9.3: Chapter 21- Psychosocial Development in Adolescence
- Page ID
Chapter 21 Learning Objectives
- Describe the changes in self-concept and self-esteem in adolescence
- Summarize Erikson’s fifth psychosocial task of identity versus role confusion
- Describe Marcia’s four identity statuses
- Summarize the three stages of ethnic identity development
- Describe the parent-teen relationship
- Describe the role of peers
- Describe dating relationships
Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence
Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Religious identity: The religious views of teens are often similar to that of their families (KimSpoon, Longo, & McCullough, 2012). Most teens may question specific customs, practices, or ideas in the faith of their parents, but few completely reject the religion of their families.
Political identity: The political ideology of teens is also influenced by their parents’ political beliefs. A new trend in the 21st century is a decrease in party affiliation among adults. Many adults do not align themselves with either the democratic or republican party but view themselves as more of an “independent”. Their teenage children are often following suit or become more apolitical (Côtè, 2006).
Vocational identity: While adolescents in earlier generations envisioned themselves as working in a particular job, and often worked as an apprentice or part-time in such occupations as teenagers, this is rarely the case today. Vocational identity takes longer to develop, as most of today’s occupations require specific skills and knowledge that will require additional education or are acquired on the job itself. In addition, many of the jobs held by teens are not in occupations that most teens will seek as adults.
Gender identity: Acquiring a gender identity is becoming an increasingly prolonged task as attitudes and norms regarding gender keep changing. The roles appropriate for males and females are evolving, and the lack of a gender binary allow adolescents more freedom to explore various aspects of gender. Some teens may foreclose on a gender identity as a way of dealing with this uncertainty, and they may adopt more stereotypic male or female roles (Sinclair & Carlsson, 2013).
Sexual identity: According to Carroll (2016), by age 14 most adolescents become interested in intimate relationships, and they may begin sexual experimentation. Many adolescent feel pressure to express interest in opposite-sex relationships, even if they are not ready to do so. This pressure can be especially stressful for those adolescents who are gay, lesbian, bisexual or questioning their sexual identity. Many non-heterosexual adolescents struggle with negative peer and family reactions during their exploration. A lack of parental acceptance, especially, can adversely affect the gay, lesbian or bisexual adolescent’s emerging sexual identity and can result in feelings of depression. In contrast, adolescents whose familes support their sexual identity have better health outcomes.
- Unexamined Ethnic Identity: Adolescents and adults who have not been exposed to ethnic identity issues may be in the first stage, unexamined ethnic identity. This is often characterized with a preference for the dominant culture, or where the individual has given little thought to the question of their ethnic heritage. This is similar to diffusion in Marcia’s model of identity. Included in this group are also those who have adopted the ethnicity of their parents and other family members with little thought about the issues themselves, similar to Marcia’s foreclosure status (Phinney, 1990).
- Ethnic Identity Search: Adolescents and adults who are exploring the customs, culture, and history of their ethnic group are in the ethnic identity search stage, similar to Marcia’s moratorium status (Phinney, 1990). Often some event “awakens” a teen or adult to their ethnic group; either a personal experience with prejudice, a highly profiled case in the media, or even a more positive event that recognizes the contribution of someone from the individual’s ethnic group. Teens and adults in this stage will immerse themselves in their ethnic culture. For some, “it may lead to a rejection of the values of the dominant culture” (Phinney, 1990, p. 503).
- Achieved Ethnic Identity: Those who have actively explored their culture are likely to have a deeper appreciation and understanding of their ethnic heritage, leading to progress toward an achieved ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). An achieved ethnic identity does not necessarily imply that the individual is highly involved in the customs and values of their ethnic culture. One can be confident in their ethnic identity without wanting to maintain the language or other customs.
