# 2.2: Minorites by Group

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## 2.2.1 African Americans

### A Dream Deferred

What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore— And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over— Like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load Or does it explode? Langston Hughes 1944

### The Middle Passage and the Triangle Trade

African Americans have lived on the North American continent for more than 350 years. They were our only completely involuntary immigrants. The Middle Passage was the route of the slave ships (called blackbirds) from Africa to the New World. It was the “middle” portion of the Triangular Trade (1500s-early 1800s) which was the movement of ships and goods from North America to the Caribbean to Africa and back. The Triangle Trade as it has also been called exchanged North American products and raw materials for Caribbean products and raw materials, including tobacco and rum, and then exchanged those for African slaves. Many people died during the Middle Passage from starvation, illness, and even murder. There are some reputable modern scholars who believe that as many as 250 million human beings died during the Middle Passage or were enslaved in the New World between 1500 and 1850 where black human beings were auctioned like cattle. (See Slavery in America: Historical Overview by Ronald L. F. Davis, Ph. D., California State University-Northridge; for a video lecture about the book Slavery by Another Name by Doulgas Blackmon, please go to the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition.)

### Free Blacks in Early America

However, not all blacks were enslaved in Colonial America. Fort Mose was the first free, all-black settlement in the US. Founded in 1604, it was Located a few miles from St. Augustine, Florida. Nonetheless, most blacks were not so lucky and were enslaved in the millions. In 1805 Toussaint the Liberator, with his revolutionary black soldiers, liberated Haiti and outlawed slavery. Their “inferior” status notwithstanding, African Americans served their country in the Revolutionary War. Crispus Attucks, a runaway slave and merchant seaman, was the first person to die in the Revolutionary War and Agrippa Hull was a free black and Revolutionary War veteran. Some northern religious institutions offered opportunities to African Americans. Absalom Jones was a free black and founder in 1810 of the First Free African Church of Philadelphia which was the first African American church in the United States. Lemuel Haynes was the first African American to be ordained in the United States by the Congregationalist Church in the early 19thcentury.

### Demographics

There Are 10.9 Million Asians Currently Living in the US. They come from all over Asia, but the largest countries of origin are shown in the figure below.

Countries of Origin

Figure 2.

About 4% of the US population is Asian with 18% living in the Northeast US, 10% living in the Midwest, 20% in the South, and 53% in the West. Nearly half of all Asians live in a central city within a major metropolitan area.

States with Largest Asian Populations

Figure 3.

Metropolitan Areas with Largest Asian Populations

Figure 4.

Asians are younger compared to white Americans: 29% of all Asians are under 18 (compared to 23.5% for non-Hispanic whites), 64.0% are between 18-64 (compared to 62.4% for non-Hispanic whites), and 7.0% are over 65 (compared to 14% for non-Hispanic whites). Asians have larger than average families: 23.0% have five or more members (as compared to 11.8% for non-Hispanic whites); also Asians are less likely to marry—34% have never married (compared to 24.5% of non-Hispanic whites)—but only half as likely to be divorced as non-Hispanic whites. Asians do receive more education: only 8% did not go past 9th grade as compared to 4.2% for non-Hispanic whites, while 15% went to high school but did not graduate as compared to 7.3% for non-Hispanic whites. And although only 45% are high school graduates as compared to 60.3% for non-Hispanic whites, 85% have at least a high school diploma as compared to 88.4% for non-Hispanic whites. When it comes to higher education however, the numbers shift dramatically—42% of all Asian Americans have a bachelors degree as compare to 28.1% for non-Hispanic whites. Asians are employed (and unemployed) at about the same rate as non-Hispanic whites but are more likely to work in managerial and professional occupations. However, Asians are more likely to be poor than non-Hispanic whites: 13% of all Asians live in poverty as compared to 8% of non-Hispanic whites, 11% of all poor in the US are Asian, 18% of all Asian children are poor as compared to 11% of all non-Hispanic whites. But, Asian Americans are slightly more likely to have high incomes: 59% of Asian Americans earn $50,000-$75,000 annually compared to 58% for non-Hispanic whites while 25% earn $25,000-$50,000 as compared to 28% for non-Hispanic whites.

Figure 5.

### A Chronology

Asians have been in the Americas permanently since the 1600s, and although they have never been a large segment of the American population they have still been an important addition to the American character. This chronology lists some of the most important events in the lives of Asians in America.

1600s—Chinese and Filipinos reach Mexico on ships of the Manila galleon.

