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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    “527 committees” Advocacy groups that can receive and spend unlimited amounts of money in elections as long as they do not coordinate with candidates’ campaign organizations or political parties in support of or opposition to a candidate.        
    “came out of the closet” Gay or lesbian individuals who, having previously denied or concealed their sexual orientation, now publicly announce it.        
    “Checkers” speech A speech delivered by vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon during the 1952 presidential campaign. The speech was a defense against media reports that he had misused funds given to him by supporters.        
    “DIG” (dismiss as improvidently granted) To refuse to hear a case after initially accepting it. Supreme Court justices may change their minds about hearing a case without giving any reason.        
    “murder boards” Sessions in which nominees for the Supreme Court are coached by administration officials on how to respond successfully to tough questions from senators at their hearings.        
    “murder boards” Sessions in which nominees for the Supreme Court are coached by administration officials on how to respond successfully to tough questions from senators at their hearings.        
    “soft money” Funds contributed to political parties for get-out-the-vote drives, party-building activities, and issue advertising that was not subject to contribution or expenditure limitations as long as it was not used directly for candidate advertising.        
    “soft money” Funds contributed to political parties for get-out-the-vote drives, party-building activities, and issue advertising that was not subject to contribution or expenditure limitations as long as it was not used directly for candidate advertising.        
    “to bork,” To defeat a Supreme Court nominee by means of a lobbying and public relations campaign using and facilitated by the media.        
    access The opportunity to meet with and communicate with policymakers.        
    ad watches Media and academic efforts to analyze campaign ads and point out their inaccuracies.        
    adjudication Applying rules and precedents to individual cases in an adversarial setting with a defense and prosecution.        
    adjudication Applying rules and precedents to individual cases in an adversarial setting with a defense and prosecution.        
    administrative presidency Political scientist Richard Nathan’s term for the tactics presidents use with the bureaucracy to implement policy goals blocked by Congress.        
    affirmative action Efforts made or enforced by government to increase percentages of racial and ethnic minorities, and women, in higher education and the workplace.        
    agenda-setting The power of the media to tell the public what subjects and issues to think about.        
    agenda-setting The power of the media to tell the public what subjects and issues to think about.        
    Agents of socialization Individuals and institutions, including family, school, peer group, and mass media, responsible for imparting political orientations through the socialization process.        
    amendments Proposed changes to a bill.        
    American exceptionalism Conviction that America’s vast frontier offered boundless opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals.        
    American exceptionalism Conviction that America’s vast frontier offered boundless opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals.        
    Americans with Disabilities Act Legislation passed by the US Congress guaranteeing that no individual will be excluded from the benefits of any program or activity that received public funding because of a handicap.        
    amicus curiae brief Brief raising additional arguments, filed by a third party to a lawsuit.        
    Anti-Federalists The name applied to those who opposed ratification of the Constitution.        
    apolitical Above and beyond politics and partisanship.        
    apolitical Above and beyond politics and partisanship.        
    appropriations bills Bills that provide the funding for a department or agency program.        
    Article I of the Constitution The article that enumerates the powers of Congress.        
    attack dogs Journalists whose stories about government and politics are highly negative and focus on blunders and disasters, scandals and corruption.        
    attitudes Persistent, general orientations toward people, groups, or institutions.        
    battleground states States that are highly contested where either candidate could win in a presidential election.        
    beats Institutions, organizations, and subjects that a reporter is assigned to cover regularly.        
    Beliefs Ideas that are considered to be true by a society.        
    benevolent leader A concept in which young children consider the president to be a personal friend who will do good things for the nation.        
    Bennington College Longitudinal study of women who attended Bennington College during the Great Depression of the 1930s and were politically socialized by their teachers and student colleagues.        
    bicameral legislature Congress consists of two bodies: (1) the House of Representatives whose membership is based on proportional representation and (2) the Senate, whose membership is based on equal representation.        
    bicameralism The practice of having two separate chambers within the legislature; in the Constitution, this means that Congress is made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate.        
    Bill of Rights Constitutional sections guaranteeing specific liberties from infringement by the new government; more precisely, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, passed by Congress in 1789 and ratified by 1791 to fulfill the Federalists’ campaign promise during the state conventions ratifying the Constitution.        
    Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) Also known as McCain-Feingold, this federal law placed limitations on soft-money contributions by political committees and prohibited corporations and labor unions from advocating for or against a candidate via broadcast, cable or satellite prior to presidential primaries and the general election.        
    Blogs Online diaries whose authors post information, including ideas and opinions.        
    bowl alone The idea, put forward by political scientist Robert Putnam, that television is making Americans a nation of watchers rather than doers.        
    budget A statement of the president’s policy goals and priorities for the next fiscal year. It consists of receipts and expenditures.        
    bureaucracy An organization marked by hierarchical division of labor, internal specialization, and adherence to fixed rules.        
    C-SPAN The cable network that provides gavel-to-gavel coverage of congressional floor proceedings, committee hearings, and special events.        
    C-SPAN The cable network that provides gavel-to-gavel coverage of congressional floor proceedings, committee hearings, and special events.        
    cabinet The group of advisors to presidents made up of the secretaries of departments (e.g., secretary of defense) and the heads of agencies given cabinet-level status by the president.        
    cabinet departments The major administrative units responsible for specified broad areas of government operations, headed by a cabinet secretary appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.        
    Candidate image Those aspects of a candidate’s background, experience, and personal qualities that are presented to the public in order to influence people’s voting decisions.        
    Candidate image Those aspects of a candidate’s background, experience, and personal qualities that are presented to the public in order to influence people’s voting decisions.        
    Candidate-centered minor parties A minor party formed around a candidate who is able to rally support based on her own message.        
    Candidate-centered minor parties A minor party formed around a candidate who is able to rally support based on her own message.        
    capitalism An economic system that emphasizes a free market, individual entrepreneurship, and limited government intervention in the economy and produces economic inequality.        
    Capitalist economic values Values that emphasize the need for a free-enterprise system, open business competition, private ownership of property, and limited government intervention in business affairs.        
    carpetbagger A politician who runs for office from an area where he or she has lived for only a short time and has few community ties; stems from a derogatory term coined after the Civil War referring to Northerners who went South to profit from the Reconstruction, carrying “carpet bags” for luggage.        
    categorical grants Grants through which states and localities spend national funds on programs to meet the precise purposes Congress specified.        
    caucuses Meetings held by party members to select candidates who will run for office.        
    Christian Right A loose coalition of evangelical Protestants who share common ideological beliefs, such as support for traditional marriage and a pro-life position on abortion.        
    civic duty The responsibility of a citizen to take part in community life.        
    civil disobedience Deliberate, nonviolent violation of laws that people consider to be unjust, committed in order to draw attention to a cause.        
    Civil liberties The rights and freedoms of individuals that government may not infringe on, mostly listed in the Bill of Rights.        
    Civil Rights Act of 1964 Legislation passed by the US Congress with the goal of guaranteeing African Americans equal rights under the law.        
    civil rights movement A social movement begun in the 1950s to combat discrimination against African Americans.        
    civil service The administrative civilian workforce employed by the federal government.        
    civil unions Alternative to same-sex marriage, whereby a state does not allow same-sex couples to legally marry but allows them to apply for legal recognition of their relationship; this gives them the rights and privileges of marriage in that state.        
    Civil War Amendments The three amendments added to the Constitution (Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth) after the Civil War to establish the legal status and rights of the newly freed slaves.        
    cloture A motion to limit consideration of a bill and close debate.        
    CNN Effect Media depictions of events abroad that encourage or compel US policymakers to intervene by sending aid or even troops.        
    Cold War The rivalry and consequent arms race between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies, which lasted from the end of World War II until the late 1980s.        
    collective action Cooperative activities by groups in pursuit of a common goal.        
    commerce clause The section in the Constitution that gives Congress the power to “regulate Commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes.”        
    Committee of the Whole The entire House when it meets to consider a bill.        
    Communication The process of transmitting or exchanging information. It can involve asserting, arguing, debating, deliberating, contacting, pressuring, appealing to, cajoling, and addressing.        
    competitive federalism An approach to federalism that stresses the conflict and compromise between national, state, and local governments.        
    concurrent powers Powers that the Constitution specifies that either national or state governments may exercise.        
    confederation A political system in which a government acts as a unit superior to the states but is dependent on their consent.        
    conference committee A committee that works out differences between House and Senate versions of a bill.        
    Congressional Budget Office Provides expert budgetary advice to Congress.        
    congressional oversight The process by which Congress monitors the activities of government agencies.        
    Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise) The solution worked out by delegates from Connecticut to create a bicameral legislature, with one chamber (the Senate) representing states, and the other (the House of Representatives) representing the people in districts of equal population size.        
    constituent service Members of Congress help people in their home districts deal with problems and negotiate government bureaucracy.        
    constituent service Members of Congress help people in their home districts deal with problems and negotiate government bureaucracy.        
    constitution A system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribe the structure and functions of the government.        
    constitution A system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribe the structure and functions of the government.        
    Constitutional Convention The gathering of delegates from twelve of the thirteen states who met in Philadelphia from June to September of 1787; originally authorized by the Continental Congress to consider amendments to the Articles of Confederation, they ultimately drafted the Constitution that replaced it.        
    containment The US policy of vigilance and alliances to prevent the spread of Communism.        
    containment The US policy of vigilance and alliances to prevent the spread of Communism.        
    convenience sample Respondents to unscientific polls who are self-selected.        
    convenience sample Respondents to unscientific polls who are self-selected.        
    convention delegates Party regulars who attend the national nominating conventions and choose the presidential nominee.        
    convention delegates Party regulars who attend the national nominating conventions and choose the presidential nominee.        
    critical elections An election where a minority party becomes the majority party following electoral victory and remains dominant for an extended period of time.        
    critical elections An election where a minority party becomes the majority party following electoral victory and remains dominant for an extended period of time.        
    cross endorsement The minor party practice of backing candidates who appear on a ballot under more than one party label.        
    cross endorsement The minor party practice of backing candidates who appear on a ballot under more than one party label.        
    Daisy Ad A famous ad, produced by Democratic presidential candidate Lyndon Johnson’ s campaign against Republican Barry Goldwater in 1964, that appealed to voters’ fear of a nuclear attack.        
    Daisy Ad A famous ad, produced by Democratic presidential candidate Lyndon Johnson’ s campaign against Republican Barry Goldwater in 1964, that appealed to voters’ fear of a nuclear attack.        
    de facto segregation Separation of the races that occurs by social practice.        
    de facto segregation Separation of the races that occurs by social practice.        
    dealignment A decline in party strength that occurs when party loyalty decreases and voters base their decisions on short-term, election-specific factors.        
    dealignment A decline in party strength that occurs when party loyalty decreases and voters base their decisions on short-term, election-specific factors.        
    Debates Formal meetings between candidates running for office, typically moderated by an impartial party, that allow candidates discuss issues and policy positions.        
    Debates Formal meetings between candidates running for office, typically moderated by an impartial party, that allow candidates discuss issues and policy positions.        
    Declaration of Independence The document drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Continental Congress in revised form in 1776, which declared the independence of the thirteen colonies from Britain.        
    Declaration of Independence The document drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Continental Congress in revised form in 1776, which declared the independence of the thirteen colonies from Britain.        
    delegated powers Presidential prerogatives accorded by legislation, where Congress gives authority under the powers given to it by the Constitution.        
    delegated powers Presidential prerogatives accorded by legislation, where Congress gives authority under the powers given to it by the Constitution.        
    Deliberative polling A technique that brings people together to discuss issues with experts and other citizens in order to arrive at more informed opinions.        
    Deliberative polling A technique that brings people together to discuss issues with experts and other citizens in order to arrive at more informed opinions.        
    détente US policy of cooperating with the Soviet Union within the context of continuing competition and conflict.        
    détente US policy of cooperating with the Soviet Union within the context of continuing competition and conflict.        
    deterrence The assumption that US possession of nuclear weapons would hold the Soviet Union in check by threatening it with destruction should it engage in nuclear aggression.        
    deterrence The assumption that US possession of nuclear weapons would hold the Soviet Union in check by threatening it with destruction should it engage in nuclear aggression.        
    Digital polls Polls administered through Internet platforms and smartphones that run the gamut from sophisticated surveys to quick polls.        
    Digital polls Polls administered through Internet platforms and smartphones that run the gamut from sophisticated surveys to quick polls.        
    disadvantaged groups Those who historically have had little or no economic, social, and political power and who have been singled out for discriminatory treatment in politics and society.        
    discretionary spending Government funds expended for education, law enforcement, energy programs, and the like.        
    discretionary spending Government funds expended for education, law enforcement, energy programs, and the like.        
    dissenting opinion Decision by one or more Supreme Court justice that disagrees with the majority decision.        
    dissenting opinion Decision by one or more Supreme Court justice that disagrees with the majority decision.        
    divided government A situation, increasingly common in recent years, where the presidency and at least one chamber of Congress are controlled by different parties.        
    divided government A situation, increasingly common in recent years, where the presidency and at least one chamber of Congress are controlled by different parties.        
    Divided government A situation in which the chief executive is of a different political party from the majority in the legislature.        
    Divided government A situation in which the chief executive is of a different political party from the majority in the legislature.        
    double jeopardy The practice of putting someone on trial a second time for a crime after their acquittal; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment.        
    double jeopardy The practice of putting someone on trial a second time for a crime after their acquittal; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment.        
    due process clause Section of the Fifth Amendment that prohibits the federal government from depriving individuals of “life, liberty or property without due process of law.”        
    due process clause Section of the Fifth Amendment that prohibits the federal government from depriving individuals of “life, liberty or property without due process of law.”        
    echo chamber The idea that people pay attention to media that conforms to their ideological views to the exclusion of media that offer alternative perspectives.        
    echo chamber The idea that people pay attention to media that conforms to their ideological views to the exclusion of media that offer alternative perspectives.        
    Egalitarianism Doctrine emphasizing the natural equality of people in society.        
    Egalitarianism Doctrine emphasizing the natural equality of people in society.        
    elastic clause The constitutional provision that Congress shall make all laws that are “necessary and proper” for executing their powers, which has been used to expand its authority; also known as the “necessary and proper” clause.        
    elastic clause The constitutional provision that Congress shall make all laws that are “necessary and proper” for executing their powers, which has been used to expand its authority; also known as the “necessary and proper” clause.        
    Electoral College The body of electors chosen by states to select the president and vice president of the United States.        
    Electoral College The body of electors chosen by states to select the president and vice president of the United States.        
    Electoral College The 538 electors who choose the president and vice president by majority vote.        
    Electoral College The 538 electors who choose the president and vice president by majority vote.        
    embedded The Defense Department’s innovation of placing reporters with military units during the Iraq War.        
    embedded The Defense Department’s innovation of placing reporters with military units during the Iraq War.        
    eminent domain Government’s power to take private land for public use.        
    eminent domain Government’s power to take private land for public use.        
    enduring minor party A minor party that has existed for a long time and regularly runs candidates for office.        
    enduring minor party A minor party that has existed for a long time and regularly runs candidates for office.        
    equal protection clause The section of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution that requires states to ensure “equal protection of the laws” to all individuals.        
    equal protection clause The section of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution that requires states to ensure “equal protection of the laws” to all individuals.        
    Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Failed attempt to amend the Constitution to mandate equal treatment of women and men.        
    Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Failed attempt to amend the Constitution to mandate equal treatment of women and men.        
    equality of opportunity The right of each individual to the same chance to get ahead in society.        
    equality of opportunity The right of each individual to the same chance to get ahead in society.        
    establishment clause Section of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from recognizing an official religion.        
    establishment clause Section of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from recognizing an official religion.        
    ex post facto laws Laws prohibited by the Constitution that retroactively make a legal act a crime.        
    ex post facto laws Laws prohibited by the Constitution that retroactively make a legal act a crime.        
    exclusionary rule Judicial rule applied to federal and state courts that prohibits the use of evidence in trial when it is not legally obtained.        
    exclusionary rule Judicial rule applied to federal and state courts that prohibits the use of evidence in trial when it is not legally obtained.        
    exclusive powers Powers that the Constitution grants to the national or state governments and prevents the other level from exercising.        
    exclusive powers Powers that the Constitution grants to the national or state governments and prevents the other level from exercising.        
    executive agreements Agreements that the president enters into with other states; unlike treaties, they do not require the consent of the Senate before becoming law.        
    executive agreements Agreements that the president enters into with other states; unlike treaties, they do not require the consent of the Senate before becoming law.        
    executive communication A message from the president, a Cabinet member, or an agency head to the Speaker of the House or president of the Senate recommending that Congress address a policy or budgetary issue.        
    executive communication A message from the president, a Cabinet member, or an agency head to the Speaker of the House or president of the Senate recommending that Congress address a policy or budgetary issue.        
    Executive Office of the President (EOP) An umbrella organization started in 1939 by Franklin D. Roosevelt for various presidential staff agencies, many established by law.        
    Executive Office of the President (EOP) An umbrella organization started in 1939 by Franklin D. Roosevelt for various presidential staff agencies, many established by law.        
    executive orders Directives to administrators in the executive branch on how to implement legislation already enacted; courts treat them as having the status of law, but they may be superseded by congressional legislation.        
    executive orders Directives to administrators in the executive branch on how to implement legislation already enacted; courts treat them as having the status of law, but they may be superseded by congressional legislation.        