Bicultural/Multiracial Identity: Ethnic minorities must wrestle with the question of how, and to what extent, they will identify with the culture of the surrounding society and with the culture of their family. Phinney (2006) suggests that people may handle it in different ways. Some may keep the identities separate, others may combine them in some way, while others may reject some of them. Bicultural identity means the individual sees himself or herself as part of both the ethnic minority group and the larger society. Those who are multiracial, that is whose parents come from two or more ethnic or racial groups, have a more challenging task. In some cases, their appearance may be ambiguous. This can lead to others constantly asking them to categorize themselves. Phinney (2006) notes that the process of identity formation may start earlier and take longer to accomplish in those who are not mono-racial.
Negative Identity: A negative identity is the adoption of norms and values that are the opposite of one’s family and culture, and it is assumed to be one of the more problematic outcomes of identity development in young people (Hihara, Umemura, & Sigimura, 2019). Those with a negative identity hold dichotomous beliefs, and consequently divide the world into two categories (e.g., friend or foe, good or bad). Hihara et al. suggest that this may be because teens with a negative identity cannot integrate information and beliefs that exist in both their inner and outer worlds. In addition, those with a negative identity are generally hostile and cynical toward society, often because they do not trust the world around them. These beliefs may lead teens to engage in delinquent and criminal behavior and prevent them from engaging in more positive acts that could be beneficial to society.
Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment
Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Adolescent judgment and decision making. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 211– 224.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Fifth Edition). Washington, D. C.: Author.
Arcelus, J., Mitchell, A. J., Wales, J., & Nielsen, S. (2011). Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(7), 724-731.
Birkeland, M. S., Melkivik, O., Holsen, I., & Wold, B. (2012). Trajectories of global self-esteem during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 43-54.
Bosson, J. K., Vandello, J., & Buckner, C. (2019). The psychology of sex and gender. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Brass, N., McKellar, North, E., & Ryan, A. (2019). Early adolescents’ adjustment at school: A fresh look at grade and gender differences. Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(5), 689-716.
Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 74–103). New York, NY: Wiley.
Carney, C., McGehee, D., Harland, K., Weiss, M., & Raby, M. (2015, March). Using naturalistic driving data to assess the prevalence of environmental factors and driver behaviors in teen driver crashes. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Retrieved from www.aaafoundation.org/sites/...tionReport.pdf
Carroll, J. L. (2016). Sexuality now: Embracing diversity (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Caspi, A., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1993). Unraveling girls’ delinquency: Biological, dispositional, and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehavior. Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 19-30.
Center for Disease Control. (2004). Trends in the prevalence of sexual behaviors, 1991-2003. Bethesda, MD: Author.
Center for Disease Control. (2016). Birth rates (live births) per 1,000 females aged 15–19 years, by race and Hispanic ethnicity, select years. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/abo...-2011-text.htm
Centers for Disease Control. (2018a). Teen drivers: Get the facts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafe...factsheet.html
Centers for Disease Control. (2018b). Trends in the behaviors that contribute to unintentional injury: National Youth Risk Behavioral Survey. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/dat...trend_yrbs.pdf
Chein, J., Albert, D., O’Brien, L., Uckert, K., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Peers increase adolescent risk taking by enhancing activity in the brain’s reward circuitry. Developmental Science, 14(2), F1-F10. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.01035.x
Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Soensens, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2013). Autonomy in family decision making for Chinese adolescents: Disentangling the dual meaning of autonomy. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 1184- 1209.
Connolly, J., Craig, W., Goldberg, A., & Pepler, D. (2004). Mixed-gender groups, dating, and romantic relationships in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 185-207.
Connolly, J., Furman, W., & Konarski, R. (2000). The role of peers in the emergence of heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Child Development, 71, 1395–1408.
Costigan, C. L., Cauce, A. M., & Etchinson, K. (2007). Changes in African American mother-daughter relationships during adolescence: Conflict, autonomy, and warmth. In B. J. R. Leadbeater & N. Way (Eds.), Urban girls revisited: Building strengths (pp. 177-201). New York NY: New York University Press.
