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1.1.6: Key Terms

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    177343
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    antipositivism
    the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values
    conflict theory
    a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources
    constructivism
    an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be
    culture
    a group's shared practices, values, and beliefs
    dramaturgical analysis
    a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical performance
    dynamic equilibrium
    a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly
    dysfunctions
    social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
    figuration
    the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that behavior
    function
    the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity
    functionalism
    a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society
    generalized others
    the organized and generalized attitude of a social group
    grand theories
    an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change
    hypothesis
    a testable proposition
    latent functions
    the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process
    macro-level
    a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society
    manifest functions
    sought consequences of a social process
    micro-level theories
    the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups
    paradigms
    philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
    positivism
    the scientific study of social patterns
    qualitative sociology
    in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data
    quantitative sociology
    statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants
    reification
    an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence
    significant others
    specific individuals that impact a person's life
    social facts
    the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life
    social institutions
    patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs
    social solidarity
    the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion
    society
    a group of people who live in a defined geographical area who interact with one another and who share a common culture
    sociological imagination
    the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular
    sociology
    the systematic study of society and social interaction
    symbolic interactionism
    a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols)
    theory
    a proposed explanation about social interactions or society
    verstehen
    a German word that means to understand in a deep way

    1.1.6: Key Terms is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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