywords - A vocabulary of culture and society. London: Fontana Press, Harper Collins Publishers.

    Worton, M. (2009) Review of Modern Foreign Languages in higher education in England. Higher Education Funding Council for England.

    Wright, S. (1998) ‘The Politicization of Culture’. In Anthropology Today. 14(1), pp. 7-15.


    Hanssen, H.(1999) ‘Huwbare mannen gezocht’. In: Men’s Health, (2) 6, pp. 46-50

    Wytzes. L. (1999) ‘De man als dinosaurus’. De Volkskrant. 23-10-1999

    • Was this article helpful?