1830s—Chinese "sugar masters" begin working in Hawaii, while Chinese sailors and peddlers arrive in New York.

1839-1844—US and China sign first treaty: the Treaty of Wangxia

1848—Gold discovered in California, Chinese begin to arrive.

1850—California imposes Foreign Miner's Tax and enforces it mainly against Chinese miners, who often had to pay more than once.

1852—First group of 195 Chinese contract laborers land in Hawaii. Over 20,000 Chinese enter California primarily due to the gold rush. Chinese first appear in court in California. Missionary William Speer opens Presbyterian mission for Chinese in San Francisco.

1854—Chinese in Hawaii establish a funeral society, their first community association in the islands. People v Hall rules that Chinese can't give testimony in court. US and Japan sign first treaty: The Treaty of Kanagawa

1857—San Francisco opens a school for Chinese children (changed to an evening school two years later). Missionary Augustus Loomis arrives to serve the Chinese in San Francisco.

1858—California passes a law to bar entry of Chinese and "Mongolians."

1860—Japan sends a diplomatic mission to US.

1862—Six Chinese district associations in San Francisco form loose federation. California imposes a "police tax" of $250 a month on every Chinese, this was called the anti-coolie tax. 1865—Central Pacific Railroad Company recruits Chinese workers for the transcontinental railroad.8 1867—Two thousand Chinese railroad workers strike for a week. 1868—US and China sign Burlingame-Seward Treaty recognizing rights of their citizens to emigrate. Eugene Van Reed illegally ships 149 Japanese laborers to Hawaii. Sam Damon9 opens Sunday school for Chinese in Hawaii. 1869—Completion of first transcontinental railroad.10 JH Schnell takes several dozen Japanese to California to establish the Wakamatsu Tea and Silk Colony.11 Chinese Christian evangelist SP Aheong starts preaching in Hawaii. 1870—California passes a law against the importation of Chinese, Japanese, and "Mongolian" women for prostitution.12Chinese railroad workers in Texas sue company for failing to pay wages. 1872—California's Civil Procedure Code drops law barring Chinese court testimony. 1875—Page Law bars entry of Chinese, Japanese, and "Mongolian" prostitutes, felons, and contract laborers. 1877—Anti-Chinese violence in Chico, California. Japanese Christians set up the Gospel Society in San Francisco, the first immigrant association formed by the Japanese. 1878—In re Ah Yup rules Chinese not eligible for naturalized citizenship. (For more information about this issue, please see the following websites: The Racial Classification Cases; Google Timeline for In re Ah Yup; Unsuitable Suitors by Deenesh Sohoni.) 1879—California's second constitution prevents municipalities and corporations from employing Chinese. California state legislature passes law requiring all incorporated towns and cities to expel Chinese to outside of city limits, but US circuit court declares the law unconstitutional. 1880—US and China sign treaty giving the US the right to limit but "not absolutely prohibit" Chinese immigration. Section 69 of California's Civil Code prohibits issuing of licenses for marriages between whites and "Mongolians, Negroes, mulattoes and persons of mixed blood." 1881—Hawaiian King Kalakaua visits Japan during his world tour. Sit Moon becomes pastor of the first Chinese Christian church in Hawaii. 1882—Chinese Exclusion Law suspends immigration of laborers for ten years. Chinese community leaders form Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA or Chinese Six Companies) in San Francisco. US and Korea sign first treaty. Chinese Exclusion Law amended to require a certificate as the only permissible evidence for reentry. 1883—Chinese in New York establish CCBA. 1884—Joseph and Mary Tape sue San Francisco school board to enroll their daughter Mamie in a public school. Chinese Six Companies sets up Chinese language school in San Francisco. United Chinese Society established in Honolulu. CCBA established in Vancouver. 1885—San Francisco builds new segregated "Oriental School." Anti-Chinese violence at Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory. First group of Japanese contract laborers arrives in Hawaii under the Irwin Convention. 1886—Residents of Tacoma, Seattle, and many places in the American West forcibly expel the Chinese. End of Chinese immigration to Hawaii. Chinese laundrymen win case in Yick Wo v Hopkins, which declares that a law with unequal impact on different groups is discriminatory. 1888—Scott Act renders 20,000 Chinese reentry certificates null and void. 1889—First Nishi Hongwanji priest from Japan arrives in Hawaii. Chae Chan Ping v US upholds constitutionality of Chinese exclusion laws; for Chinese Americans, this law had the same effect as Plessy v. Ferguson in that made discrimination based on race the law of the land. 1892—Geary Law renews exclusion of Chinese laborers for another ten years and requires all Chinese to register. Fong Yue Ting v US upholds constitutionality of Geary Law. 1893—Japanese in San Francisco form first trade association, the Japanese Shoemakers' League. Attempts are made to expel Chinese from towns in Southern California. 1894—Sun Yat-sen founds the Xingzhonghui in Honolulu. US circuit court in Massachusetts declares in In re Saito that Japanese are ineligible for naturalization. Japanese immigration to Hawaii under Irwin Convention ends and emigration companies take over. 1895—Lem Moon Sing v US rules that district courts can no longer review Chinese habeas corpus petitions for landing in the US. 1896—Shinsei Kaneko, a Japanese Californian, is naturalized. Bubonic plague scare in Honolulu - Chinatown burned. 