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17.5: A.5- Key Terms

  • Page ID
    199820
    • Jason M. Organ & Jessica N. Byram

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    Acetabulum: Shallow cavity of the coxa for articulation of the head of the femur.

    Acromion: Lateral projection of the spine of scapula.

    Anatomical position: Standing upright, facing forward with arms at the side and palms facing forward.

    Anterior (ventral): Toward the front.

    Appendicular skeleton: Part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdls, arms, and legs.

    Atlanto-axial joint: Joint between the atlas (C1 vertebrae) and the axis (C2 vertebrae), used for turning the head side to side.

    Atlanto-occipital joint: Joint between the atlas (C1 vertebrae) and occipital bone, used for nodding the head.

    Auricular surface: Roughened joint surface for articulation of the sacrum.

    Axial skeleton: Part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk.

    Body of pubis: Superior bar of the pubis.

    Body of the sternum: Central portion of the sternum where ribs articulate.

    Buccal: Toward the cheek.

    Calcaneal tuberosity: Roughened attachment site at the posterior calcaneus.

    Calcaneus: Large bone that forms the heel.

    Cancellous (or trabecular) bone: Porous bone found at the ends of long bones and within flat and irregular bones.

    Canines: Conical teeth with a single pointed cusp used to puncture a food item.

    Carpal bones: The 8 bones of the wrist: scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate.

    Centrum: Anterior body of vertebra; the main weight-bearing element of the vertebra.

    Cervical region: Neck region that contains 7 vertebrae.

    Clavicle: The collarbone, which connects the sternum to the scapula to form the pectoral girdle.

    Coccyx: Small triangular bone that projects from the inferior part of sacrum.

    Coracoid process: Hook-shaped projection from the anterior surface of the scapula.

    Coronal (frontal) plane: An imaginary line that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves.

    Coronal suture: Joint that connects the frontal bone to the paired parietal bones.

    Coronoid process: Triangular eminence from the superior part of the mandibular ramus.

    Coronoid process of ulna: Triangular projection from the anterior surface of proximal ulna.

    Cortical (or compact) bone: Dense, outer surface of bone.

    Cranial sutures: Fibrous joints that connect bones of the skull and face.

    Cranium: Bones of the head that support the brain and face.

    Cribriform foramina: Small openings in the superior plate of the ethmoid that transmit olfactory nerves.

    Deltoid tuberosity: Lateral projection for attachment of deltoid muscle.

    Demifacets: Partial joint surfaces on the lateral surface of the centrum of thoracic vertebrae.

    Dens (or odontoid process): Projection from superior surface of centrum of C2.

    Diaphysis: Shaft or central part of a long bone.

    Distal: Further away from the center of the body or point of attachment.

    Endochondral bone formation: Process of bone formation that occurs from a cartilage model.

    Epiphysis: End of long bones.

    Ethmoid bone: Unpaired bone of the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.

    External occipital protuberance (EOP): Projection from the occipital superior to nuchal lines.

    Femur: Long bone of the thigh.

    Fibula: Lateral bone of the leg.

    Flat bone: Bones that are flat with thin layers of cortical bone surrounding cancellous bone.

    Foramen magnum: Large opening in the occipital where the spinal cord passes.

    Frontal bone: An unpaired bone that forms the anterior and superior part of the cranium.

    Glabella: Part of the forehead between the eyebrows.

    Glenoid cavity (or fossa): Shallow depression for the articulation of the head of the humerus.

    Gluteal tuberosity: Roughened attachment site for the gluteus maximus muscle.

    Gonial (or mandibular) angle: Posterior border of the mandible at the junction of the ramus and body.

    Greater sciatic notch: Large indentation of the ilium.

    Greater trochanter: Large projection from the lateral surface of the proximal femur.

    Greater tubercle: Large projection on the superior and lateral surface of the humerus.

    Head of rib: Posterior part of the rib that articulates with the centrum.

    Humerus: Long bone of the arm.

    Hyoid bone: U-shaped bone in the neck that does not articulate with another bone.

    Ilium: Large flat bone of the superior part of the coxa.

