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9.E: Lifespan Development (Exercises)

  • Page ID
    4185
  • 9.1: What Is Lifespan Development?

    Review Questions

    Q1

    The view that development is a cumulative process, gradually adding to the same type of skills is known as ________.

    1. nature
    2. nurture
    3. continuous development
    4. discontinuous development

    Q2

    Developmental psychologists study human growth and development across three domains. Which of the following is not one of these domains?

    1. cognitive
    2. psychological
    3. physical
    4. psychosocial

    Q3

    How is lifespan development defined?

    1. The study of how we grow and change from conception to death.
    2. The study of how we grow and change in infancy and childhood.
    3. The study of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth in children.
    4. The study of emotions, personality, and social relationships.

    Critical Thinking Questions

    Q4

    Describe the nature versus nurture controversy, and give an example of a trait and how it might be influenced by each?

    Q5

    Compare and contrast continuous and discontinuous development.

    Q6

    Why should developmental milestones only be used as a general guideline for normal child development?

    Personal Application Questions

    Q7

    How are you different today from the person you were at \(6\) years old? What about at \(16\) years old? How are you the same as the person you were at those ages?

    Q8

    Your \(3\)-year-old daughter is not yet potty trained. Based on what you know about the normative approach, should you be concerned? Why or why not?

    Solution

    S1

    C

    S2

    B

    S3

    A

    S4

    The nature versus nurture controversy seeks to understand whether our personalities and traits are the product of our genetic makeup and biological factors, or whether they are shaped by our environment, which includes such things as our parents, peers, and culture. Today, psychologists agree that both nature and nurture interact to shape who we become, but the debate over the relative contributions of each continues. An example would be a child learning to walk: Nature influences when the physical ability occurs, but culture can influence when a child masters this skill, as in Aché culture.

    S5

    Continuous development sees our development as a cumulative process: Changes are gradual. On the other hand, discontinuous development sees our development as taking place in specific steps or stages: Changes are sudden.

    S6

    Children develop at different rates. For example, some children may walk and talk as early as \(8\) months old, while others may not do so until well after their first birthday. Each child’s unique contexts will influence when he reaches these milestones.

    9.2: Lifespan Theories

    Review Questions

    Q1

    The idea that even if something is out of sight, it still exists is called ________.

    1. egocentrism
    2. object permanence
    3. conservation
    4. reversibility

    Q2

    Which theorist proposed that moral thinking proceeds through a series of stages?

    1. Sigmund Freud
    2. Erik Erikson
    3. John Watson
    4. Lawrence Kohlberg

    Q3

    According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, what is the main task of the adolescent?

    1. developing autonomy
    2. feeling competent
    3. forming an identity
    4. forming intimate relationships

    Critical Thinking Questions

    Q4

    What is the difference between assimilation and accommodation? Provide examples of each.

    Q5

    Why was Carol Gilligan critical of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?

    Q6

    What is egocentrism? Provide an original example.

    Personal Application Questions

    Q7

    Explain how you would use your understanding of one of the major developmental theories to deal with each of the difficulties listed below:

    1. Your infant daughter puts everything in her mouth, including the dog's food.
    2. Your eight-year-old son is failing math; all he cares about is baseball.
    3. Your two-year-old daughter refuses to wear the clothes you pick for her every morning, which makes getting dressed a twenty-minute battle.
    4. Your sixty-eight-year-old neighbor is chronically depressed and feels she has wasted her life.
    5. Your \(18\)-year-old daughter has decided not to go to college. Instead she’s moving to Colorado to become a ski instructor.
    6. Your \(11\)-year-old son is the class bully.

    Solution

    S1

    B

    S2

    D

    S3

    C

    S4

    Assimilation is when we take in information that is comparable to what we already know. Accommodation is when we change our schemata based on new information. An example of assimilation is a child’s schema of “dog” based on the family’s golden retriever being expanded to include two newly adopted golden retrievers. An example of accommodation is that same child’s schema of “dog” being adjusted to exclude other four-legged furry animals such as sheep and foxes.

    S5

    Gilligan criticized Kohlberg because his theory was based on the responses of upper class White men and boys, arguing that it was biased against women. While Kohlberg concluded that women must be deficient in their moral reasoning abilities, Gilligan disagreed, suggesting that female moral reasoning is not deficient, just different.

    S6

    Egocentrism is the inability to take the perspective of another person. This type of thinking is common in young children in the preoperational stage of cognitive development. An example might be that upon seeing his mother crying, a young child gives her his favorite stuffed animal to make her feel better.

    9.3: Stages of Development

    Review Questions

    Q1

    Which of the following is the correct order of prenatal development?

    1. zygote, fetus, embryo
    2. fetus, embryo zygote
    3. fetus, zygote, embryo
    4. zygote, embryo, fetus

    Q2

    The time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop is known as ________.

    1. critical period
    2. mitosis
    3. conception
    4. pregnancy

    Q3

    What begins as a single-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge at conception?

    1. embryo
    2. fetus
    3. zygote
    4. infant

    Q4

    Using scissors to cut out paper shapes is an example of ________.

    1. gross motor skills
    2. fine motor skills
    3. large motor skills
    4. small motor skills

    Q5

    The child uses the parent as a base from which to explore her world in which attachment style?

    1. secure
    2. insecure avoidant
    3. insecure ambivalent-resistant
    4. disorganized

    Q6

    The frontal lobes become fully developed ________.

    1. at birth
    2. at the beginning of adolescence
    3. at the end of adolescence
    4. by \(25\) years old

    Critical Thinking Questions

    Q7

    What are some known teratogens, and what kind of damage can they do to the developing fetus?