    Exit polls Face-to-face interviews with voters taken as they leave the voting booth to determine their candidate preference in the election and their positions on issues.        
    Exit polls Face-to-face interviews with voters taken as they leave the voting booth to determine their candidate preference in the election and their positions on issues.        
    factions James Madison’s term for groups that pursue their self-interest or individual preferences above the public good.        
    factions James Madison’s term for groups that pursue their self-interest or individual preferences above the public good.        
    federal bureaucracy That part of the executive branch outside the presidency that carries out laws and regulations.        
    Federal Elections Commission (FEC) The institution that oversees campaign finance, including campaign contributions and candidate expenditures.        
    Federal Elections Commission (FEC) The institution that oversees campaign finance, including campaign contributions and candidate expenditures.        
    Federal Register The government publication that prints all rules and decisions made by agencies.        
    Federal Register The government publication that prints all rules and decisions made by agencies.        
    Federal Reserve Board (the Fed) The body that supervises the US banking system and executes monetary policy.        
    Federal Reserve Board (the Fed) The body that supervises the US banking system and executes monetary policy.        
    Federalism The allocation of powers and responsibilities among national, state, and local governments and the intergovernmental relations between them.        
    Federalist No. 10 James Madison’s essay in the Federalist Papers that deals with the need to guard against the danger of factions whose interests might be at odds with those of the wider community.        
    Federalist No. 10 James Madison’s essay in the Federalist Papers that deals with the need to guard against the danger of factions whose interests might be at odds with those of the wider community.        
    Federalist papers A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, published in New York newspapers during the debate over the ratification of the Constitution; they are generally understood to offer the fullest logic behind the creation of the Constitution.        
    Federalist papers A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, published in New York newspapers during the debate over the ratification of the Constitution; they are generally understood to offer the fullest logic behind the creation of the Constitution.        
    feeding frenzy Often excessive coverage by the media of every aspect of a story.        
    feeding frenzy Often excessive coverage by the media of every aspect of a story.        
    fighting words Speech, not protected by the First Amendment, that provokes people to immediate attack or acts of violence.        
    fighting words Speech, not protected by the First Amendment, that provokes people to immediate attack or acts of violence.        
    Fiscal policy Government economic policy involving taxation and spending.        
    Fiscal policy Government economic policy involving taxation and spending.        
    Focus groups Facilitators convene a small group of subjects to engage in a structured discussion about a topic.        
    Focus groups Facilitators convene a small group of subjects to engage in a structured discussion about a topic.        
    folklore Legends and stories shared by a nation.        
    folklore Legends and stories shared by a nation.        
    framing The central idea or theme with which media personnel organize a story and thus give it a point of view.        
    framing The central idea or theme with which media personnel organize a story and thus give it a point of view.        
    franking privilege The ability of Congress members to post mail without cost.        
    franking privilege The ability of Congress members to post mail without cost.        
    free exercise clause Section of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from barring individuals from freely practicing religion.        
    free exercise clause Section of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from barring individuals from freely practicing religion.        
    front-load primaries Primaries that states hold early in the process in order to increase their influence over who secures the presidential nomination.        
    front-load primaries Primaries that states hold early in the process in order to increase their influence over who secures the presidential nomination.        
    gaggle The White House press secretary’s 9:30 a.m. meeting with reporters, neither formal nor public; an important “dry run” for the on-the-record afternoon briefing.        
    gaggle The White House press secretary’s 9:30 a.m. meeting with reporters, neither formal nor public; an important “dry run” for the on-the-record afternoon briefing.        
    gender gap The difference that exists between men’s and women’s political participation.        
    gender gap The difference that exists between men’s and women’s political participation.        
    general election An election, typically held after the political parties have chosen their nominees through caucuses or primaries, that decides who will hold an office, such as a congressional representative or president.        
    general election An election, typically held after the political parties have chosen their nominees through caucuses or primaries, that decides who will hold an office, such as a congressional representative or president.        
    gerrymander To draw congressional districts in such as way as to give one political party the advantage in electing its candidates.        
    gerrymander To draw congressional districts in such as way as to give one political party the advantage in electing its candidates.        
    going public Presidents give a major address to promote public approval of their decisions, advance their policy objectives, or to defend themselves against accusations.        
    going public Presidents give a major address to promote public approval of their decisions, advance their policy objectives, or to defend themselves against accusations.        
    government corporations Agencies that provide services for which they charge fees, usually under a government-granted monopoly, with the hope they will be fiscally self-sustaining.        
    government corporations Agencies that provide services for which they charge fees, usually under a government-granted monopoly, with the hope they will be fiscally self-sustaining.        
    Governments The institutions, offices, and individuals whose decisions are legitimate and thus enforceable on society.        
    grants-in-aid The national government’s provision of funds to states or localities to administer particular programs.        
    grants-in-aid The national government’s provision of funds to states or localities to administer particular programs.        
    grassroots lobbying A strategy pursued by interest groups to influence elected officials by having their constituents contact them.        
    grassroots lobbying A strategy pursued by interest groups to influence elected officials by having their constituents contact them.        
    Great Depression The period of high unemployment, severe decreases in business activity, and falling prices in the United States that started in 1929 and ended with the onset of World War II.        
    Great Depression The period of high unemployment, severe decreases in business activity, and falling prices in the United States that started in 1929 and ended with the onset of World War II.        
    hate crime An attack on a minority because of his or her race or sexual orientation, which sometimes results in death.        
    hate crime An attack on a minority because of his or her race or sexual orientation, which sometimes results in death.        
    Heroes People who, in theory, embody the best of what a country has to offer and thereby define a nation’s political culture.        
    Heroes People who, in theory, embody the best of what a country has to offer and thereby define a nation’s political culture.        
    Horse race coverage News-media election coverage that emphasizes who is winning and losing the race.        
    Horse race coverage News-media election coverage that emphasizes who is winning and losing the race.        
    House majority leader Second in the majority party hierarchy, the majority leader works with the Speaker of the House to set the legislative agenda, coordinate committee activity, and schedule legislation for consideration.        
    House majority leader Second in the majority party hierarchy, the majority leader works with the Speaker of the House to set the legislative agenda, coordinate committee activity, and schedule legislation for consideration.        
    House minority leader The head of the party with the fewest members in the House who conveys the minority party’s positions on issues and courts the press.        
    House minority leader The head of the party with the fewest members in the House who conveys the minority party’s positions on issues and courts the press.        
    Impeachment Congress’s power to remove executive officers and judges from office for “treason, bribery and high crimes and misdemeanors.”        
    Impeachment Congress’s power to remove executive officers and judges from office for “treason, bribery and high crimes and misdemeanors.”        
    implementation The process of applying general policies to specific cases in order to put legislation or rules into effect.        
    implementation The process of applying general policies to specific cases in order to put legislation or rules into effect.        
    implied powers Unlisted powers to the national government that are logical extensions from powers expressly enumerated in the Constitution.        
    implied powers Unlisted powers to the national government that are logical extensions from powers expressly enumerated in the Constitution.        
    impressionable years Period from late adolescence to early adulthood when people begin to think more seriously about politics and can take part in meaningful ways, such as by voting.        
    impressionable years Period from late adolescence to early adulthood when people begin to think more seriously about politics and can take part in meaningful ways, such as by voting.        
    incumbency advantage The advantage generally enjoyed by sitting members of the House of Representatives in getting reelected to office due to better organized campaigns, greater name recognition, more funding, and support from interest groups.        
    incumbency advantage The advantage generally enjoyed by sitting members of the House of Representatives in getting reelected to office due to better organized campaigns, greater name recognition, more funding, and support from interest groups.        
    independent executive agencies Agencies similar to cabinet departments but usually with smaller jurisdictions.        
    independent executive agencies Agencies similar to cabinet departments but usually with smaller jurisdictions.        
    individualism Principle emphasizing the centrality and dignity of the individual and her or his capacity for free action.        
    individualism Principle emphasizing the centrality and dignity of the individual and her or his capacity for free action.        
    indoctrination Process of instructing people to conform to particular doctrines, principles, and ideologies.        
    indoctrination Process of instructing people to conform to particular doctrines, principles, and ideologies.        
    inflation A rise in prices.        
    inflation A rise in prices.        
    information Facts, knowledge, and views that people communicate about subjects and events. It encompasses news, opinion and commentary, and the contents of entertainment.        
    information Facts, knowledge, and views that people communicate about subjects and events. It encompasses news, opinion and commentary, and the contents of entertainment.        
    inherent powers Presidential prerogatives claimed by presidents as implied by either the office of the president itself or the provisions of the Constitution.        
    inherent powers Presidential prerogatives claimed by presidents as implied by either the office of the president itself or the provisions of the Constitution.        
    initiative A process whereby voters propose and pass laws to amend the state constitution or place a proposal on an election ballot.        
    initiative A process whereby voters propose and pass laws to amend the state constitution or place a proposal on an election ballot.        
    insider strategies Tactics used by members to work behind the scenes in Congress to forge coalitions while avoiding press scrutiny.        
    insider strategies Tactics used by members to work behind the scenes in Congress to forge coalitions while avoiding press scrutiny.        