Côtè, J. E. (2006). Emerging adulthood as an institutionalized moratorium: Risks and benefits to identity formation. In J. J. Arnett & J. T. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century, (pp. 85-116). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.
Crain, W. (2005). Theories of development concepts and applications (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Crooks, K. L., & Baur, K. (2007). Our sexuality (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Crosnoe, R., & Benner, A. D. (2015). Children at school. In M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.). Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Ecological settings and processes (pp. 268-304). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
De Wit, D. J., Karioja, K., Rye, B. J., & Shain, M. (2011). Perceptions of declining classmate and teacher support following the transition to high school: Potential correlates of increasing student mental health difficulties. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 556-572.
Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189–214.
Dobbs, D. (2012). Beautiful brains. National Geographic, 220(4), 36. Dolgin, K. G. (2011). The adolescent: Development, relationships, and culture (13th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Duchesne, S., Larose, S., & Feng, B. (2019). Achievement goals and engagement with academic work in early high school: Does seeking help from teachers matter? Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(2), 222-252.
Dudovitz, R.N., Chung, P.J., Elliott, M.N., Davies, S.L., Tortolero, S,… Baumler, E. (2015). Relationship of age for grade and pubertal stage to early initiation of substance use. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12, 150234. doi:10.5888/pcd12.150234.
Eccles, J. S., & Rosner, R. W. (2015). School and community influences on human development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science (7th ed.). NY: Psychology Press.
Elkind, D. (1967). Egocentrism in adolescence. Child Development, 38, 1025-1034.
Euling, S. Y., Herman-Giddens, M.E., Lee, P.A., Selevan, S. G., Juul, A., Sorensen, T. I., Dunkel, L., Himes, J.H., Teilmann, G., & Swan, S.H. (2008). Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends: panel findings. Pediatrics, 121, S172-91. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1813D.
Eveleth, P. & Tanner, J. (1990). Worldwide variation in human growth (2nd edition). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Furman, W., & Shaffer, L. (2003). The role of romantic relationships in adolescent development. In P. Florsheim (Ed.), Adolescent romantic relations and sexual behavior: Theory, research, and practical implications (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Garcia, A. R., Metraux, S., Chen, C., Park, J., Culhane, D., & Furstenberg, F. (2018). Patterns of multisystem service use and school dropout among seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grade students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 38(8), 1041-1073.
Giedd, J. N. (2015). The amazing teen brain. Scientific American, 312(6), 32-37. Goodman, G. (2006). Acne and acne scarring: The case for active and early intervention. Australia Family Physicians, 35, 503- 504.
Graber, J. A. (2013). Pubertal timing and the development of psychopathology in adolescence and beyond. Hormones and Behavior, 64, 262-289.
Grotevant, H. (1987). Toward a process model of identity formation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2, 203-222
Harter, S. (2006). The self. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3 Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 505-570). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Harter, S. (2012). Emerging self-processes during childhood and adolescence. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney, (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (2nd ed., pp. 680-715). New York: Guilford.
Hihara, S., Umemura, T., & Sigimura, K. (2019). Considering the negatively formed identity: Relationships between negative identity and problematic psychosocial beliefs. Journal of Adolescence, 70, 24-32.
Hudson, J. I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H. G., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3), 348-358.
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2017). Fatality facts: Teenagers 2016. Retrieved from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/te...nagersExternal
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Kim-Spoon, J., Longo, G.S., & McCullough, M.E. (2012). Parent-adolescent relationship quality as moderator for the influences of parents’ religiousness on adolescents’ religiousness and adjustment. Journal or Youth & Adolescence, 41 (12), 1576-1578.
King’s College London. (2019). Genetic study revelas metabolic origins of anorexia. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190715164655.htm
Klaczynski, P. (2001). Analytic and heuristic processing influences on adolescent reasoning and decision-making. Child Development, 72 (3), 844-861.