1897—Nishi Hongwanji includes Hawaii as a mission field. 1898—Wong Kim Ark v US decides that Chinese born in the US can't be stripped of their citizenship. Japanese in San Francisco set up Young Men's Buddhist Association. US annexes Hawaii and the Philippines. 1899—Chinese reformers Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao tour North America to recruit members for the Baohuanghui. First Nishi Hongwanji priests arrive in California and set up North American Buddhist Mission. 1900—Japanese Hawaiian plantation workers begin going to the mainland after the Organic Act ended contract labor. Bubonic plague scare in San Francisco - Chinatown cordoned and quarantined. 1902—Chinese exclusion extended for another ten years. Immigration officials and the police raid Boston's Chinatown and, without search warrants, arrest almost 250 Chinese who allegedly had no registration certificates on their persons. 1903—First group of Korean workers arrives in Hawaii. 1500 Japanese and Mexican sugar beet workers strike in Oxnard, California. Koreans in Hawaii form Korean Evangelical Society. Filipino students (pensionados) arrive in the US for higher education. 1904—Chinese exclusion made indefinite and applicable to US insular possessions. Japanese plantation workers engage in first organized strike in Hawaii. Punjabi Sikhs begin to enter British Columbia. 1905—Chinese in the US and Hawaii support boycott of American products in China. Koreans establish Korean Episcopal Church in Hawaii and Korean Methodist Church in California. San Francisco School Board attempts to segregate Japanese schoolchildren. 1905—Korean emigration ends. Koreans in San Francisco form Mutual Assistance Society. Asiatic Exclusion League formed in San Francisco. Section 60 of California's Civil Code amended to forbid marriage between whites and "Mongolians." 1906—Anti-Asian riot in Vancouver. Japanese nurserymen form California Flower Growers' Association. Koreans establish Korean Presbyterian Church in Los Angeles. Japanese scientists studying the aftermath of the San Francisco earthquake are stoned. 1907—Japan and the US reach "Gentlemen's Agreement" whereby Japan stops issuing passports to laborers desiring to emigrate to the US. President Theodore Roosevelt signs Executive Order 589 prohibiting Japanese with passports for Hawaii, Mexico, or Canada to re-emigrate to the US. Koreans form United Korean Society in Hawaii First group of Filipino laborers arrives in Hawaii. Asian Indians are driven out of Bellingham, Washington. 1908—Japanese form Japanese Association of America. Canada curbs Asian Indian immigrants by denying entry to immigrants who haven't come by "continuous journey" from their homelands (there is no direct shipping between Indian and Canadian ports). Asian Indians are driven out of Live Oak, California. 1909—Koreans form Korean Nationalist Association. 7000 Japanese plantation workers strike major plantations on Oahu for four months. 1910—Administrative measures used to restrict influx of Asian Indians into California. 1911—Pablo Manlapit forms Filipino Higher Wages Association in Hawaii. Japanese form Japanese Association of Oregon in Portland. 1912—Sikhs build gurdwara in Stockton and establish Khalsa Diwan. Japanese in California hold statewide conference on Nisei education 1913—California passes alien land law prohibiting "aliens ineligible to citizenship" from buying land or leasing it for longer than three years. Sikhs in Washington and Oregon establish Hindustani Association. Asian Indians in California found the revolutionary Ghadar Party and start publishing a newspaper. Pablo Manlapit forms Filipino Unemployed Association in Hawaii. Japanese form Northwest Japanese Association of America in Seattle. Korean farm workers are driven out of Hemet, California. 1914—Aspiring Asian Indian immigrants who had chartered a ship to come to Canada by continuous journey are denied landing in Vancouver. 1915—Japanese form Central Japanese Association of Southern California and the Japanese Chamber of Commerce. 1917—Arizona passes an Alien Land Law. 1917 Immigration Law defines a geographic "barred zone" (including India) from which no immigrants can come. Syngman Rhee founds the Korean Christian Church in Hawaii. 1918—Servicemen of Asian ancestry who had served in World War I receive right of naturalization. Asian Indians form the Hindustani Welfare Reform Association in the Imperial and Coachella valleys in southern California. 1919—Japanese form Federation of Japanese Labor in Hawaii. 1920—10,000 Japanese and Filipino plantation workers go on strike. Japan stops issuing passports to picture brides due to anti-Japanese sentiments. Initiative in California ballot plugs up loopholes in the 1913 alien land law. 1921—Japanese farm workers driven out of Turlock, California. Filipinos establish a branch of the Caballeros Dimas Alang in San Francisco and a branch of the Legionarios del Trabajo in Honolulu. Washington and Louisiana pass alien land laws. 1922—Takao Ozawa v US declares Japanese not eligible for naturalized citizenship. New Mexico passes an alien land law. Cable Act declares that any American female citizen who marries "an alien ineligible to citizenship" would lose her citizenship. 