    Incisal surface: Toward the cutting edge.

    Incisors: Flat and shovel shaped teeth that are used to bite into a food item.

    Inferior (caudal): Away from the head or downward.

    Inferior articular process: Inferior projections from the vertebral arch that connect to superior articular processes of the inferior vertebra.

    Inferior nasal concha: Scroll-like paired bones that attach to the lateral part of the nasal cavity.

    Intervertebral disc joints: Fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent centra of vertebrae.

    Intramembranous bone formation: Process of bone formation that occurs in mesenchyme and gives rise to flat bones of the skull.

    Irregular bone: Bones that have a complex appearance.

    Ischial spine: Thin, square projection from the ischium.

    Ischial tuberosity: Large, round protrusion of the posterior and inferior ischium.

    Ischiopubic ramus: Thin bar of bone that unites the pubis and ischium.

    Ischium: The posterior and inferior portion of the os coxae.

    Kyphosis: Anterior curvature of the spine.

    Lacrimal bone: Paired bones that form the anterior and medial part of the orbit.

    Lambdoidal suture: Joint that connects the parietal and occipital bones.

    Lamina: Flattened portion of the vertebral arch.

    Lateral: Further away from the midline.

    Lateral malleolus: Prominence of the distal fibula that forms the outer part of the ankle.

    Lesser trochanter: Projection from the medial surface of the proximal femur.

    Lesser tubercle: Projection on the anterior and superior surface of the humerus.

    Linea aspera: Elongated projection of the posterior surface of the femur.

    Lingual: Toward the tongue.

    Long bone: Bones that are longer than they are wide.

    Lordosis: Posterior curvature of the spine.

    Lumbar region: Lower back region that consists of 5 vertebrae.

    Mandible: Lower jaw bone.

    Mandibular condyle: Rounded projection of the mandibular ramus.

    Mandibular fossa: Depression at the base of the temporal bone where the mandibular condyle articulates to form the temporomandibular (or jaw) joint.

    Manubrium: Upper part of the sternum.

    Mastoid process: Bony projection from the back of the temporal bone.

    Maxilla bone: Upper jaw bone.

    Medial: Toward the midline.

    Medial malleolus: Prominence of the distal tibia that forms the inner part of the ankle.

    Medullary cavity: Central cavity in the diaphysis of long bones that contains bone marrow.

    Mental protuberance (eminence): Triangular projection at the front of the mandible.

    Mesial: Toward the middle.

    Metacarpal: The 5 bones of the palm of the hand.

    Metaphysis: Junction between diaphysis and epiphysis where bone growth occurs.

    Metatarsal: The 5 bones at the distal part of the foot.

    Metopic suture: Joint that connects paired frontal bones and usually fuses early in childhood.

    Midsagittal plane: Plane that divides the body vertically into equal left and right halves. It is also called the medial plane, because it occurs on the midline of the body.

    Molars: Teeth with flatter cusps that are used to grind food prior to swallowing.

    Nasal aperture: Anterior opening of the nasal cavity.

    Nasal bone: Paired bones that form the bridge of the nose and the roof of the nasal cavity.

    Nasal spine: Bony projection from the inferior part of the nasal aperture.

    Neurocranium: Bones of the cranium that protects the brain.

    Nuchal lines: Ridges on occipital from attachment of neck and back muscles.

    Obturator foramen: Irregularly shaped opening within the pubis and ischium.

    Occipital bone: Unpaired bone at the posterior and base of the skull.

    Occlusal: Toward the chewing surface.

    Olecranon process: Posterior projection of the proximal ulna.

    Orbit: Bony cavity that houses the eye and associated structures.

    Os coxa: Hip bone, forms from the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis.

    Osteoblast: Cell that secretes the matrix for bone formation.

    Osteoclast: A multinucleated bone cell that resorbs bone tissue during growth and repair.

    Osteocyte: Mature bone cell that lies within the bone matrix.

    Osteogenic cells: Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts.

    Osteology: The study of bones.

    Palatine bone: Paired bones that form the posterior part of the hard palate.