Klauer, S. G., Gun, F., Simons-Morton, B. G., Ouimet, M. C., Lee, S. E., & Dingus, T. A. (2014). Distracted driving a risk of road crashes among novice and experienced drivers. New England Journal of Medicine, 370, 54-59. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1204142
Kuhn, D. (2013). Reasoning. In. P.D. Zelazo (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology. (Vol. 1, pp. 744-764). New York NY: Oxford University Press.
Lee, J. C., & Staff, J. (2007). When work matters: The varying impact of work intensity on high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 80(2), 158–178.
Longest, K. C., & Shanahan, M. J. (2007). Adolescent work intensity and substance use: The mediational and moderational roles of parenting. Journal of Family and Marriage, 69(3), 703-720.
Luciano, M., & Collins, P. F. (2012). Incentive motivation, cognitive control, and the adolescent brain: Is it time for a paradigm shift. Child Development Perspectives, 6 (4), 394-399.
March of Dimes. (2012). Teenage pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org/material...-pregnancy.pdf
Marcia, J. (2010). Life transitions and stress in the context of psychosocial development. In T.W. Miller (Ed.), Handbook of stressful transitions across the lifespan (Part 1, pp. 19-34). New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.
Marsh, H. W., & Kleitman, S. (2005). Consequences of employment during high school: Character building, subversion of academic goals, or a threshold? American Educational Research Journal, 42, 331–369.
McAdams, D. P. (2013). Self and Identity. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. Retrieved from: nobaproject.com.
McClintock, M. & Herdt, G. (1996). Rethinking puberty: The development of sexual attraction. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 178-183.
Meeus, W., Branje, S., & Overbeek, G. J. (2004). Parents and partners in crime: A six-year longitudinal study on changes in supportive relationships and delinquency in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45(7), 1288-1298. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00312.x
Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (2010). Development’s tortoise and hare: Pubertal timing, pubertal tempo, and depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Developmental Psychology, 46,1341–1353. doi:10.1037/a0020205
Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (2012). Peer relationships and depressive symptomatology in boys at puberty. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 429–435. doi: 10.1037/a0026425
Miller, B. C., Benson, B., & Galbraith, K. A. (2001). Family relationships and adolescent pregnancy risk: A research synthesis. Developmental Review, 21(1), 1-38. doi:10.1006/drev.2000.0513
National Center for Health Statistics. (2014). Leading causes of death. Retrieved from: http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/...caus10_us.html
National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2016, May). Young drivers: 2014 data. (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 812 278). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved from: wwwnrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812278.pdf
National Eating Disorders Association. (2016). Health consequences of eating disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nationaleatingdisorders....ting-disorders
National Institutes of Mental Health. (2016). Eating disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topi...rs/index.shtml
National Sleep Foundation. (2016). Teens and sleep. Retrieved from sleepfoundation.org/sleep topics/teens-and-sleep
Nelson, A., & Spears Brown, C. (2019). Too pretty for homework: Sexualized gender stereotypes predict academic attitudes for gener-typical early adolescent girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(4), 603-617.
Office of Adolescent Health. (2018). A day in the life. Retrieved from www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/facts-an...ife/index.html
Pew Research Center. (2015). College-educated men taking their time becoming dads. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank...becoming-dads/
Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34- 49.
Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 499-514. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499
Phinney, J. S. (2006). Ethnic identity exploration. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.) Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st Century. (pp. 117-134) Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Rawatlal, N., Kliewer, W., & Pillay, B. J. (2015). Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 21(3), 80-85. doi:10.7196/SAJP.8252
Rosenbaum, J. (2006). Reborn a virgin: Adolescents’ retracting of virginity pledges and sexual histories. American Journal of Public Health, 96(6), 1098-1103.
Ryan, A. M., Shim, S. S., & Makara, K. A. (2013). Changes in academic adjustment and relational self-worth across the transition to middle school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1372-1384.
Russell, S. T., Clarke, T. J., & Clary, J. (2009). Are teens “post-gay”? Contemporary adolescents’ sexual identity labels. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 884–890.