1923—US v Bhagat Singh Thind declares Asian Indians not eligible for naturalized citizenship. Idaho, Montana, and Oregon pass alien land laws. Terrace v Thompson upholds constitutionality of Washington's alien land law. Porterfield v Webb upholds constitutionality of California's alien land law. Webb v O'Brien rules that sharecropping is illegal because it is a ruse that allows Japanese to possess and use land. Frick v Webb forbids aliens "ineligible to citizenship" from owning stocks in corporations formed for farming. 1924—Immigration Act (also titled the Johnson-Reid Act) denies entry to virtually all Asians. 1600 Filipino plantation workers strike for eight months in Hawaii. 1925—Warring tongs in North America's Chinatowns declare truce Hilario Moncado founds Filipino Federation of America. 1928—Filipino farm workers are driven out of Yakima Valley, Washington. Filipinos in Los Angeles form Filipino American Christian Fellowship. 1930—Anti-Filipino riot in Watsonville, California. 1931—Amendment to Cable Act declares that no American-born woman who loses her citizenship (by marrying an alien ineligible to citizenship) can be denied the right of naturalization at a later date. 1934—Tydings - McDuffie Act spells out procedure for eventual Philippine independence and reduces Filipino immigration to 50 persons a year. Filipino lettuce pickers in the Salinas Valley, California, go on strike. 1936—American Federation of Labor grants charter to a Filipino - Mexican union of fieldworkers. 1937—Last ethnic strike in Hawaii. 1938—150 Chinese women garment workers strike for three months against the National Dollar Stores (owned by a Chinese). 1940—AFL charters the Filipino Federated Agricultural Laborers Association. 1941—After declaring war on Japan, 2000 Japanese community leaders along Pacific Coast states and Hawaii are rounded up and interned in Department of Justice camps. 1942—President Franklin D Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 authorizing the secretary of war to delegate a military commander to designate military areas "from which any and all persons may be excluded" - primarily enforced against Japanese. Congress passes Public Law 503 to impose penal sanctions on anyone disobeying orders to carry out Executive Order 9066. Protests at Poston and Manzanar relocation centers. 1943—Protest at Topaz Relocation Center Registration crisis leads to Tule Lake Relocation Center's designation as a segregation center. Hawaiian Nisei in the 100th Battalion sent to Africa. Congress repeals all Chinese exclusion laws, grants right of naturalization and a small immigration quota to Chinese. 1944—Tule Lake placed under martial law. Draft reinstated for Nisei. Draft resistance at Heart Mountain Relocation Center. 442nd Regimental Combat Team gains fame. Exclusion orders revoked. 1946—Luce-Celler bill grants right of naturalization and small immigration quotas to Asian Indians and Filipinos. Wing F. Ong 13 becomes first Asian American to be elected to state office in the Arizona House of Representatives. 1947—Amendment to 1945 War Brides Act allows Chinese American veterans to bring brides into the US. 1949—5000 highly educated Chinese in the US granted refugee status after China institutes a Communist government. 1952—One clause of the McCarran - Walter Act grants the right of naturalization and a small immigration quota to Japanese. 1956—California repeals its alien land laws. Dalip Singh Saund from the Imperial Valley, California, is elected to Congress. 1962—Daniel K Inouye becomes US senator and Spark Matsunaga becomes US congressman from Hawaii. 1964—Patsy Takemoto Mink becomes first Asian American woman to serve in Congress as representative from Hawaii. 1965—Immigration Law abolishes "national origins" as basis for allocating immigration quotas to various countries - Asian countries now on equal footing. 1968—Students on strike at San Francisco State University to demand establishment of ethnic studies programs. 1969—Students at the University of California, Berkeley, go on strike for establishment of ethnic studies programs. 1974—March Fong Eu elected California's secretary of state. Lau v Nichols rules that school districts with children who speak little English must provide them with bilingual education. 1975—More than 130,000 refugees enter the US from Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos as Communist governments are established there. 1976—President Gerald Ford rescinds Executive Order 9066. 1978—National convention of the Japanese American Citizens League adopts resolution calling for redress and reparations for the internment of Japanese Americans. Massive exodus of "boat people" from Vietnam. 1979—Resumption of diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America reunites members of long-separated Chinese American families. 1980—The Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees set up an Orderly Departure Program to enable Vietnamese to emigrate legally. 1981—Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (set up by Congress) holds hearings across the country and concludes the internment was a "grave injustice" and that Executive Order 9066 resulted from "race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership." 1982—Vincent Chin, a Chinese American draftsman, is clubbed to death with a baseball bat by two Euro-American men. 1983—Fred Korematsu, Min Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi file petitions to overturn their World War II convictions for violating the curfew and evacuation orders. 1986—Immigration Reform and Control Act imposes civil and criminal penalties on employers who knowingly hire undocumented aliens. 1987—The US House of Representatives votes 243 to 141 to make an official apology to Japanese Americans and to pay each surviving internee$20,000 in reparations.