    Interest groups Organizations that, on behalf of an interest or ideal, try to influence politics and public policies.        
    Interest groups Organizations that, on behalf of an interest or ideal, try to influence politics and public policies.        
    intermediary institutions Institutions that have, largely informally, arisen to bridge the gap between the government and the people or the gaps among the three branches.        
    intermediary institutions Institutions that have, largely informally, arisen to bridge the gap between the government and the people or the gaps among the three branches.        
    Internationalism Belief that US national interests are best served by involvement with foreign countries.        
    Internationalism Belief that US national interests are best served by involvement with foreign countries.        
    investigative reporting Intensive research by journalists usually into subjects that those involved don’t want exposed.        
    investigative reporting Intensive research by journalists usually into subjects that those involved don’t want exposed.        
    iron triangles Congressional committees or subcommittees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups that together dominate policymaking in a policy area oftentimes with little visibility.        
    iron triangles Congressional committees or subcommittees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups that together dominate policymaking in a policy area oftentimes with little visibility.        
    Isolationism Belief that US national interests are best served by avoiding involvement with foreign countries.        
    Isolationism Belief that US national interests are best served by avoiding involvement with foreign countries.        
    issue advocacy Advertising campaigns that focus on legislative policies.        
    issue advocacy Advertising campaigns that focus on legislative policies.        
    issue publics People who focus on particular public policy debates and ignore other issues.        
    issue publics People who focus on particular public policy debates and ignore other issues.        
    Jefferson’s Manual The rule book developed by Vice President Thomas Jefferson in 1799 to help carry out his responsibilities as president of the Senate that also was adopted by the House.        
    Jefferson’s Manual The rule book developed by Vice President Thomas Jefferson in 1799 to help carry out his responsibilities as president of the Senate that also was adopted by the House.        
    judicial activism Judicial philosophy whereby judges are willing to substitute their policy views for the policy actions or inaction of the other branches of government.        
    judicial activism Judicial philosophy whereby judges are willing to substitute their policy views for the policy actions or inaction of the other branches of government.        
    judicial restraint Judicial philosophy whereby judges decide cases on the narrowest grounds possible by, for example, deferring to the legislature’s decisions.        
    judicial restraint Judicial philosophy whereby judges decide cases on the narrowest grounds possible by, for example, deferring to the legislature’s decisions.        
    judicial review The power of the Supreme Court to render acts of Congress or decisions of the executive null and void on the basis that they violate the Constitution.        
    judicial review The power of the Supreme Court to render acts of Congress or decisions of the executive null and void on the basis that they violate the Constitution.        
    judicial review The authority of the federal courts, especially the Supreme Court, to decide whether a state or federal law violates the US Constitution.        
    judicial review The authority of the federal courts, especially the Supreme Court, to decide whether a state or federal law violates the US Constitution.        
    Kennedy-Nixon debate The first-ever televised presidential debate between Vice President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy in 1960.        
    Kennedy-Nixon debate The first-ever televised presidential debate between Vice President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy in 1960.        
    lap dogs Journalists when the government’s perspective (overwhelmingly) dominates their news stories.        
    lap dogs Journalists when the government’s perspective (overwhelmingly) dominates their news stories.        
    latent interests Shared goals that an interest group can organize people to pursue.        
    latent interests Shared goals that an interest group can organize people to pursue.        
    law clerks Assistants to Supreme Court justices, selected to assist them in researching cases, deciding which ones to accept, and drafting opinions.        
    law clerks Assistants to Supreme Court justices, selected to assist them in researching cases, deciding which ones to accept, and drafting opinions.        
    Legislative campaign committees Party committees that finance and manage congressional elections.        
    Legislative campaign committees Party committees that finance and manage congressional elections.        
    legislative liaison Now called the Office of Legislative Affairs, an office consisting of presidential staffers whose job is to interact with and lobby members of Congress.        
    legislative liaison Now called the Office of Legislative Affairs, an office consisting of presidential staffers whose job is to interact with and lobby members of Congress.        
    Legislative parties The internal party organizations within each house of Congress.        
    Legislative parties The internal party organizations within each house of Congress.        
    legitimacy People’s acceptance of a political system and belief that the government’s decisions should (usually) be obeyed.        
    libel Defamatory publication unprotected by the First Amendment; to win a libel suit, public figures must demonstrate “actual malice” revealed by a “reckless disregard for the truth.”        
    libel Defamatory publication unprotected by the First Amendment; to win a libel suit, public figures must demonstrate “actual malice” revealed by a “reckless disregard for the truth.”        
    line of the day The issue or stance designated by the White House and sent to the remainder of the executive branch and to the media that day.        
    line of the day The issue or stance designated by the White House and sent to the remainder of the executive branch and to the media that day.        
    line-item veto The power, available to most state governors but not to the president, to reject parts of a bill.        
    line-item veto The power, available to most state governors but not to the president, to reject parts of a bill.        
    Live polls Polls that record people’s opinions about an event as it is unfolding; the results are depicted simultaneously with video of the event.        
    Live polls Polls that record people’s opinions about an event as it is unfolding; the results are depicted simultaneously with video of the event.        
    lobbying Activities that lobbyists perform, such as informing, persuading, and pressuring in order to influence policymakers to support a group’s interests.        
    lobbying Activities that lobbyists perform, such as informing, persuading, and pressuring in order to influence policymakers to support a group’s interests.        
    loose constructionism Judicial philosophy embodying the view that the Constitution requires interpretation to respond to changing public needs.        
    loose constructionism Judicial philosophy embodying the view that the Constitution requires interpretation to respond to changing public needs.        
    mandates Directives from the national government to state and local governments, either as orders or as conditions on the use of national funds.        
    mandates Directives from the national government to state and local governments, either as orders or as conditions on the use of national funds.        
    mark-up Process of revising a bill.        
    mark-up Process of revising a bill.        
    mashup A digital presentation that combines material from a variety of sources, such as voter-produced campaign videos that combine existing footage of candidates with original content.        
    mashup A digital presentation that combines material from a variety of sources, such as voter-produced campaign videos that combine existing footage of candidates with original content.        
    Mass media Well-established communication formats, such as newspapers and magazines, network television and radio stations, designed to reach large audiences.        
    Mass media Well-established communication formats, such as newspapers and magazines, network television and radio stations, designed to reach large audiences.        
    mass membership organizations Political parties that require people to pay dues to belong, which is not the case for American parties.        
    mass membership organizations Political parties that require people to pay dues to belong, which is not the case for American parties.        
    material incentives When people join a group for the goods and services it provides.        
    material incentives When people join a group for the goods and services it provides.        
    Medicaid Program that finances medical and long-term care for low-income and disabled adults and children.        
    Medicaid Program that finances medical and long-term care for low-income and disabled adults and children.        
    Medicare Federal program of medical benefits to those over sixty-five.        
    Medicare Federal program of medical benefits to those over sixty-five.        
    meetups and tweetups Meetings of voters during campaigns that are organized through social media.        
    meetups and tweetups Meetings of voters during campaigns that are organized through social media.        
    melting pot Metaphor used to describe how immigrants from many different backgrounds come together in the United States and that assumes that the distinct habits, customs, and traditions of particular groups disappear as their members assimilate into the larger culture.        
    melting pot Metaphor used to describe how immigrants from many different backgrounds come together in the United States and that assumes that the distinct habits, customs, and traditions of particular groups disappear as their members assimilate into the larger culture.        
    merit system The practice of classifying positions in the civil service according to technical standards and of naming civil servants to lifetime appointments based on tests or advanced training.        
    merit system The practice of classifying positions in the civil service according to technical standards and of naming civil servants to lifetime appointments based on tests or advanced training.        
    microtarget To use a marketing strategy in which potential political activists are identified and solicited on the basis of their demographic characteristics and consumer behavior.        
    microtarget To use a marketing strategy in which potential political activists are identified and solicited on the basis of their demographic characteristics and consumer behavior.        
    microtargeting Use of computers and mathematical models to identify people’s vote preferences based on a variety of factors ranging from their partisan preferences to their purchasing history.        
    microtargeting Use of computers and mathematical models to identify people’s vote preferences based on a variety of factors ranging from their partisan preferences to their purchasing history.        
    Midterm elections Elections held in nonpresidential election years that often are viewed as a referendum on the performance of the sitting president or the party controlling the House or Senate.        
