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Glossary

  • Page ID
    89421
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    social problem Any condition or behavior that has negative consequences for large numbers of people and that is generally recognized as a condition or behavior that needs to be addressed.        
    social constructionist view The belief that negative social conditions or behaviors do not become social problems unless citizens, policymakers, and other parties call attention to the condition or behavior and define it as a social problem.        
    claims-making process The use of arguments to try to influence public perceptions of a social problem, the reasons for it, and possible solutions to it.        
    sociological imagination From C. Wright Mills, the realization that personal troubles are rooted in public issues.        
    blaming the system The belief that personal difficulties stem from problems in society.        
    Functionalism The view that social institutions are important for their contributions to social stability.        
    conflict theory The view that society is composed of groups with different interests arising from their placement in the social structure.        
    class consciousness Awareness of one’s placement in the social structure and the interests arising from this placement.        
    Feminist theory The view that society is filled with gender inequality characterized by women being the subordinate sex in the social, political, and economic dimensions of society.        
    Symbolic interactionism A perspective in sociology that focuses on the meanings people gain from social interaction.        
    random sample A subset drawn from the larger population in which every unit in the population has the same chance of being included in the subset.        
    response rate The percentage of a sample that agrees to be included in a study, usually a survey.        
    control group In an experiment, the group that does not experience the experimental condition.        
    nonparticipant observation Field research in which the researcher merely observes a group or setting        
    secondary data analysis The analysis of data from existing records.        
    social problem Any condition or behavior that has negative consequences for large numbers of people and that is generally recognized as a condition or behavior that needs to be addressed.        
    social constructionist view The belief that negative social conditions or behaviors do not become social problems unless citizens, policymakers, and other parties call attention to the condition or behavior and define it as a social problem.        
    claims-making process The use of arguments to try to influence public perceptions of a social problem, the reasons for it, and possible solutions to it.        
    sociological imagination From C. Wright Mills, the realization that personal troubles are rooted in public issues.        
    blaming the system The belief that personal difficulties stem from problems in society.        
    Functionalism The view that social institutions are important for their contributions to social stability.        
    conflict theory The view that society is composed of groups with different interests arising from their placement in the social structure.        
    class consciousness Awareness of one’s placement in the social structure and the interests arising from this placement.        
    Feminist theory The view that society is filled with gender inequality characterized by women being the subordinate sex in the social, political, and economic dimensions of society.        
    Symbolic interactionism A perspective in sociology that focuses on the meanings people gain from social interaction.        
    random sample A subset drawn from the larger population in which every unit in the population has the same chance of being included in the subset.        
    response rate The percentage of a sample that agrees to be included in a study, usually a survey.        
    control group In an experiment, the group that does not experience the experimental condition.        
    nonparticipant observation Field research in which the researcher merely observes a group or setting        
    secondary data analysis The analysis of data from existing records.        
    poverty line The government’s measure of official poverty, based on the cost of a minimal diet for a family that is then multiplied by three.        
    episodic poverty As defined by the Census Bureau, being poor for at least two consecutive months in some time period.        
    social stratification Rankings of people based on wealth and other resources a society values.        
    individualistic explanation The belief that poor people are poor because they lack the motivation to work and have other failings.        
    structural explanation The belief that poor people are poor because of various kinds of discrimination and lack of jobs and opportunity.        
    vulnerability to poverty A significant probability that people who are not officially poor will become poor within the next year.        
    modernization theory The view that global poverty results from a failure of poor nations to have the beliefs, values, and practices necessary for industrialization and rapid economic growth.        
    dependency theory The view that global poverty results from colonialization and exploitation of the poorest nations by the richest nations and by multinational corporations.        
    poverty line The government’s measure of official poverty, based on the cost of a minimal diet for a family that is then multiplied by three.        
    episodic poverty As defined by the Census Bureau, being poor for at least two consecutive months in some time period.        
    social stratification Rankings of people based on wealth and other resources a society values.        
    individualistic explanation The belief that poor people are poor because they lack the motivation to work and have other failings.        
    structural explanation The belief that poor people are poor because of various kinds of discrimination and lack of jobs and opportunity.        
    vulnerability to poverty A significant probability that people who are not officially poor will become poor within the next year.        
    modernization theory The view that global poverty results from a failure of poor nations to have the beliefs, values, and practices necessary for industrialization and rapid economic growth.        
