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1.10: Conclusion and References

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    To become a skilled observer takes time and practice (Gronlund & James, 2013). You will need to figure out your rhythm so that you can incorporate observation and documentation into your regular routine. As an intentional teacher, you will want to plan systematic observations so that you can document each child’s unique qualities, interests, developmental strengths and needs, as well as uncover their cultural practices, approaches to learning and play preferences throughout the school year. As you gather evidence you will want to be as objective as you can be, and you will have to recognize your biases. As you collect your documentation on each child, you will want to organize it in a chronological manner and store it safely. Lastly, be sure to observe every child in your class, be aware that some children may catch your attention more than others for one reason or another. In the next chapter, we will examine several observation tools and techniques that you will want to use as part of your regular observation routine to ensure high-quality practices.


    1. California Department of Education. (2016). The Integrated Nature of Learning. Retrieved from
    2. Early Childhood Videos. (2016, Aug 12). Documenting Children’s Learning. Retrieved from
    3. First 5 California. (2015). For the Record: Documenting Young Children’s Learning and Development.
    4. janiceaughey. (2011). Subjective-Objective Exercise. Retrieved from
    5. JECEI. (n.d.). The Importance of Documentation. Retrieved from
    6. Lynn Cohen. (2020). The Power of Portfolios. Retrieved from
    7. Mehan, S., & Moore, L. (n.d.). Who is watching? Thinking ethically about observing children. Early Childhood Australia. Retrieved from
    8. Posada, Margarita M. (2004) Ethical Issues in Assessments with Infants and Children. Graduate Student Journal of Psychology , Vol. 6, 42-47. Retrieved from
    9. Sage Publications (n.d.). Observation and Assessment. 86-110. Retrieved from
    10. Seitz, H. (2008). The Power of Documentation in the Early Childhood Classroom. Young Children , 88-93. Retrieved from

    This page titled 1.10: Conclusion and References is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gina Peterson and Emily Elam.