    Midterm elections Elections held in nonpresidential election years that often are viewed as a referendum on the performance of the sitting president or the party controlling the House or Senate.        
    minor party Also known as a third party, it is an organization that is not affiliated with the Democrats or Republicans, contests in a limited number of elections, and does not receive large pluralities of votes.        
    minor party Also known as a third party, it is an organization that is not affiliated with the Democrats or Republicans, contests in a limited number of elections, and does not receive large pluralities of votes.        
    minority party The party in Congress holding a minority of the seats in the House or Senate; the minority party forms an organized opposition to the majority party.        
    minority party The party in Congress holding a minority of the seats in the House or Senate; the minority party forms an organized opposition to the majority party.        
    Miranda rights List of rights that the police must tell suspects if their confessions are to be admitted as evidence in court.        
    Miranda rights List of rights that the police must tell suspects if their confessions are to be admitted as evidence in court.        
    mobilize To encourage, even inspire, individuals to engage in political behavior and action.        
    mobilize To encourage, even inspire, individuals to engage in political behavior and action.        
    muckraking journalists Reporters in the late 1800s to early 1900s who employed an aggressive and dramatic style to expose corruption through newspaper exposés.        
    muckraking journalists Reporters in the late 1800s to early 1900s who employed an aggressive and dramatic style to expose corruption through newspaper exposés.        
    Multiculturalism An appreciation of the unique cultural heritage of racial and ethnic groups in the United States, some of whom seek to preserve their native languages and lifestyles.        
    Multiculturalism An appreciation of the unique cultural heritage of racial and ethnic groups in the United States, some of whom seek to preserve their native languages and lifestyles.        
    mutual assured destruction Deterrence by being able to absorb a nuclear attack and have enough nuclear weapons left over to inflict an unacceptable level of damage on the enemy.        
    mutual assured destruction Deterrence by being able to absorb a nuclear attack and have enough nuclear weapons left over to inflict an unacceptable level of damage on the enemy.        
    national nominating conventions Meetings held by political parties to formalize the selection of their candidates for president and vice president and to establish a party platform        
    national nominating conventions Meetings held by political parties to formalize the selection of their candidates for president and vice president and to establish a party platform        
    National party committees The central authority in the organizational hierarchy of American political parties.        
    National party committees The central authority in the organizational hierarchy of American political parties.        
    national party nominating convention A convention held by political parties to select their presidential candidate and develop the party’s platform.        
    national party nominating convention A convention held by political parties to select their presidential candidate and develop the party’s platform.        
    national security advisor Leading advisor to the president on national security and foreign policy.        
    national security advisor Leading advisor to the president on national security and foreign policy.        
    National Voter Registration Act A law that allows citizens to register to vote at motor vehicle and social services offices; also known as the “motor voter” law.        
    National Voter Registration Act A law that allows citizens to register to vote at motor vehicle and social services offices; also known as the “motor voter” law.        
    New Deal The program instituted by President Franklin Roosevelt to lead the country out of the Great Depression; it included the creation of jobs and executive agencies to oversee the economic recovery.        
    New Deal The program instituted by President Franklin Roosevelt to lead the country out of the Great Depression; it included the creation of jobs and executive agencies to oversee the economic recovery.        
    New England town meeting A form of direct democratic participation as characterized by meetings of entire communities in New England during the colonial period.        
    New Jersey Plan The alternative to the Virginia Plan, offered by William Paterson of New Jersey, with reduced national powers and a single legislative body representing the states.        
    New Jersey Plan The alternative to the Virginia Plan, offered by William Paterson of New Jersey, with reduced national powers and a single legislative body representing the states.        
    New media Forms of electronic communication made possible by computer and digital technologies.        
    New media Forms of electronic communication made possible by computer and digital technologies.        
    News Reports by journalists of selected events commonly involving violence, conflict, disasters, and scandals.        
    News Reports by journalists of selected events commonly involving violence, conflict, disasters, and scandals.        
    news icon Through extensive media coverage, something or someone symbolizes a situation that then is put on the policy agenda.        
    news icon Through extensive media coverage, something or someone symbolizes a situation that then is put on the policy agenda.        
    Nineteenth Amendment Amendment to the Constitution added in 1920 that grants and protects women’s right to vote.        
    Nineteenth Amendment Amendment to the Constitution added in 1920 that grants and protects women’s right to vote.        
    No Child Left Behind Act President George W. Bush’s policy, enacted into law, to improve education.        
    No Child Left Behind Act President George W. Bush’s policy, enacted into law, to improve education.        
    objectivity In news reporting, impartiality and fairness, and the reporting of facts without opinion and including different sides of an issue.        
    objectivity In news reporting, impartiality and fairness, and the reporting of facts without opinion and including different sides of an issue.        
    Office of Communications The part of the White House Office devoted to long-term planning of communication, headed by the director of communications.        
    Office of Communications The part of the White House Office devoted to long-term planning of communication, headed by the director of communications.        
    Open-ended questions Items on a questionnaire that allow respondents to reply to a question in their own words.        
    Open-ended questions Items on a questionnaire that allow respondents to reply to a question in their own words.        
    outsider strategies Members court media publicity in order to achieve their legislative goals.        
    outsider strategies Members court media publicity in order to achieve their legislative goals.        
    overlapping membership The theory that when people belong to several interest groups, they encourage negotiation and compromise and thereby limit any one group from dominating areas in which its interests are paramount.        
    overlapping membership The theory that when people belong to several interest groups, they encourage negotiation and compromise and thereby limit any one group from dominating areas in which its interests are paramount.        
    overrides The congressional power to enact legislation over a president’s veto by a two-thirds majority in each chamber.        
    overrides The congressional power to enact legislation over a president’s veto by a two-thirds majority in each chamber.        
    parachute in When national reporters come from the networks to cover a local event.        
    parachute in When national reporters come from the networks to cover a local event.        
    partisan identification A person’s long-term attachment to a particular political party.        
    partisan identification A person’s long-term attachment to a particular political party.        
    Party coalitions Groups that have long-term allegiances to a particular political party and whose members vote for that party consistently in elections.        
    Party coalitions Groups that have long-term allegiances to a particular political party and whose members vote for that party consistently in elections.        
    party committees Committees established by the two major parties to perform specific tasks, such as recommending members to serve on committees and conducting issue research.        
    party committees Committees established by the two major parties to perform specific tasks, such as recommending members to serve on committees and conducting issue research.        
    Party identification A person’s affiliation with a political party that can be a strong predictor of his vote choice in an election.        
    Party identification A person’s affiliation with a political party that can be a strong predictor of his vote choice in an election.        
    party in government The organized party members who serve in office, such as members of the Democratic and Republican parties in Congress.        
    party in government The organized party members who serve in office, such as members of the Democratic and Republican parties in Congress.        
    Party machines Partisan command structures headed by bosses who exacted loyalty and services from underlings in return for jobs and favors; machines were found primarily in cities.        
    Party machines Partisan command structures headed by bosses who exacted loyalty and services from underlings in return for jobs and favors; machines were found primarily in cities.        
    patriotism Love of one’s country and respect for its symbols and principles.        
    patriotism Love of one’s country and respect for its symbols and principles.        
    Payne Fund studies Research conducted between 1929 and 1933 that demonstrated the influence of movies on young people’s attitudes about racial groups, war, and crime.        
    Payne Fund studies Research conducted between 1929 and 1933 that demonstrated the influence of movies on young people’s attitudes about racial groups, war, and crime.        
    per curiam decisions Short, unsigned opinion by the Supreme Court, usually for cases it decides without oral argument.        
    per curiam decisions Short, unsigned opinion by the Supreme Court, usually for cases it decides without oral argument.        
    photo ops Staged events designed to depict a candidate favorably in the media.        
    photo ops Staged events designed to depict a candidate favorably in the media.        
    plea bargain Agreement whereby a defendant agrees to plead guilty in return for a lighter sentence, a reduced charge, or both.        
    plea bargain Agreement whereby a defendant agrees to plead guilty in return for a lighter sentence, a reduced charge, or both.        
    pluralism The theory that interest groups’ competition leads to policy balance through compromise and negotiation.        
    pluralism The theory that interest groups’ competition leads to policy balance through compromise and negotiation.        
    podcasts Digital audio or video pieces distributed by political campaigns, parties, and interest groups about a candidate, issue, or event that can be accessed conveniently on a computer or handheld digital device.        
    podcasts Digital audio or video pieces distributed by political campaigns, parties, and interest groups about a candidate, issue, or event that can be accessed conveniently on a computer or handheld digital device.        
    police powers Inherent powers that states hold to protect the public’s health, safety, order, and morals.        
    police powers Inherent powers that states hold to protect the public’s health, safety, order, and morals.        
    policy adoption The relevant institutions of government enact a formulated policy.        
    policy adoption The relevant institutions of government enact a formulated policy.        