    dependency theory The view that global poverty results from colonialization and exploitation of the poorest nations by the richest nations and by multinational corporations.        
    race A category of people who share certain inherited physical characteristics, such as skin color, facial features, and stature.        
    social construction A concept that has no objective reality but rather is what people decide it is.        
    ethnic group A subgroup of a population with a set of shared social, cultural, and historical experiences; with relatively distinctive beliefs, values, and behaviors; and with some sense of identity of belonging to the subgroup.        
    stereotypes Simplified, mistaken generalizations about people because of their race and/or ethnicity.        
    authoritarian personality A personality emphasizing such things as obedience to authority, a rigid adherence to rules, and low acceptance of people not like oneself and said to help account for racial and ethnic prejudice.        
    frustration theory (or scapegoat theory) As an explanation of racial and ethnic prejudice, the view that individuals blame the problems they experience on racial and ethnic minorities and thus scapegoat them instead of recognizing the real sources of their own misfortunes.        
    Discrimination With regard to racial and ethnic inequality, the arbitrary denial of rights, privileges, and opportunities to members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups.        
    individual discrimination Discrimination that individuals practice in their daily lives.        
    institutional discrimination Discrimination that pervades the practices of whole institutions, such as housing, medical care, law enforcement, employment, and education, even if such discrimination is not intended.        
    white privilege The advantages that US whites enjoy in their daily lives simply because they are white, whether or not they are aware of these advantages.        
    Affirmative action Special consideration for minorities and women in employment and education to compensate for the discrimination and lack of opportunities they experience in the larger society.        
    race A category of people who share certain inherited physical characteristics, such as skin color, facial features, and stature.        
    social construction A concept that has no objective reality but rather is what people decide it is.        
    ethnic group A subgroup of a population with a set of shared social, cultural, and historical experiences; with relatively distinctive beliefs, values, and behaviors; and with some sense of identity of belonging to the subgroup.        
    stereotypes Simplified, mistaken generalizations about people because of their race and/or ethnicity.        
    authoritarian personality A personality emphasizing such things as obedience to authority, a rigid adherence to rules, and low acceptance of people not like oneself and said to help account for racial and ethnic prejudice.        
    frustration theory (or scapegoat theory) As an explanation of racial and ethnic prejudice, the view that individuals blame the problems they experience on racial and ethnic minorities and thus scapegoat them instead of recognizing the real sources of their own misfortunes.        
    Discrimination With regard to racial and ethnic inequality, the arbitrary denial of rights, privileges, and opportunities to members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups.        
    individual discrimination Discrimination that individuals practice in their daily lives.        
    institutional discrimination Discrimination that pervades the practices of whole institutions, such as housing, medical care, law enforcement, employment, and education, even if such discrimination is not intended.        
    white privilege The advantages that US whites enjoy in their daily lives simply because they are white, whether or not they are aware of these advantages.        
    Affirmative action Special consideration for minorities and women in employment and education to compensate for the discrimination and lack of opportunities they experience in the larger society.        
    secondary sex characteristics Biological differences between females and males that emerge during puberty.        
    gender identity Individuals’ beliefs about themselves as either females or males.        
    masculinity Cultural expectations of boys and men, including toughness and bravery.        
    androgynous Containing aspects of both femaleness and maleness, or of both femininity and masculinity.        
    Socialization The process whereby individuals learn the culture of their society.        
    sexism The belief that women are inferior to men.        
    patriarchy Male domination.        
    sex segregation In the workplace, the concentration of women in a relatively few low-paying clerical and service jobs.        
    comparable worth The idea that women’s and men’s jobs may be of roughly equal value and thus deserve the same pay, even though women’s jobs typically pay less than men’s jobs.        
    glass escalator The smooth path afforded men in promotion in the workplace, especially in occupations primarily filled by women.        
    sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is used as a condition of employment or promotion or that interferes with an individual’s job performance and creates an intimidating or hostile environment.        
    male privilege The advantages a male enjoys in a patriarchal society just because he is a male.        
    secondary sex characteristics Biological differences between females and males that emerge during puberty.        
    gender identity Individuals’ beliefs about themselves as either females or males.        
    masculinity Cultural expectations of boys and men, including toughness and bravery.        
    androgynous Containing aspects of both femaleness and maleness, or of both femininity and masculinity.        
