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10: Psychosocial- Self, Moral, Family, and Peers

  • Page ID
    94522
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    • 10.1: Parenting Styles
    • 10.2: Sibling Relationships
      Siblings spend a considerable amount of time with each other and offer a unique relationship that is not found with same-age peers or with adults. Siblings play an important role in the development of social skills. Cooperative and pretend play interactions between younger and older siblings can teach empathy, sharing, and cooperation, as well as, negotiation and conflict resolution. However, the quality of sibling relationships is often mediated by the quality of the parent-child relationship.
    • 10.3: Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
      Kohlberg (1984) argued that we learn our moral values through active thinking and reasoning, and that moral development follows a series of stages. Kohlberg's six stages are generally organized into three levels of moral reasons.
    • 10.4: Friends and Peers
      riendships take on new importance as judges of one's worth, competence, and attractiveness in middle and late childhood. Friendships provide the opportunity for learning social skills, such as how to communicate with others and how to negotiate differences. Children get ideas from one another about how to perform certain tasks, how to gain popularity, what to wear or say, and how to act. This society of children marks a transition from a life focused on the family to a life concerned with peers.
    • 10.5: Family Life
      One of the ways to assess the quality of family life is to consider the tasks of families. Berger (2014) lists five family functions: (1) Providing food, clothing and shelter, (2) Encouraging learning, (3) Developing self-esteem, (4) Nurturing friendships with peers, and (5) Providing harmony and stability.
    • 10.6: Adolescents' Relationships
      While most adolescents get along with their parents, they do spend less time with them (Smetana, 2011). This decrease in the time spent with families may be a reflection of a teenager’s greater desire for independence or autonomy. It can be difficult for many parents to deal with this desire for autonomy. However, it is likely adaptive for teenagers to increasingly distance themselves and establish relationships outside of their families in preparation for adulthood.
    • 10.7: Gender


    10: Psychosocial- Self, Moral, Family, and Peers is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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