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2.6: Chapter Wrap-Up

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    In this chapter, we have learned about various things that can impact interpersonal communication. We learned that Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can impact how messages are received. We learned about the perception process and the three states of the perception process: attending, interpreting, and organizing. We also discussed the various communication models to understand how the process of communication looks in interpersonal situations. Lastly, we briefly overviewed interpersonal communication skills.

    End of Chapter

    Key Terms
    • Action Model
    • Attending
    • Channel
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Environment
    • Ethics
    • Feedback
    • Interaction Model
    • Interpreting
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Model
    • Noise
    • Organizing
    • Perception
    • Receiver
    • Self-Concept
    • Source
    • Transactional Model
    • Uncertainty Reduction Theory
    • Symbol

    Real World Case Study

    Addie and Patrick had been dating for 13 months. They discussed getting married and whether they might have children. One day, it came to light that Patrick had not been paying his credit card bill as he said he would. Addie approached him to ask about the situation. He became very angry with her and a huge fight ensued. They both called each other names and spoke to each other in ways they never expected. After the fight, Addie and Patrick apologized to one another and promised never to talk that way again to each other. Which principle of communication might Addie and Patrick consider as they move forward in their relationship?

    End of Chapter Quiz

    1. Paul tells Jenna that her last name must be Campbell, because she is “Mmmm…good.” Paul is trying to ________ the message to Jenna.
      a. encode
      b. decode
      c. provide feedback
      d. provide noise
      e. none of these
    2. Larry is very hungry because he skipped breakfast. He can’t pay attention to other people because he is focused on his hunger. This type of noise is:
      a. physical
      b. semantic
      c. psychological
      d. physiological
      e. none of these
    3. Which type of schema focuses on the social position?
      a. physical
      b. role
      c. interaction
      d. behavior
      e. psychological
    4. Kara pays attention to advertisements about cars, because she is looking to buy a new car. The reason she is selecting these messages over others is because the ads:
      a. are different
      b. are intense
      c. appeal to her emotional states
      d. appeal to her motives
      e. are repetitious
    5. Mark just met a new student named Jenny. He is trying to learn more about her through her social media sites. According to uncertainty reduction theory, which strategy is Mark using to reduce uncertainty?
      a. passive
      b. active
      c. interactive
      d. non-active
      e. dismissive


    1 Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science, 306(5702), 1776-1780. doi. org/10.1126/science.1103572

    2 Kirchler, E. (1988). Diary reports on daily economic decisions of happy versus unhappy couples. Journal of Economic Psychology, 9(3), 327-357.

    3 Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). Van Nostrand.

    4 Wahba, M. A., & Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 15(2), 212–240. 5073(76)90038-6

    5 Hofstede, G. (1984). The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. The Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 389–398.

    6 Dailey, R. M. (2010). Testing components of confirmation: How acceptance and challenge from mothers, fathers, and siblings are related to adolescent self-concept. Communication Monographs, 77(4), 592–617. https://

    7 Lannoy, S., Chatard, A., Selimbegovic, L., Tello, N., Van der Linden, M., Heeren, A., & Billieux, J. (2020). Too good to be cautious: High implicit self-esteem predicts self-reported dangerous mobile phone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 103, 208-213.

    8 Restivo, S. (2020). The social self: Beyond the myth of individualism. In Einstein’s brain: Genius, culture, and social networks (pp. 19-37). Springer International Publishing.

    9 Berger, C.R. & Calabrese, R.J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1(2), 99- 112.

    10 Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1974). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1(2), 99-112. doi. org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x

    11 Rabin, M., & J. L. Schrag. (1999). First impressions matter: A model of confirmatory bias. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1), 37-82.

    12 Chang, H. H., Fang, P. W., & Huang, C. H. (2016). The impact of on-line consumer reviews on value perception: The dual-process theory and uncertainty reduction. In Web design and development: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 1498-1524). IGI Global.

    13 Byron, K., & Baldridge, D. C. (2007). E-mail recipients’ impressions of senders’ likability: The interactive effect of nonverbal cues and recipients’ personality. The Journal of Business Communication, 44(2), 137-160.

    14 The Associated Press. (2011). BC-FBN--Cowboys-Williams-Engagement Ring,2nd Ld-Writethru, FBN. In AP Regional State Report - Texas. The Associated Press.

    15 O’Sullivan, P. B. (2000). What you don’t know won’t hurt me: Impression management functions of communication channels in relationships. Human Communication Research, 26(3), 403–431. hcr/26.3.403

    16 Ameli, R. (2014). Mindful listening to sounds. In 25 lessons in mindfulness: Now time for healthy living. (pp. 116–119). American Psychological Association.

    17 Freeman, J. B., & Ambady, N. (2011). A dynamic interactive theory of person construal. Psychological Review, 118(2), 247–279.

    18 Adler, R. B., Rosenfeld, L. B., Towne, N., & Scott, M. (1986). Interplay: The process of interpersonal communication. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

    19 Diamond, L. M., & Hicks, A. M. (2012). “It’s the economy, honey!” Couples’ blame attributions during the 2007–2009 economic crisis. Personal Relationships, 19(3), 586–600. 6811.2011.01380.x

    20 Model. (2020).

    21 Weaver, W. & Shannon, C. E. (1963). The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press.

    22 Schramm, W. (1954). How communication works. In The process and effects of communication (pp. 3-26). University of Illinois Press.

    23 Berlo, D. (1960). The process of communication: An introduction to theory and practice. Holt, Reinhart, and Winston.

    24 Mcquail, D. & Windhall, S. (2015). Communication models for the study of mass communications. Routledge.

    25 Watzlawick, P., & Beavin, J. H., & Jackson, D. D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes. Norton.

    26 Barnlund, D. C. (1970). A transactional model of communication. In K. K. Sereno & C. D. Mortensen (Eds.), Foundations of communications theory. Harper & Row.

    27 Wrench, J. S., Goding, A., Johnson, D., and Attias, B. (2011). Stand up, speak out: The practice and ethics of public speaking. Flat World Knowledge. Retrieved from:

    28 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

    29 Tatkin, L. (2019). Couples communication: How mindful communication habits can work miracles in your relationship and why you need to improve your communication skills right now. Author.

    30 Ibid, pg. 6.

    31 Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330(6006), 932.

    32 Thompson, N. (2015). People skills. Macmillan International Higher Education.

    33 Hopkins. L. (2005). People skills: Eight essential people skills. Ezine @rticles. EzineArticles. com/12294

    34 Colman, A. (2008). A dictionary of psychology (3 ed.). Oxford University Press.

    35 National Communication Association. (2017). Credo for ethical communication. snzsxzb

    36 Morreale, S. P., Valenzano, J. M., & Bauer, J. A. (2016). Why communication education is important: A third study on the centrality of the discipline. Communication Education, 66(4), 402-422. 03634523.2016.1265136; pg. 412.

    37 Hart, R. P., & Burks, D. M. (1972). Rhetorical sensitivity and social interaction. Speech Monographs, 39(2), 75-91.; pg. 76.

    End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key

    1. A
    2. C
    3. B
    4. D
    5. B

    2.6: Chapter Wrap-Up is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jason S. Wrench, Narissra M. Punyanunt-Carter & Katherine S. Thweatt (OpenSUNY) via source content that was edited to conform to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.