    Socialization The process whereby individuals learn the culture of their society.        
    sexism The belief that women are inferior to men.        
    patriarchy Male domination.        
    sex segregation In the workplace, the concentration of women in a relatively few low-paying clerical and service jobs.        
    comparable worth The idea that women’s and men’s jobs may be of roughly equal value and thus deserve the same pay, even though women’s jobs typically pay less than men’s jobs.        
    glass escalator The smooth path afforded men in promotion in the workplace, especially in occupations primarily filled by women.        
    sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is used as a condition of employment or promotion or that interferes with an individual’s job performance and creates an intimidating or hostile environment.        
    male privilege The advantages a male enjoys in a patriarchal society just because he is a male.        
    gender identity The personal conception of oneself as female, male, both, or neither.        
    Heterosexism Negative views about, and discriminatory practices toward, LGBT individuals and their sexual behavior.        
    heterosexual privilege The many advantages that heterosexuals (or people perceived as heterosexuals) enjoy simply because their sexual orientation is not LGBT.        
    gender identity The personal conception of oneself as female, male, both, or neither.        
    Heterosexism Negative views about, and discriminatory practices toward, LGBT individuals and their sexual behavior.        
    heterosexual privilege The many advantages that heterosexuals (or people perceived as heterosexuals) enjoy simply because their sexual orientation is not LGBT.        
    gerontology The study of aging.        
    psychological aging The psychological changes, including those involving mental functioning and personality, that occur as we age.        
    Social aging The changes in roles and relationships that occur as people age.        
    disengagement theory The view, now largely abandoned, by some past social gerontologists that a society needs to encourage its elderly to disengage from their previous roles and to take on roles more appropriate to their declining physical and mental abilities.        
    activity theory The view by social gerontologists that older people will benefit both themselves and their society if they remain active and try to continue to perform the roles they had before they aged.        
    ageism Negative views about and prejudice and discrimination against older people.        
    life expectancy The average age to which people can be expected to live.        
    elder abuse Physical violence, mental and emotional abuse, neglect of care, and financial exploitation committed against the elderly, most often by their relatives who are caring for them.        
    generational equity The argument by critics of political activism on behalf of older Americans that programs for the elderly threaten to take money from programs to help younger Americans either now or as they age.        
    gerontology The study of aging.        
    psychological aging The psychological changes, including those involving mental functioning and personality, that occur as we age.        
    Social aging The changes in roles and relationships that occur as people age.        
    disengagement theory The view, now largely abandoned, by some past social gerontologists that a society needs to encourage its elderly to disengage from their previous roles and to take on roles more appropriate to their declining physical and mental abilities.        
    activity theory The view by social gerontologists that older people will benefit both themselves and their society if they remain active and try to continue to perform the roles they had before they aged.        
    ageism Negative views about and prejudice and discrimination against older people.        
    life expectancy The average age to which people can be expected to live.        
    elder abuse Physical violence, mental and emotional abuse, neglect of care, and financial exploitation committed against the elderly, most often by their relatives who are caring for them.        
    generational equity The argument by critics of political activism on behalf of older Americans that programs for the elderly threaten to take money from programs to help younger Americans either now or as they age.        
    drug Any substance other than food that, when taken into the body, affects the structure and/or functioning of the body.        
    Depressants Drugs that slow down the activity of the central nervous system; depending on the specific drug, they help induce drowsiness and relaxation, and they can reduce anxiety and pain.        
    Hallucinogens Mind-altering drugs that cause delusions or hallucinations.        
    Narcotics Drugs derived from opium that slow down the central nervous system, relieve pain, and induce drowsiness, euphoria, and relaxation.        
    Stimulants Drugs that speed up the central nervous system and increase alertness and energy and possibly produce euphoria or anxiety.        
    heavy drinking Binge drinking on at least five days in the past month.        
    religiosity How religious someone is, in terms of how often the person attends religious service, prays, and reads scripture.        
    harm reduction A strategy that attempts to minimize the harm caused by drugs; an example includes the provision of sterile needles to heroin users.        
    drug courts Courts in which drug offenders who have been arrested and found guilty are sentenced to drug treatment and counseling rather than to jail or prison.        
    drug Any substance other than food that, when taken into the body, affects the structure and/or functioning of the body.        
    Depressants Drugs that slow down the activity of the central nervous system; depending on the specific drug, they help induce drowsiness and relaxation, and they can reduce anxiety and pain.        
    Hallucinogens Mind-altering drugs that cause delusions or hallucinations.        