    Policy evaluation Assessing a policy’s effectiveness.        
    Policy evaluation Assessing a policy’s effectiveness.        
    policy formulation Policies proposed to solve an issue on the agenda.        
    policy formulation Policies proposed to solve an issue on the agenda.        
    Policy groups (factions) Specialized coalitions in Congress that promote a particular agenda.        
    Policy groups (factions) Specialized coalitions in Congress that promote a particular agenda.        
    policy implementation and administration Development of the specific standards and procedures that fulfill the intent of the policy.        
    policy implementation and administration Development of the specific standards and procedures that fulfill the intent of the policy.        
    policy platforms Plans outlining political party positions on issues and the actions that leaders will take to implement them if elected to office.        
    policy platforms Plans outlining political party positions on issues and the actions that leaders will take to implement them if elected to office.        
    political action committee (PAC) Funds associated with business or labor organizations or with politicians and created in order to finance candidates’ campaigns.        
    political action committee (PAC) Funds associated with business or labor organizations or with politicians and created in order to finance candidates’ campaigns.        
    political action committees (PACs) Organizations for raising and contributing campaign funds.        
    political action committees (PACs) Organizations for raising and contributing campaign funds.        
    political action committees (PACs) Organizations for raising and contributing campaign funds.        
    political action committees (PACs) Organizations for raising and contributing campaign funds.        
    Political culture Collective ideologies, values, beliefs, norms, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that characterize a particular country.        
    Political culture Collective ideologies, values, beliefs, norms, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that characterize a particular country.        
    political efficacy An individual’s perception that she can make a difference in politics and governmental affairs.        
    political efficacy An individual’s perception that she can make a difference in politics and governmental affairs.        
    Political efficacy Individuals’ feeling that they can or cannot personally influence government and politics.        
    Political efficacy Individuals’ feeling that they can or cannot personally influence government and politics.        
    Political legitimacy Having faith in the integrity of the political system and processes.        
    Political legitimacy Having faith in the integrity of the political system and processes.        
    Political participation Actions directed explicitly toward influencing the distribution of social goods and values.        
    Political participation Actions directed explicitly toward influencing the distribution of social goods and values.        
    Political parties An enduring organization under whose label candidates seek and hold office.        
    Political parties An enduring organization under whose label candidates seek and hold office.        
    political self Sense of personal identification with the political world, which includes belonging to a community and knowledge of the shared beliefs and values of the members of that community.        
    political self Sense of personal identification with the political world, which includes belonging to a community and knowledge of the shared beliefs and values of the members of that community.        
    Political socialization Process through which people develop the attitudes, values, beliefs, and opinions conducive to becoming good citizens in their country.        
    Political socialization Process through which people develop the attitudes, values, beliefs, and opinions conducive to becoming good citizens in their country.        
    political tolerance Willingness to allow groups with whom one disagrees fundamentally to exercise their constitutionally guaranteed freedoms.        
    political tolerance Willingness to allow groups with whom one disagrees fundamentally to exercise their constitutionally guaranteed freedoms.        
    Politics The process by which leaders are selected and policies made. It involves people and groups inside and outside of government in struggles for power.        
    pork barrel spending Legislation that provides funding for projects that benefit a member of Congress’s district.        
    pork barrel spending Legislation that provides funding for projects that benefit a member of Congress’s district.        
    postconvention “bounce” A temporary increase in opinion-poll standings experienced by presidential nominees immediately following the national nominating convention.        
    postconvention “bounce” A temporary increase in opinion-poll standings experienced by presidential nominees immediately following the national nominating convention.        
    precedent A previous court decision used to guide and justify the Court’s decision in a similar case.        
    precedent A previous court decision used to guide and justify the Court’s decision in a similar case.        
    preemption President George W. Bush’s policy, exemplified in the war against Iraq, of removing threats before they harm the United States.        
    preemption President George W. Bush’s policy, exemplified in the war against Iraq, of removing threats before they harm the United States.        
    president pro tempore The second-highest ranking member of the Senate after the vice president who presides over the Senate in the absence of the vice president.        
    president pro tempore The second-highest ranking member of the Senate after the vice president who presides over the Senate in the absence of the vice president.        
    presiding officer The Constitution designates the vice president as the president of the Senate; when the vice president is absent, the majority leader of the Senate becomes the president pro tempore and presides over the Senate.        
    presiding officer The Constitution designates the vice president as the president of the Senate; when the vice president is absent, the majority leader of the Senate becomes the president pro tempore and presides over the Senate.        
    press officers People scattered through the bureaucracy who serve as official spokespersons for their agencies.        
    press officers People scattered through the bureaucracy who serve as official spokespersons for their agencies.        
    prestige committee The most powerful congressional committees; in the House these include Appropriations, Budget, Commerce, Rules, and Ways and Means; in the Senate these include Appropriations, Armed Services, Commerce, Finance, and Foreign Relations.        
    prestige committee The most powerful congressional committees; in the House these include Appropriations, Budget, Commerce, Rules, and Ways and Means; in the Senate these include Appropriations, Armed Services, Commerce, Finance, and Foreign Relations.        
    priming When media (news stories) ascribe responsibility for a problem to a person or institution.        
    priming When media (news stories) ascribe responsibility for a problem to a person or institution.        
    prior restraint A practice, forbidden by the First Amendment, whereby government can prevent publication.        
    prior restraint A practice, forbidden by the First Amendment, whereby government can prevent publication.        
    probability sampling A method of selecting survey participants at random.        
    probability sampling A method of selecting survey participants at random.        
    proportional representation (PR) systems Elections are held for multiple seats in a district, allowing seats to be distributed according to the proportion of the vote won by particular political parties.        
    proportional representation (PR) systems Elections are held for multiple seats in a district, allowing seats to be distributed according to the proportion of the vote won by particular political parties.        
    public assistance (welfare) Government aid to those in need.        
    public assistance (welfare) Government aid to those in need.        
    public diplomacy US policymakers’ efforts to gain the approval and support of policymakers in foreign countries.        
    public diplomacy US policymakers’ efforts to gain the approval and support of policymakers in foreign countries.        
    Public interest groups Organizations that work for the common good as they define it, such as, for consumers, the environment, or the family or reform of government.        
    Public interest groups Organizations that work for the common good as they define it, such as, for consumers, the environment, or the family or reform of government.        
    Public judgment A type of public opinion where people carefully consider the range of viewpoints and policy consequences of issues.        
    Public judgment A type of public opinion where people carefully consider the range of viewpoints and policy consequences of issues.        
    public opinion People’s collective preferences on matters related to government and politics.        
    public opinion People’s collective preferences on matters related to government and politics.        
    public relations Techniques designed to promote an interest group’s activities, image, and policy preferences positively.        
    public relations Techniques designed to promote an interest group’s activities, image, and policy preferences positively.        
    pundits People who offer their opinion or commentary on political issues through the media.        
    pundits People who offer their opinion or commentary on political issues through the media.        
    push poll Not a legitimate poll but a marketing technique disguised as a poll that is designed to influence respondents’ opinions about candidates and issues through leading questions.        
    push poll Not a legitimate poll but a marketing technique disguised as a poll that is designed to influence respondents’ opinions about candidates and issues through leading questions.        
    quick poll An online poll, usually consisting of one or two questions, that is asked of a nonrepresentative, self-selected sample of respondents.        
    quick poll An online poll, usually consisting of one or two questions, that is asked of a nonrepresentative, self-selected sample of respondents.        
    rally phenomenon The president’s approval rating rises during periods of international tension and likely use of American force.        
    rally phenomenon The president’s approval rating rises during periods of international tension and likely use of American force.        
    reasonable accommodation Federal policy mandating employers and schools to find ways to make it possible for people with disabilities to have equal access to employment and education.        
    reasonable accommodation Federal policy mandating employers and schools to find ways to make it possible for people with disabilities to have equal access to employment and education.        
    recall An election that allows voters to remove an elected officeholder.        
    recall An election that allows voters to remove an elected officeholder.        
    recess appointments Judicial or executive appointments made by the president while Congress is out of session that do not require Senate confirmation; they last until the end of the congressional session.        
    recess appointments Judicial or executive appointments made by the president while Congress is out of session that do not require Senate confirmation; they last until the end of the congressional session.        
    redistributive policies Policies whereby those who pay the taxes usually do not receive the service paid by the taxes.        
    redistributive policies Policies whereby those who pay the taxes usually do not receive the service paid by the taxes.        
    referendum A process whereby the state legislature refers a proposal to citizens who vote to either approve or reject the measure.        
    referendum A process whereby the state legislature refers a proposal to citizens who vote to either approve or reject the measure.        
    regulatory commission An agency charged with writing rules and arbitrating disputes dealing with some specific part of the economy, with appointees having greater independence from Congress and the president.        
    regulatory commission An agency charged with writing rules and arbitrating disputes dealing with some specific part of the economy, with appointees having greater independence from Congress and the president.        
    retail politics Campaign activity, also known as field operations, in which candidates engage in person-to-person encounters with potential voters.        
    retail politics Campaign activity, also known as field operations, in which candidates engage in person-to-person encounters with potential voters.        
    right of first recognition The right of the Senate majority leader to speak on the floor before all other Senators.        
    right of first recognition The right of the Senate majority leader to speak on the floor before all other Senators.        
