By Edward Diener and Richard E. Lucas
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Facets of Traits (Subtraits)
Other Traits Beyond the Five-Factor Model
The Person-Situation Debate and Alternatives to the Trait Perspective
The Mini-IPIP Scale
- Video 1: Gabriela Cintron’s – 5 Factors of Personality (OCEAN Song). This is a student-made video which cleverly describes, through song, common behavioral characteristics of the Big 5 personality traits. It was one of the winning entries in the 2016-17 Noba + Psi Chi Student Video Award.
- Video 2: Michael Harris’ – Personality Traits: The Big 5 and More. This is a student-made video that looks at characteristics of the OCEAN traits through a series of funny vignettes. It also presents on the Person vs Situation Debate. It was one of the winning entries in the 2016-17 Noba + Psi Chi Student Video Award.
- Video 3: David M. Cole’s – Grouchy with a Chance of Stomping. This is a student-made video that makes a very important point about the relationship between personality traits and behavior using a handy weather analogy. It was one of the winning entries in the 2016-17 Noba + Psi Chi Student Video Award.
- Web: International Personality Item Pool
- Web: John Johnson personality scales
- Web: Personality trait systems compared
- Web: Sam Gosling website
- A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be compassionate, cooperative, warm, and caring to others. People low in agreeableness tend to be rude, hostile, and to pursue their own interests over those of others.
- A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be careful, organized, hardworking, and to follow rules.
- Continuous distributions
- Characteristics can go from low to high, with all different intermediate values possible. One does not simply have the trait or not have it, but can possess varying amounts of it.
- A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be sociable, outgoing, active, and assertive.
- Broad personality traits can be broken down into narrower facets or aspects of the trait. For example, extraversion has several facets, such as sociability, dominance, risk-taking and so forth.
- Factor analysis
- A statistical technique for grouping similar things together according to how highly they are associated.
- Five-Factor Model
- (also called the Big Five) The Five-Factor Model is a widely accepted model of personality traits. Advocates of the model believe that much of the variability in people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can be summarized with five broad traits. These five traits are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
- HEXACO model
- The HEXACO model is an alternative to the Five-Factor Model. The HEXACO model includes six traits, five of which are variants of the traits included in the Big Five (Emotionality [E], Extraversion [X], Agreeableness [A], Conscientiousness [C], and Openness [O]). The sixth factor, Honesty-Humility [H], is unique to this model.
- Two characteristics or traits are separate from one another-- a person can be high on one and low on the other, or vice-versa. Some correlated traits are relatively independent in that although there is a tendency for a person high on one to also be high on the other, this is not always the case.
- Lexical hypothesis
- The lexical hypothesis is the idea that the most important differences between people will be encoded in the language that we use to describe people. Therefore, if we want to know which personality traits are most important, we can look to the language that people use to describe themselves and others.
- A personality trait that reflects the tendency to be interpersonally sensitive and the tendency to experience negative emotions like anxiety, fear, sadness, and anger.
- Openness to Experience
- A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to seek out and to appreciate new things, including thoughts, feelings, values, and experiences.
- Enduring predispositions that characterize a person, such as styles of thought, feelings and behavior.
- Personality traits
- Enduring dispositions in behavior that show differences across individuals, and which tend to characterize the person across varying types of situations.
- Person-situation debate
- The person-situation debate is a historical debate about the relative power of personality traits as compared to situational influences on behavior. The situationist critique, which started the person-situation debate, suggested that people overestimate the extent to which personality traits are consistent across situations.