    Narcotics Drugs derived from opium that slow down the central nervous system, relieve pain, and induce drowsiness, euphoria, and relaxation.        
    Stimulants Drugs that speed up the central nervous system and increase alertness and energy and possibly produce euphoria or anxiety.        
    heavy drinking Binge drinking on at least five days in the past month.        
    religiosity How religious someone is, in terms of how often the person attends religious service, prays, and reads scripture.        
    harm reduction A strategy that attempts to minimize the harm caused by drugs; an example includes the provision of sterile needles to heroin users.        
    drug courts Courts in which drug offenders who have been arrested and found guilty are sentenced to drug treatment and counseling rather than to jail or prison.        
    crime Behavior considered so harmful or offensive that it is banned by the criminal law.        
    Deviance Behavior that violates norms and arouses negative social reactions.        
    Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) The FBI’s regular compilation of crime statistics, most of them on Part I crimes.        
    Part I Crimes The FBI’s term for the major crimes included in the Uniform Crime Reports, including homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson.        
    dark figure of crime The large number of crimes that do not come to the attention of the police and thus also not to the public.        
    National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) An annual survey conducted by the US Department of Justice that asks a representative sample of the American public about crimes they have suffered.        
    self-report survey A survey given to individuals, usually adolescents, that asks them about offenses they have committed and usually about their families and other aspects of their lives.        
    intraracial In criminology, the commission of crime by offenders against members of their own race or ethnicity.        
    white-collar crime Crime committed by people in the course of their occupations; Edwin Sutherland’s definition emphasized crime by people of high social status.        
    corporate violence Actions by corporations that cause death, injury, or illness.        
    Organized crime Criminal activity by groups or organizations whose major purpose for existing is to commit such crime.        
    Consensual crime Illegal behavior in which people participate voluntarily, including drug use, prostitution, and gambling.        
    social disorganization theory The view that the weakening of social bonds and conventional social institutions in a community raises its crime rates.        
    anomie theory Robert Merton’s view that deviance is caused by a failure to achieve the American goal of financial success through the conventional means of working.        
    differential association theory Edwin Sutherland’s view that deviance stems from interacting with primary group members who commit deviance and have values conducive to deviance.        
    social bonding theory Travis Hirschi’s view that deviance results from weak bonds to conventional social institutions such as the family and schools.        
    Labeling theory The view that being labeled deviant increases the chances of future deviance.        
    group conflict theory The assumption that criminal law is shaped by the conflict among the various social groups in society that exist because of differences in race and ethnicity, social class, religion, and other factors.        
    radical theory A view that highlights the importance of (economic) social classes more than the importance of religion, ethnicity, and other social group characteristics in shaping the creation and operation of criminal law.        
    plea bargaining An agreement between the prosecution and defense that a criminal defendant will plead guilty, usually in return for a reduced sentence.        
    get-tough approach The use of longer prison terms and other law enforcement measures to reduce crime.        
    public health approach A strategy that highlights the need to prevent illness or disease; in criminology, a strategy that highlights the need to address the factors that lead to criminal behavior.        
    crime Behavior considered so harmful or offensive that it is banned by the criminal law.        
    Deviance Behavior that violates norms and arouses negative social reactions.        
    Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) The FBI’s regular compilation of crime statistics, most of them on Part I crimes.        
    Part I Crimes The FBI’s term for the major crimes included in the Uniform Crime Reports, including homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson.        
    dark figure of crime The large number of crimes that do not come to the attention of the police and thus also not to the public.        
    National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) An annual survey conducted by the US Department of Justice that asks a representative sample of the American public about crimes they have suffered.        
    self-report survey A survey given to individuals, usually adolescents, that asks them about offenses they have committed and usually about their families and other aspects of their lives.        
    intraracial In criminology, the commission of crime by offenders against members of their own race or ethnicity.        
    white-collar crime Crime committed by people in the course of their occupations; Edwin Sutherland’s definition emphasized crime by people of high social status.        
    corporate violence Actions by corporations that cause death, injury, or illness.        
    Organized crime Criminal activity by groups or organizations whose major purpose for existing is to commit such crime.        
    Consensual crime Illegal behavior in which people participate voluntarily, including drug use, prostitution, and gambling.        
    social disorganization theory The view that the weakening of social bonds and conventional social institutions in a community raises its crime rates.        
    anomie theory Robert Merton’s view that deviance is caused by a failure to achieve the American goal of financial success through the conventional means of working.        
    differential association theory Edwin Sutherland’s view that deviance stems from interacting with primary group members who commit deviance and have values conducive to deviance.        
    social bonding theory Travis Hirschi’s view that deviance results from weak bonds to conventional social institutions such as the family and schools.        
