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9: Psychosocial Development- Emotions, Temperament, Attachment

  • Page ID
    94514
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    • 9.1: Psychosociological Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
      You may have noticed that some infants seemed to be in a better mood than others and that some were more sensitive to noise or more easily distracted than others. These differences may be attributed to temperament. Temperament is the innate characteristics of the infant, including mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity, noticeable soon after birth.
    • 9.2: Forming Attachments
      Attachment is the close bond with a caregiver from which the infant derives a sense of security. The formation of attachments in infancy has been the subject of considerable research as attachments have been viewed as foundations for future relationships. Additionally, attachments form the basis for confidence and curiosity as toddlers, and as important influences on self- concept.
    • 9.3: Erikson - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
      As the child begins to walk and talk, an interest in independence or autonomy replaces a concern for trust. The toddler tests the limits of what can be touched, said, and explored. Erikson (1982) believed that toddlers should be allowed to explore their environment as freely as safety allows and in so doing will develop a sense of independence that will later grow to self-esteem, initiative, and overall confidence.
    • 9.4: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
    • 9.5: Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood
      Erikson argued that children in middle and late childhood are very busy or industrious. They are constantly doing, planning, playing, and getting together with friends. This is an active time and when they are gaining a sense of how they measure up when compared with peers. Erikson believed that if these industrious children can be successful in their endeavors, they will get confidence for future challenges. If not, a sense of inferiority can be haunting during middle and late childhood.


    9: Psychosocial Development- Emotions, Temperament, Attachment is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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