    Rituals Ceremonial acts performed by the people of a nation.        
    Rituals Ceremonial acts performed by the people of a nation.        
    robo-polling Administering automated polls by phone using a recorded voice to ask the question and requiring respondents to answer by pressing the touch pad on their telephone.        
    robo-polling Administering automated polls by phone using a recorded voice to ask the question and requiring respondents to answer by pressing the touch pad on their telephone.        
    Rule of Four Rule stipulating that at least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to accept an appealed case before it can be heard.        
    Rule of Four Rule stipulating that at least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to accept an appealed case before it can be heard.        
    rule of law The premise that government is based on a body of law, agreed on by the governed, this is applied equally and justly.        
    rule of law The premise that government is based on a body of law, agreed on by the governed, this is applied equally and justly.        
    rulemaking The process by which agencies issue statements that implement, interpret, and prescribe policy in an area authorized by legislation passed by Congress.        
    rulemaking The process by which agencies issue statements that implement, interpret, and prescribe policy in an area authorized by legislation passed by Congress.        
    sacred document A revered manuscript given exalted status; applied to the Constitution.        
    sacred document A revered manuscript given exalted status; applied to the Constitution.        
    scoops News obtained ahead of other reporters.        
    scoops News obtained ahead of other reporters.        
    selective incorporation Supreme Court’s application of the protections of the Bill of Rights one by one to the states after it has decided that each is “incorporated” into (inherent in) the Fourteenth Amendment’s protection of liberty against state actions.        
    selective incorporation Supreme Court’s application of the protections of the Bill of Rights one by one to the states after it has decided that each is “incorporated” into (inherent in) the Fourteenth Amendment’s protection of liberty against state actions.        
    Senate minority leader The head of the opposing party in the Senate, who works closely with the majority leader on scheduling business while also developing strategies for his party to promote its policy objectives.        
    Senate minority leader The head of the opposing party in the Senate, who works closely with the majority leader on scheduling business while also developing strategies for his party to promote its policy objectives.        
    Senate whips (assistant floor leaders) Senators who work to devise party strategies on policy issues and to ensure party unity on Senate votes.        
    Senate whips (assistant floor leaders) Senators who work to devise party strategies on policy issues and to ensure party unity on Senate votes.        
    seniority Long-standing members of Congress, especially in the Senate, hold leadership positions and have more influence over decision making than their junior colleagues.        
    seniority Long-standing members of Congress, especially in the Senate, hold leadership positions and have more influence over decision making than their junior colleagues.        
    separate but equal The doctrine, endorsed by the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and repudiated by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), that racial segregation was constitutional as long as all races were treated equally.        
    separate but equal The doctrine, endorsed by the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and repudiated by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), that racial segregation was constitutional as long as all races were treated equally.        
    Separation of powers The doctrine whereby legislative, executive, and judicial powers are placed in distinct, at least partially autonomous, institutions.        
    Separation of powers The doctrine whereby legislative, executive, and judicial powers are placed in distinct, at least partially autonomous, institutions.        
    sexual harassment Form of discrimination on the basis of sex and gender that consists of unwelcome sexual advances or sexual conduct, verbal or physical, that interferes with a person’s performance or creates a hostile working environment.        
    sexual harassment Form of discrimination on the basis of sex and gender that consists of unwelcome sexual advances or sexual conduct, verbal or physical, that interferes with a person’s performance or creates a hostile working environment.        
    signing statement The president claims the right to ignore or refuse to enforce laws, parts of laws, or provisions of appropriations bills that Congress has enacted and he has signed into law.        
    signing statement The president claims the right to ignore or refuse to enforce laws, parts of laws, or provisions of appropriations bills that Congress has enacted and he has signed into law.        
    single-issue groups Organizations with the goal of promoting action on behalf of particular causes.        
    single-issue groups Organizations with the goal of promoting action on behalf of particular causes.        
    single-issue minor parties A minor party that exists to promote a particular policy agenda.        
    single-issue minor parties A minor party that exists to promote a particular policy agenda.        
    single-member district plurality system Also known as first-past-the-post or winner-take all, the system in which the highest vote getter in a district in federal and most state legislative elections gains a seat in office.        
    single-member district plurality system Also known as first-past-the-post or winner-take all, the system in which the highest vote getter in a district in federal and most state legislative elections gains a seat in office.        
    Smart mobs Acts of civic disobedience or protest organized through digital communication technology.        
    Smart mobs Acts of civic disobedience or protest organized through digital communication technology.        
    social insurance Government invests individuals’ mandatory payroll deductions in a trust fund to be distributed according to specific criteria (e.g., age).        
    social insurance Government invests individuals’ mandatory payroll deductions in a trust fund to be distributed according to specific criteria (e.g., age).        
    social media Digital media platforms that allow users to create and share content easily and that have been used in elections to share candidate information and videos, organize events, and collect campaign donations.        
    social media Digital media platforms that allow users to create and share content easily and that have been used in elections to share candidate information and videos, organize events, and collect campaign donations.        
    Social movements Large groups of people with common concerns who have mobilized to actively pursue political objectives.        
    social networks Associations of friends and acquaintances, based on trust and goodwill, that are able to work together to achieve common goals.        
    social networks Associations of friends and acquaintances, based on trust and goodwill, that are able to work together to achieve common goals.        
    Social Security Social insurance program for the elderly.        
    Social Security Social insurance program for the elderly.        
    Socioeconomic status People’s levels of education, income, and occupation, which are strongly linked to patterns of political participation.        
    Socioeconomic status People’s levels of education, income, and occupation, which are strongly linked to patterns of political participation.        
    solicitor general Justice department official responsible for presenting the position of the presidential administration before the courts.        
    solicitor general Justice department official responsible for presenting the position of the presidential administration before the courts.        
    solidary incentive When people join a group for friendship and belonging.        
    solidary incentive When people join a group for friendship and belonging.        
    sound bites Brief phrases uttered by candidates that are designed to be compelling and fit into news stories.        
    sound bites Brief phrases uttered by candidates that are designed to be compelling and fit into news stories.        
    Speaker of the House The top-ranking member and presiding officer of the House of Representatives.        
    Speaker of the House The top-ranking member and presiding officer of the House of Representatives.        
    sphere of consensus General agreement about the causes of and how to respond to a crisis.        
    sphere of consensus General agreement about the causes of and how to respond to a crisis.        
    spin To interpret information to support one’s point of view, or at least to put the best face on events.        
    spin To interpret information to support one’s point of view, or at least to put the best face on events.        
    spin The practice of providing an interpretation of events or issues that favors a particular side, such as the Democratic or Republican party.        
    spin The practice of providing an interpretation of events or issues that favors a particular side, such as the Democratic or Republican party.        
    spiral of cynicism A cycle of distrust of government and politics created by the media’s scandal-ridden coverage of government and politics.        
    spiral of cynicism A cycle of distrust of government and politics created by the media’s scandal-ridden coverage of government and politics.        
    spoilers A minor-party candidate who takes away enough votes from a major-party candidate to influence the outcome of the election while not winning the election himself.        
    spoilers A minor-party candidate who takes away enough votes from a major-party candidate to influence the outcome of the election while not winning the election himself.        
    spoils system Also known as patronage, a system in which voters were rewarded for their party loyalty and votes with jobs and favors dispensed by party leaders.        
    spoils system Also known as patronage, a system in which voters were rewarded for their party loyalty and votes with jobs and favors dispensed by party leaders.        
    spoils system The term given by its detractors to the practice started by President Andrew Jackson in 1829 of a new president replacing all civil servants with party faithful.        
    spoils system The term given by its detractors to the practice started by President Andrew Jackson in 1829 of a new president replacing all civil servants with party faithful.        
    sponsor The member of Congress who introduces a bill.        
    sponsor The member of Congress who introduces a bill.        
    standard operating procedures (SOPs) Recurring routines to manage particular cases.        
    standard operating procedures (SOPs) Recurring routines to manage particular cases.        
    straw poll An informal poll, often used to gauge opinions about candidates, that is administered haphazardly and without attention to proper sampling methods.        
    straw poll An informal poll, often used to gauge opinions about candidates, that is administered haphazardly and without attention to proper sampling methods.        
    strict constructionism Judicial philosophy of applying the Constitution according to what the judges believe was its original meaning to a reasonable person when it was framed.        
    strict constructionism Judicial philosophy of applying the Constitution according to what the judges believe was its original meaning to a reasonable person when it was framed.        