    Labeling theory The view that being labeled deviant increases the chances of future deviance.        
    group conflict theory The assumption that criminal law is shaped by the conflict among the various social groups in society that exist because of differences in race and ethnicity, social class, religion, and other factors.        
    radical theory A view that highlights the importance of (economic) social classes more than the importance of religion, ethnicity, and other social group characteristics in shaping the creation and operation of criminal law.        
    plea bargaining An agreement between the prosecution and defense that a criminal defendant will plead guilty, usually in return for a reduced sentence.        
    get-tough approach The use of longer prison terms and other law enforcement measures to reduce crime.        
    public health approach A strategy that highlights the need to prevent illness or disease; in criminology, a strategy that highlights the need to address the factors that lead to criminal behavior.        
    sexual revolution A substantial change during the 1960s and 1970s in many aspects of Americans’ sexual behavior and in how they thought about sex.        
    early childhood intervention (ECI) programs Programs that typically involve visits by social workers, nurses, and other professionals to the homes of children who are at risk for neurological, emotional, and/or behavioral problems during their childhood and adolescence.        
    second-chance homes Maternity group homes for unmarried teen mothers.        
    Prostitution The selling of sexual services.        
    streetwalkers Prostitutes who typically find their customers, or are found by their customers, on a street and who then have a quick act of sex in the customer’s car, in an alleyway or other secluded spot, or in a cheap hotel.        
    Escorts Prostitutes who work for escort agencies and may operate out of an apartment rented by their agency or come to a client’s hotel room or other location.        
    bar or casino workers Prostitutes who work in bars, casinos, or similar establishments.        
    Pornography Printed or visual materials that are sexually explicit and that are intended to arouse sexual excitement rather than artistic appreciation.        
    sexual revolution A substantial change during the 1960s and 1970s in many aspects of Americans’ sexual behavior and in how they thought about sex.        
    early childhood intervention (ECI) programs Programs that typically involve visits by social workers, nurses, and other professionals to the homes of children who are at risk for neurological, emotional, and/or behavioral problems during their childhood and adolescence.        
    second-chance homes Maternity group homes for unmarried teen mothers.        
    Prostitution The selling of sexual services.        
    streetwalkers Prostitutes who typically find their customers, or are found by their customers, on a street and who then have a quick act of sex in the customer’s car, in an alleyway or other secluded spot, or in a cheap hotel.        
    Escorts Prostitutes who work for escort agencies and may operate out of an apartment rented by their agency or come to a client’s hotel room or other location.        
    bar or casino workers Prostitutes who work in bars, casinos, or similar establishments.        
    Pornography Printed or visual materials that are sexually explicit and that are intended to arouse sexual excitement rather than artistic appreciation.        
    family A group of two or more people who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or a mutual commitment and who care for one another.        
    extended family A family in which parents, children, and other relatives live in the same household.        
    cohabit To live together in a romantic, sexual relationship without being married.        
    intimate violence Violence between spouses, ex-spouses, and current and former sexual partners.        
    Child abuse Maltreatment of children in the form of physical or sexual assault, emotional trauma, or neglect.        
    family A group of two or more people who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or a mutual commitment and who care for one another.        
    extended family A family in which parents, children, and other relatives live in the same household.        
    cohabit To live together in a romantic, sexual relationship without being married.        
    intimate violence Violence between spouses, ex-spouses, and current and former sexual partners.        
    Child abuse Maltreatment of children in the form of physical or sexual assault, emotional trauma, or neglect.        
    Informal education Learning that occurs outside the schools, traditionally in the home.        
    educational attainment How far one gets in school, which has been shown to depend heavily on family income and race/ethnicity.        
    credential society A society in which higher education is seen as evidence of the attainment of the needed knowledge and skills for various kinds of jobs.        
    hidden curriculum A set of values and beliefs learned in school that support the status quo, including the existing social hierarchy.        
    de jure segregation School segregation stemming from legal requirements.        
    de facto segregation School segregation stemming from neighborhood residential patterns.        
    charter schools Public schools built and operated by for-profit companies and to which students normally apply for admission.        
    cyberbullying The use of the Internet, cell phones and smartphones, and other digital technologies to bully others.        
    legacy admissions A college admissions policy that gives preference to applicants who are children or other relatives of graduates of the institution.        
