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3: Infancy and Toddlerhood

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    • 3.1: Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
      Overview of overall physical growth and physical brain development in the first two years of life.
    • 3.2: Infant Sleep
      Typical infant and toddler sleeping patterns. Health concerns associated with infant sleep, including Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and its subcategories.
    • 3.3: From Reflexes to Voluntary Movements
      Overview of newborn reflexes, or involuntary movements in response to stimulation, and the process by which these reflexes gradually translation to voluntary movements.
    • 3.4: Sensory Capabilities
      Investigation of newborn sensory capabilities and how they develop. How infants are tested for their perceptual skills.
    • 3.5: Nutrition
      Discussion of infant nutrition, including a comparison of breastfeeding and formula-feeding, the process for introducing solid foods, and global concerns of infant malnutrition.
    • 3.6: Piaget and the Sensorimotor Stage
      Piaget's system of infant and toddler cognitive development, including the concepts of schema, assimilation and accommodation, and the six substages of sensorimotor intelligence.
    • 3.7: Infant Memory
      Discussion of proposed hypotheses for why older children and adults experience infantile amnesia, the inability to recall memories from the first few years of life, and experiments undertaken to determine the memory capabilities of infants.
    • 3.8: Language
      Explanation of the basic components of language. Overview of the progression of language development in young children. Various psychological theories of language development, including various biological theories, learning theory, and social pragmatics.
    • 3.9: Psychosociological Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
      Exploring the concepts of temperament vs. personality in children, bidirectionality of parenting, and the development process of infant emotions and sense of self.
    • 3.10: Forming Attachments
      Theories for how infants form attachments, or close bonds with a caregiver from which the infant derives a sense of security. Classifications of attachment styles and possible issues with forming attachments.
    • 3.11: Measuring Infant Development
      How young children, including nonverbal ones, can be comprehensively assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III).
    • 3.C: COVID-19 Impact on Infancy and Toddlerhood
      Impacts of COVID-19 on the infant and toddler age group, including declining birth rate and the limitations in language development caused by widespread mask usage.
    • 3.R: Infancy and Toddlerhood (References)

    This page titled 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.