1988—The US Senate votes 69% to 27 to support redress for Japanese Americans. American Homecoming Act allows children in Vietnam born of American fathers to emigrate to the US.

### Borders and Immigration

The Smithsonian’s “Migration in History” exhibit states, borders are artifacts of history and are subject to change over time. When borders shift, lands and peoples are subjected to different sets of rules; this creates opportunities for exploitation, conditions of hardship, and motivations for revolt.12 The old and common saying “we didn’t cross the border, the border crossed us” is true. For many northern Mexicans living on the now-American side of the Rio Grande, the border did indeed change. With the advent of a nation-based quota system in 1924, many immigrants found themselves found themselves on the wrong side of a new law. Because of the quota system, it became illegal for many Mexicans to cross a border which was less than 80 years old.13 For a timeline of a history of the US Mexico border, please visit The Border, a PBS online series.

### Hispanics Today

In September 1996, ...Our Nation on the Fault Line . . . a report to the President of the United States, the Nation, and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education by the President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans found that Educational attainment for most Hispanic Americans is in a state of crisis. In 2010, the state of education for Hispanics Americans is still as grim and . . . evidence exists that the isolation and segregation has had several detrimental effects. First, Hispanics have the highest dropout rate of any ethnic group in this country. One-half of all Mexican-American and Puerto Rican students do not graduate from high schools (National Council of La Raza, 1989).14 In a modern, post-industrial society where many jobs are in the so-called high tech sector, degrees beyond high school graduation are more important than ever. Thus, the huge dropout rate of Hispanic American children does not bode well for economic success in a nation where economic success is a core value. Furthermore, all of the scientific and demographic data consistently show that the less educated among us also do less well in terms of general health, and the less educated are more likely to engage in deviant behavior the consequences of which are often imprisonment or death at an early age. Therefore, our nation is still on the fault line in terms of our Hispanic American population.

Hispanic immigration is changing the face of America in profound and, for some, unexpected ways. Toombs County, Georgia—a little town about 200 miles southeast of Atlanta—made national news when its local high school sponsored three senior proms instead of its usual two. Principal Ralph Hardy, who is black, insisted that racism is not a serious problem at his school and that segregated proms are a matter of taste: ‘Latinos, blacks, and whites all prefer their own music and food.’ A prime example of communities, mostly in the South, that have experienced unprecedented Hispanic population growth, Toombs instantiates the growing complexity of the long-standing struggle for racial integration as newcomers from Mexico, Central America, and South America alter the ethno-racial landscape, forcing multiculturalism in places previously colored black and white. Whether the Hispanicization of metropolitan America redraws spatial color lines in urban places long divided into black and white into three-way splits is an empirical question with far-reaching implications for social integration and civic engagement.15The enormous influx of Hispanics into parts of mostly all-white or all black and white America is cause for concern among anti-immigration groups such as F.A.I.R.(Federation for Immigration Reform) in the US, but the racial/ethnic changes that are taking place are inevitable. Moreover, all data show that newcomers to American soil, while changing America are also changed by America and relatively rapidly assimilate into American society. According to a 2008 article in USA Today