    Informal education Learning that occurs outside the schools, traditionally in the home.        
    educational attainment How far one gets in school, which has been shown to depend heavily on family income and race/ethnicity.        
    credential society A society in which higher education is seen as evidence of the attainment of the needed knowledge and skills for various kinds of jobs.        
    hidden curriculum A set of values and beliefs learned in school that support the status quo, including the existing social hierarchy.        
    de jure segregation School segregation stemming from legal requirements.        
    de facto segregation School segregation stemming from neighborhood residential patterns.        
    charter schools Public schools built and operated by for-profit companies and to which students normally apply for admission.        
    cyberbullying The use of the Internet, cell phones and smartphones, and other digital technologies to bully others.        
    legacy admissions A college admissions policy that gives preference to applicants who are children or other relatives of graduates of the institution.        
    economy The social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of a society’s goods and services.        
    tertiary sector The part of the economy that provides services rather than products.        
    Capitalism An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned.        
    Socialism An economic system in which the means of production are collectively owned, usually by the government.        
    democratic socialism An economic system in which the government owns several important industries, but much property remains in private hands, and political freedom is widespread.        
    civilian labor force All noninstitutionalized civilians 16 years old or older who work for pay or are looking for work.        
    capital flight The moving of manufacturing companies from US cities to sites in the developing world in Asia and elsewhere.        
    outsourcing The hiring by US companies of overseas workers for customer care, billing services, and other jobs that Americans used to do.        
    corporation An organization that has a legal existence apart from that of its members.        
    multinational corporation A corporation with headquarters in one nation but with factories and other operations in many other nations.        
    economic inequality The extent of the economic difference between the rich and the poor.        
    embezzlement The stealing of money in its various dimensions (cash, electronic transactions, etc.) by employees from their workplaces.        
    professional fraud Stealing by physicians, attorneys, and other professionals from their patients/clients or from the government.        
    economy The social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of a society’s goods and services.        
    tertiary sector The part of the economy that provides services rather than products.        
    Capitalism An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned.        
    Socialism An economic system in which the means of production are collectively owned, usually by the government.        
    democratic socialism An economic system in which the government owns several important industries, but much property remains in private hands, and political freedom is widespread.        
    civilian labor force All noninstitutionalized civilians 16 years old or older who work for pay or are looking for work.        
    capital flight The moving of manufacturing companies from US cities to sites in the developing world in Asia and elsewhere.        
    outsourcing The hiring by US companies of overseas workers for customer care, billing services, and other jobs that Americans used to do.        
    corporation An organization that has a legal existence apart from that of its members.        
    multinational corporation A corporation with headquarters in one nation but with factories and other operations in many other nations.        
    economic inequality The extent of the economic difference between the rich and the poor.        
    embezzlement The stealing of money in its various dimensions (cash, electronic transactions, etc.) by employees from their workplaces.        
    professional fraud Stealing by physicians, attorneys, and other professionals from their patients/clients or from the government.        
    health care The provision of medical services to prevent, diagnose, and treat health problems.        
    sick role Expectations of how people are supposed to think and act when they are ill.        
    national health insurance A system of medicine in which the government pays all or most of the costs of health care, prescriptions, and other items for the entire population.        
    health disparities Differences in health and illness according to social class, race and ethnicity, and gender.        
    direct-fee system A system of medicine in which patients pay for health care, prescriptions, and other medical costs themselves.        
    health maintenance organizations Prepaid health plans with designated providers that typically enroll their subscribers through their workplaces.        
    single-payer system A program of health insurance for all citizens that is funded and operated by the federal government.        
    health care The provision of medical services to prevent, diagnose, and treat health problems.        
    sick role Expectations of how people are supposed to think and act when they are ill.        
    national health insurance A system of medicine in which the government pays all or most of the costs of health care, prescriptions, and other items for the entire population.        
    health disparities Differences in health and illness according to social class, race and ethnicity, and gender.        
    direct-fee system A system of medicine in which patients pay for health care, prescriptions, and other medical costs themselves.        
    health maintenance organizations Prepaid health plans with designated providers that typically enroll their subscribers through their workplaces.        
    single-payer system A program of health insurance for all citizens that is funded and operated by the federal government.        
    urbanization The rise and growth of cities.        
    urban area Defined generally as an incorporated territory with a population of at least 2,500.        
    megacities Cities with populations over 10 million.        