    Subcommittees Committees under the standing committees that handle specific aspects of legislation and policy.        
    Subcommittees Committees under the standing committees that handle specific aspects of legislation and policy.        
    subcultures Distinct groups associated with particular beliefs, values, and behavior patterns and existing within the overall framework of the larger political culture.        
    subcultures Distinct groups associated with particular beliefs, values, and behavior patterns and existing within the overall framework of the larger political culture.        
    subprime mortgages Loans to buy a house or apartment made to someone usually unqualified to receive them.        
    subprime mortgages Loans to buy a house or apartment made to someone usually unqualified to receive them.        
    sunshine laws Laws passed by Congress to open hearings to the public and the press.        
    sunshine laws Laws passed by Congress to open hearings to the public and the press.        
    super delegates Delegates to the Democratic National Convention who are party luminaries, members of the Democratic National Committee, governors, and members of Congress. These delegates do not have to run for delegate in caucuses or primaries.        
    super delegates Delegates to the Democratic National Convention who are party luminaries, members of the Democratic National Committee, governors, and members of Congress. These delegates do not have to run for delegate in caucuses or primaries.        
    Super Tuesday A Tuesday, usually in February or March, when a large number of states hold their presidential primary elections.        
    Super Tuesday A Tuesday, usually in February or March, when a large number of states hold their presidential primary elections.        
    support activities Passive forms of politics involvement, such as attending a concert on behalf of a cause.        
    support activities Passive forms of politics involvement, such as attending a concert on behalf of a cause.        
    supremacy clause Clause in Article VI of the Constitution stating that the Constitution and all federal laws are “the supreme Law of the Land.”        
    supremacy clause Clause in Article VI of the Constitution stating that the Constitution and all federal laws are “the supreme Law of the Land.”        
    supremacy clause The section in the Constitution that specifies that the Constitution and all national laws are “the supreme law of the land” and supersede any conflicting state or local laws.        
    supremacy clause The section in the Constitution that specifies that the Constitution and all national laws are “the supreme law of the land” and supersede any conflicting state or local laws.        
    survey A questionnaire typically administered by academic or government researchers to a representative sample people drawn from a larger population.        
    survey A questionnaire typically administered by academic or government researchers to a representative sample people drawn from a larger population.        
    Swift Boat ad An ad produced by the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, challenging Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry’s Vietnam War record, that aired during the 2004 election.        
    Swift Boat ad An ad produced by the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, challenging Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry’s Vietnam War record, that aired during the 2004 election.        
    symbolic participation Routine or habitual acts that show support for or dissatisfaction with the political system.        
    symbolic participation Routine or habitual acts that show support for or dissatisfaction with the political system.        
    Symbols Objects or emblems that represent a nation.        
    Symbols Objects or emblems that represent a nation.        
    Tea Party A loosely organized, conservative-leaning grassroots movement that qualifies as a political party as candidates run for office under its label.        
    Tea Party A loosely organized, conservative-leaning grassroots movement that qualifies as a political party as candidates run for office under its label.        
    Tea Party A grassroots movement with conservative leanings that emerged in 2009 to protest government taxing and spending policies.        
    Tea Party A grassroots movement with conservative leanings that emerged in 2009 to protest government taxing and spending policies.        
    temperance movement A movement that prompted Congress to pass the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, instituting Prohibition, which forbade the sale or transportation of alcohol. Prohibition was repealed in 1935.        
    temperance movement A movement that prompted Congress to pass the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, instituting Prohibition, which forbade the sale or transportation of alcohol. Prohibition was repealed in 1935.        
    three-fifths clause Constitutional provision that, for purposes of representation, only 60 percent of the enslaved population would be counted.        
    three-fifths clause Constitutional provision that, for purposes of representation, only 60 percent of the enslaved population would be counted.        
    tweetup An online or offline meeting organized via the microblogging platform Twitter.        
    tweetup An online or offline meeting organized via the microblogging platform Twitter.        
    two-party system A party system like that in the United States, where nearly all elected offices are held by candidates associated with the two parties that are able to garner the vast majority of votes.        
    two-party system A party system like that in the United States, where nearly all elected offices are held by candidates associated with the two parties that are able to garner the vast majority of votes.        
    two-step flow model A communication model where the media disseminate information that is processed by opinion leaders, who simplify messages and pass them on to opinion followers.        
    two-step flow model A communication model where the media disseminate information that is processed by opinion leaders, who simplify messages and pass them on to opinion followers.        
    umbrella organizations Party organizations that accommodate a wide range of groups and interests.        
    umbrella organizations Party organizations that accommodate a wide range of groups and interests.        
    values A society’s shared convictions about what is just and good.        
    values A society’s shared convictions about what is just and good.        
    veto The president’s power to reject a bill by not signing it into law.        
    veto The president’s power to reject a bill by not signing it into law.        
    video-sharing platforms Digital media that allow people to post campaign-related videos and share them with others through links, e-mail, and social media.        
    video-sharing platforms Digital media that allow people to post campaign-related videos and share them with others through links, e-mail, and social media.        
    Vietnam syndrome Post-Vietnam assumption by US policymakers that Americans would not support military action if it resulted in significant casualties to US troops.        
    Vietnam syndrome Post-Vietnam assumption by US policymakers that Americans would not support military action if it resulted in significant casualties to US troops.        
    Virginia Plan James Madison’s initial working draft at the Constitutional Convention, containing strong national powers, a popularly elected bicameral legislature, and a weak executive elected by the legislature.        
    Virginia Plan James Madison’s initial working draft at the Constitutional Convention, containing strong national powers, a popularly elected bicameral legislature, and a weak executive elected by the legislature.        
    watchdogs Journalists when their news stories hold people in power accountable by scrutinizing and reporting their statements, activities, claimed accomplishments, and failures.        
    watchdogs Journalists when their news stories hold people in power accountable by scrutinizing and reporting their statements, activities, claimed accomplishments, and failures.        
    Watergate hearings Senate investigation in 1973 into the burglaries at the Democratic National Committee headquarters that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.        
    Watergate hearings Senate investigation in 1973 into the burglaries at the Democratic National Committee headquarters that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.        
    Wedge issues Issues that cut across party lines and that can be used by candidates to attract voters who affiliate with the opposition party.        
    Wedge issues Issues that cut across party lines and that can be used by candidates to attract voters who affiliate with the opposition party.        
    whips Members who promote party unity in voting.        
    whips Members who promote party unity in voting.        
    Whiskey Rebellion In 1794, farmers on the western frontier protested against a tax on whiskey that was part of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton’s plan to eliminate the national debt; the rebellion was suppressed by an army dispatched by the newly formed national government.        
    Whiskey Rebellion In 1794, farmers on the western frontier protested against a tax on whiskey that was part of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton’s plan to eliminate the national debt; the rebellion was suppressed by an army dispatched by the newly formed national government.        
    White House Office (WHO) An organization within the EOP that contains the president’s personal advisors and staffers.        
    White House Office (WHO) An organization within the EOP that contains the president’s personal advisors and staffers.        
    white primary Democratic Party primary elections in certain Southern states that permitted only whites to vote.        
    white primary Democratic Party primary elections in certain Southern states that permitted only whites to vote.        
    WikiLeaks.org An organization that exposes the secrets of governments, corporations, and other institutions.        
    WikiLeaks.org An organization that exposes the secrets of governments, corporations, and other institutions.        
    wire services Agencies, particularly the Associated Press (AP), that cover and transmit news stories from throughout the world to their subscribers, resulting in similar coverage in many of the news media.        
    wire services Agencies, particularly the Associated Press (AP), that cover and transmit news stories from throughout the world to their subscribers, resulting in similar coverage in many of the news media.        
    Women’s Educational Equity Act Legislation passed by the US Congress to guarantee women the same educational opportunities as men and that includes Title IX, which requires schools to remove barriers to females’ full participation in sports.        
    Women’s Educational Equity Act Legislation passed by the US Congress to guarantee women the same educational opportunities as men and that includes Title IX, which requires schools to remove barriers to females’ full participation in sports.        
    women’s movement A social movement that began with the goal of seeking women’s suffrage and extended to other aspects of women’s equality.        
    women’s movement A social movement that began with the goal of seeking women’s suffrage and extended to other aspects of women’s equality.        
    work horse A member of Congress who works behind the scenes to carry out the business of the institution and get legislation passed.        
    work horse A member of Congress who works behind the scenes to carry out the business of the institution and get legislation passed.        
    writ of certiorari Petition asking the Supreme Court to review a case.        
    writ of certiorari Petition asking the Supreme Court to review a case.        
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