    Q8

    What is prenatal care and why is it important?

    Q9

    Describe what happens in the embryonic stage of development. Describe what happens in the fetal stage of development.

    Q10

    What makes a personal quality part of someone’s personality?

    Q11

    Describe some of the newborn reflexes. How might they promote survival?

    Q12

    Compare and contrast the four attachment styles and describe the kinds of childhood outcomes we can expect with each.

    Q13

    What is emerging adulthood and what are some factors that have contributed to this new stage of development?

    Personal Application Questions

    Q14

    Which parenting style describes how you were raised? Provide an example or two to support your answer.

    Q15

    Would you describe your experience of puberty as one of pride or embarrassment? Why?

    Q16

    Your best friend is a smoker who just found out she is pregnant. What would you tell her about smoking and pregnancy?

    Q17

    Imagine you are a nurse working at a clinic that provides prenatal care for pregnant women. Your patient, Anna, has heard that it’s a good idea to play music for her unborn baby, and she wants to know when her baby’s hearing will develop. What will you tell her?

    Solution

    S1

    D

    S2

    A

    S3

    C

    S4

    B

    S5

    A

    S6

    D

    S7

    Alcohol is a teratogen. Excessive drinking can cause mental retardation in children. The child can also have a small head and abnormal facial features, which are characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Another teratogen is nicotine. Smoking while pregnant can lead to low-birth weight, premature birth, stillbirth, and SIDS.

    S8

    Prenatal care is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and fetus. It’s important to receive prenatal care because it can reduce complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy.

    S9

    In the embryonic stage, basic structures of the embryo start to develop into areas that will become the head, chest, and abdomen. The heart begins to beat and organs form and begin to function. The neural tube forms along the back of the embryo, developing into the spinal cord and brain. In the fetal stage, the brain and body continue to develop. Fingers and toes develop along with hearing, and internal organs form.

    S10

    The particular quality or trait must be part of an enduring behavior pattern, so that it is a consistent or predictable quality.

    S11

    The sucking reflex is the automatic, unlearned sucking motions that infants do with their mouths. It may help promote survival because this action helps the baby take in nourishment. The rooting reflex is the newborn’s response to anything that touches her cheek. When you stroke a baby’s cheek she will naturally turn her head that way and begin to suck. This may aid survival because it helps the newborn locate a source of food.

    S12

    With the authoritative style, children are given reasonable demands and consistent limits, warmth and affection are expressed, the parent listens to the child’s point of view, and the child initiates positive standards. Children raised by authoritative parents tend to have high self-esteem and social skills. Another parenting style is authoritarian: The parent places a high value on conformity and obedience. The parents are often strict, tightly monitor their children, and express little warmth. This style can create anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy kids. The third parenting style is permissive: Parents make few demands, rarely use punishment, and give their children free rein. Children raised by permissive parents tend to lack self-discipline, which contributes to poor grades and alcohol abuse. However, they have higher self-esteem, better social skills, and lower levels of depression. The fourth style is the uninvolved parent: They are indifferent, uninvolved, and sometimes called neglectful. The children raised in this parenting style are usually emotionally withdrawn, fearful, anxious, perform poorly in school, and are at an increased risk of substance abuse.

    S13

    Emerging adulthood is a relatively new period of lifespan development from \(18\) years old to the mid-\(20s\), characterized as a transitional time in which identity exploration focuses on work and love. According to Arnett, changing cultural expectations facilitate the delay to full adulthood. People are spending more time exploring their options, so they are delaying marriage and work as they change majors and jobs multiple times, putting them on a much later timetable than their parents.

    9.4: Death and Dying

    Review Questions

    Q1

    Who created the very first modern hospice?

    1. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross
    2. Cicely Saunders
    3. Florence Wald
    4. Florence Nightingale

    Q2

    Which of the following is the order of stages in Kübler-Ross’s five-stage model of grief?

    1. denial, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance
    2. anger, depression, bargaining, acceptance, denial
    3. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
    4. anger, acceptance, denial, depression, bargaining

    Critical Thinking Questions

    Q3

    Describe the five stages of grief and provide examples of how a person might react in each stage.

    Q4

    What is the purpose of hospice care?

    Personal Application Questions

    Q5

    Have you ever had to cope with the loss of a loved one? If so, what concepts described in this section provide context that may help you understand your experience and process of grieving?

    Q6

    If you were diagnosed with a terminal illness would you choose hospice care or a traditional death in a hospital? Why?

    Solution

    S1

    B

    S2

    C

    S3

    The first stage is denial. The person receives news that he is dying, and either does not take it seriously or tries to escape from the reality of the situation. He might say something like, “Cancer could never happen to me. I take good care of myself. This has to be a mistake.” The next stage is anger. He realizes time is short, and he may not have a chance to accomplish what he wanted in life. “It’s not fair. I promised my grandchildren that we would go to Disney World, and now I’ll never have the chance to take them.” The third stage is bargaining. In this stage, he tries to delay the inevitable by bargaining or pleading for extra time, usually with God, family members, or medical care providers. “God, just give me one more year so I can take that trip with my grandchildren. They’re too young to understand what’s happening and why I can’t take them.” The fourth stage is depression. He becomes sad about his impending death. “I can’t believe this is how I’m going to die. I’m in so much pain. What’s going to become of my family when I’m gone?” The final stage is acceptance. This stage is usually reached in the last few days or weeks before death. He recognizes that death is inevitable. “I need to get everything in order and say all of my good-byes to the people I love.

    S4

    Hospice is a program of services that provide medical, social, and spiritual support for dying people and their families.

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