    Gesellschaft According to Ferdinand Tönnies, the weakening of social ties and personal relationships as societies grow and become industrialized.        
    organic solidarity According to Émile Durkheim, the social ties that still exist in larger, urban societies, which stem from the division of labor.        
    political economy The interaction of political and economic institutions and processes.        
    deviant places Sociologist Rodney Stark’s term for neighborhoods that have severe crowding and other features that promote high crime rates.        
    urbanization The rise and growth of cities.        
    urban area Defined generally as an incorporated territory with a population of at least 2,500.        
    megacities Cities with populations over 10 million.        
    Gesellschaft According to Ferdinand Tönnies, the weakening of social ties and personal relationships as societies grow and become industrialized.        
    organic solidarity According to Émile Durkheim, the social ties that still exist in larger, urban societies, which stem from the division of labor.        
    political economy The interaction of political and economic institutions and processes.        
    deviant places Sociologist Rodney Stark’s term for neighborhoods that have severe crowding and other features that promote high crime rates.        
    demography The study of population growth and changes in population composition.        
    crude birth rate The number of live births for every 1,000 people in a population in a given year.        
    general fertility rate The number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years.        
    total fertility rate The number of children an average woman is expected to have in her lifetime, sometimes expressed as the number of children an average 1,000 women are expected to have in their lifetimes.        
    crude death rate The number of deaths for every 1,000 people in a population in a given year.        
    migration The movement of people into or out of specific regions.        
    natural growth rate The difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate.        
    demographic transition theory A theory that links population growth to the level of technological development across three stages of social evolution.        
    pronatalist Referring to policies that encourage women to have children.        
    environmental sociology The study of the interaction between human behavior and the natural and physical environment.        
    environmental justice Scholarship on environmental inequality and racism, and public policy efforts and activism aimed at reducing these forms of inequality and racism.        
    demography The study of population growth and changes in population composition.        
    crude birth rate The number of live births for every 1,000 people in a population in a given year.        
    general fertility rate The number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years.        
    total fertility rate The number of children an average woman is expected to have in her lifetime, sometimes expressed as the number of children an average 1,000 women are expected to have in their lifetimes.        
    crude death rate The number of deaths for every 1,000 people in a population in a given year.        
    migration The movement of people into or out of specific regions.        
    natural growth rate The difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate.        
    demographic transition theory A theory that links population growth to the level of technological development across three stages of social evolution.        
    pronatalist Referring to policies that encourage women to have children.        
    environmental sociology The study of the interaction between human behavior and the natural and physical environment.        
    environmental justice Scholarship on environmental inequality and racism, and public policy efforts and activism aimed at reducing these forms of inequality and racism.        
    military-industrial complex The close relationships among military leaders, government officials, and defense contractors.        
    militarism An overemphasis on military policy and spending.        
    power elite C. Wright Mills’s term for the government, big business, and the military, which he said collaborate to advance their own interests.        
    imperialism The use of military power and other means to extend a nation’s influence and control over other nations.        
    civil war War within nations.        
    terrorism The use of unexpected violence to intimidate or coerce people in the pursuit of political or social objectives.        
    Vigilante terrorism Terrorism committed by private citizens against other private citizens.        
    Insurgent terrorism Terrorism committed by private citizens against their own government or against businesses and institutions seen as representing the “establishment.”        
    Transnational terrorism Terrorism committed by the citizens of one nation against targets in another nation.        
    State terrorism Violence by a government that is meant to frighten its own citizens and thereby stifle their dissent.        
    military-industrial complex The close relationships among military leaders, government officials, and defense contractors.        
    militarism An overemphasis on military policy and spending.        
    power elite C. Wright Mills’s term for the government, big business, and the military, which he said collaborate to advance their own interests.        
    imperialism The use of military power and other means to extend a nation’s influence and control over other nations.        
    civil war War within nations.        
    terrorism The use of unexpected violence to intimidate or coerce people in the pursuit of political or social objectives.        
    Vigilante terrorism Terrorism committed by private citizens against other private citizens.        
    Insurgent terrorism Terrorism committed by private citizens against their own government or against businesses and institutions seen as representing the “establishment.”        
    Transnational terrorism Terrorism committed by the citizens of one nation against targets in another nation.        
    State terrorism Violence by a government that is meant to frighten its own citizens and thereby stifle their dissent.        
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