    Parasagittal plane: A vertical imaginary line adjacent to the sagittal plane that divides the body into unequal halves.

    Parietal bone: Paired bones forming the lateral walls of the cranium.

    Patella: Knee cap; a bone that forms in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

    Pedicle: Projection that connects the lamina to the centrum.

    Phalanges: The 14 bones of the digits.

    Posterior (or dorsal): Toward the back.

    Premolars: Teeth with two rounded cusps that are used to grind and mash a food item.

    Proximal: Closer to the center of the body or point of attachment.

    Pterygoid plates: Flat projections of the sphenoid that serve as attachment sites for chewing muscles and muscles of the throat.

    Pubic symphysis: Joint surface that unites the two pubic bones anteriorly.

    Pubis: Anterior and inferior portion of the coxa.

    Radial tuberosity: Rough projection for attachment of biceps brachii muscle.

    Radius: Lateral bone of the forearm.

    Ramus of the mandible: Bar-like portion of the posterior mandible.

    Rib tubercle: Posterior part of the rib that articulates with the transverse process.

    Sacrum: Triangular bone at the base of the spine that consists of 5 fused vertebrae.

    Sagittal plane: An imaginary line that divides the body into left and right halves.

    Sagittal suture: Joint that connects the parietal bones.

    Scapula: Flat, triangular bone that connects the upper limb to the pectoral girdle.

    Sesamoid bone: Bones that form within a tendon.

    Short bone: Bones that are as wide as they are long.

    Sphenoid bone: Unpaired bone that forms the anterior part of the base of the skull.

    Spine: Elongated ridge on posterior surface.

    Spinous process: Posterior projection of vertebral arch at the junction of the lamina.

    Squamosal suture: Joint that connects the parietal and temporal bones.

    Sternal end of the rib: Anterior part of rib that connects to the sternal body through costal cartilage.

    Sternum: Breastbone; flat bone of the anterior chest wall.

    Styloid process: Thin projection from the base of the temporal bone.

    Styloid process of radius: Projection from the distal radius.

    Styloid process of ulna: Projection from the distal ulna.

    Subpubic concavity: Depression below the pubic symphysis to the ischiopubic rami.

    Superior (or cranial): Toward the head.

    Superior articular process: Superior projections from the vertebral arch that connect to inferior articular processes of the superior vertebra.

    Supraorbital margin: External ridge at the superior part of the orbit.

    Talus: Ankle bone that articulates with the tibia.

    Tarsal bones: The 7 bones at the proximal end of foot; talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms (medial, intermediate, lateral), and cuboid.

    Temporal bone: Paired bones at the lateral and base of the skull that contain the middle and inner ear.

    Temporal lines: Ridges on the parietal bone from attachments of temporalis muscle and fascia.

    Temporal process of zygomatic bone: Long process that forms the anterior half of the zygomatic arch.

    Thoracic region: Trunk region that consists of 12 vertebrae that attach to ribs.

    Tibia: Medial bone of the leg.

    Tibial tuberosity: Roughened attachment site on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia.

    Transverse plane: An imaginary line that divides the body into superior and inferior halves.

    Transverse process: Lateral projection at the junction of the pedicle and lamina.

    Ulna: Medial bone of the forearm.

    Vertebral arch: Circular ring of bone at the posterior vertebra.

    Vertebral canal: Cavity that contains the spinal cord.

    Vertebral foramen: Opening formed by the vertebral arch.

    Viscerocranium: Bones of the cranium that make up the face skeleton.

    Vomer: Unpaired bone that forms the inferior part of the bony nasal septum.

    Xiphoid process: Lower part of the sternum.

    Zygapophyseal (facet) joints: Synovial joints between the superior and inferior articular processes.

    Zygomatic arch: Bridge of bone at the cheek.

    Zygomatic bone: Paired bones that form the anterior and lateral parts of the mid-face.

    Zygomatic process of temporal bone: Long process that forms the posterior half of the zygomatic arch.

    Zygomatic process of the maxilla: Portion of the bone that articulates with the zygomatic bone to form the anterior portion of the zygomatic arch.


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