Sadker, M. (2004). Gender equity in the classroom: The unfinished agenda. In M. Kimmel (Ed.), The gendered society reader, 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schwartz, P. D., Maynard, A. M., & Uzelac, S. M. (2008). Adolescent egocentrism: A contemporary view. Adolescence, 43, 441- 447.
Seifert, K. (2012). Educational psychology. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/content/col11302/1.2
Shin, H., & Ryan, A. M. (2014). Early adolescent friendships and academic adjustment: Examining selection and influence processes with longitudinal social network analysis. Developmental Psychology, 50(11), 2462-2472.
Shomaker, L. B., & Furman, W. (2009). Parent-adolescent relationship qualities, internal working models, and attachment styles as predictors of adolescents’ interactions with friends. Journal or Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 579-603.
Sinclair, S., & Carlsson, R. (2013). What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents’ occupational preferences. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 465-474.
Smetana, J. G. (2011). Adolescents, families, and social development. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Soller, B. (2014). Caught in a bad romance: Adolescent romantic relationships and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(1), 56-72.
Staff, J., Schulenberg, J. E., & Bachman, J. G. (2010). Adolescent work intensity, school performance, and academic engagement. Sociology of Education, 83, p. 183–200.
Staff, J., Van Eseltine, M., Woolnough, A., Silver, E., & Burrington, L. (2011). Adolescent work experiences and family formation behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 150-164. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00755.x
Steinberg, L., Icenogle, G., Shulman, E.P., et al. (2018). Around the world, adolescence is a time of heightened sensation seeking and immature self-regulation. Developmental Science, 21, e12532. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12532
Syed, M., & Azmitia, M. (2009). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity during the college years. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19, 601-624. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00609.x
Syed, M., & Juang, L. P. (2014). Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: Testing basic assumptions of the developmental model. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(2), 176-190. doi:10.1037/a0035330
Tartamella, L., Herscher, E., Woolston, C. (2004). Generation extra large: Rescuing our children from the obesity epidemic. New York: Basic Books.
Taylor, J. & Gilligan, C., & Sullivan, A. (1995). Between voice and silence: Women and girls, race and relationship. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Thomas, R. M. (1979). Comparing theories of child development. Santa Barbara, CA: Wadsworth.
Troxel, W. M., Rodriquez, A., Seelam, R., Tucker, J. Shih, R., & D’Amico. (2019). Associations of longitudinal sleep trajectories with risky sexual behavior during late adolescence. Health Psychology. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?d...7%2Fhea0000753
Umana-Taylor, A. (2003). Ethnic identity and self-esteem. Examining the roles of social context. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 139-146.
United States Census. (2012). 2000-2010 Intercensal estimates. Retrieved from www.census.gov/popest/data/index.html
United States Department of Education. (2018). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 2018. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019117.pdf
United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2016). Employment projections. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm
United States Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2019). School based prepatory experiences. Retrieved from: https://www.dol.gov/odep/categories/youth/school.htm
University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center. (2000). Acne. Retrieved from www.mednet.ucla.edu
Vaillancourt, M. C., Paiva, A. O., Véronneau, M., & Dishion, T. (2019). How do individual predispositions and family dynamics contribute to academic adjustment through the middle school years? The mediating role of friends’ characteristics. Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(4), 576-602.
Wade, T. D., Keski‐Rahkonen, A., & Hudson, J. I. (2011). Epidemiology of eating disorders. Textbook of Psychiatric Epidemiology, Third Edition, 343-360.
Weintraub, K. (2016). Young and sleep deprived. Monitor on Psychology, 47(2), 46-50. Weir, K. (2015). Marijuana and the developing brain. Monitor on Psychology, 46(10), 49-52.
Weir, K. (2016). The risks of earlier puberty. Monitor on Psychology, 47(3), 41-44.
Yau, J. C., & Reich, S. M. (2018). “It’s just a lot of work”: Adolescents’ self-presentation norms and practices on Facebook and Instagram. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(1), 196-209.
Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective Second Edition by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license.