Immigrants in the USA number almost 40 million. About half are Latin American, an issue at the center of the debate over immigration reform and border enforcement. Tracking how well immigrants blend in — from owning homes to moving up the economic ladder — is a key part of the controversy. The level of assimilation typically drops during times of high immigration because there are more newcomers who are different from native-born Americans. It happened between 1900 and 1920, when the immigrant population grew 40% — a much slower rate than the recent wave. Yet the rapid growth since 1990 has not caused as dramatic a decline in assimilation, [Jacob] Vigdor [of Duke University] says. Immigrants who arrived in the past 25 years have assimilated faster than their counterparts of a century ago, [Vigdor] says.

And although “Mexican immigrants experience very low rates of economic and civic assimilation they experience relatively normal rates of cultural assimilation.16

In “Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation along Five Dimensions” by Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, the authors argue that even though Hispanics are severely segregated, blacks are still the most segregated Americans. A high level of segregation . . . is problematic because it isolates a minority group from amenities, opportunities, and resources that affect social and economic well-being.17Hispanic segregation is lower on any given dimension . . . [so that] Hispanics are moderately but consistently segregated . . . [but] never display both multidimensional layering and high segregation.18In other words, although Hispanics do experience segregation it is not so egregious as that of African Americans.

Hispanics are rapidly transforming the social and economic fabric of many small towns, where they have come to work—often at low wages—in food processing plants, agriculture, and construction. But to what extent have these Hispanics been incorporated into their new communities and local housing markets? In other words, do they share the same neighborhoods or live apart from non-Hispanic whites?

Measuring Residential Segregation

Case studies of rural destination communities often provide a rather sketchy portrait of immigrant incorporation. Marshalltown, Iowa, a community of about 26,000 people, is a good example. Its Hispanic population grew from fewer than 300 to more than 3,500 between 1990 and 2000. But we understand little about how the local housing market has accommodated such an unprecedented influx of Hispanics or how they are incorporated into previously homogenous Anglo neighborhoods in Marshalltown, and other similarly affected communities. For rural immigrant communities working in the poultry industry in North Carolina, for example, employers sometimes provide temporary housing (trailers) to attract Hispanic immigrant workers. This practice effectively marginalizes new arrivals from the rest of the largely Anglo community.19

### Footnotes

• 1http://www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/library/maps/strokeatlas/methods/racedef.htm
• 2http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/95-test/appb.html#Hispanic_Origin
• 3 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Hispanic
• 4http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hispanic/files/Internet_Hispanic_in_US_2006.pdf
• 5http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2010/tables/10s0006.pdf
• 6http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hispanic/files/Internet_Hispanic_in_US_2006.pdf
• 7 Ibid.
• 8 http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5078
• 9 Migrant Farmworkers in the United States
• 11 Now with Bill Moyers. “Migrant Labor in the United States.”
• 12 Migrations in History: United States-Mexico Borderlands/Frontera
• 13 The Border Crossed Us
• 14 ERIC Identifier: ED316616. Publication Date: 1989-00-00. Author: Wells, Amy Stuart. Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York NY. Hispanic Education in America: Separate and Unequal. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 59.
• 15 Redrawing Spatial Color Lines: Hispanic Metropolitan Dispersal, Segregation, and Economic Opportunity. Mary J. Fischer and Marta Tienda.
• 16 Civic Report No. 53 May 2008. “Measuring Immigrant Assimilation in the United States.” by Jacob L. Vigdor. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_53.htm.
• 17 Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation along Five Dimensions. Author(s): Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Aug., 1989), pp. 373-391. Stable URL: www.jstor.org/stable/2061599.
• 18 Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation along Five Dimensions. Author(s): Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Aug., 1989), pp. 373-391. Stable URL: www.jstor.org/stable/2061599.
• 19 Hispanic Segregation in America's New Rural Boomtowns by Domenico Parisi and Daniel T. Lichter.

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