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3.4: Chapter Wrap-Up

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    115933
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    In addition to your personality, your biologically based temperament also plays an important role in how you interact with others interpersonally. As discussed in this chapter, your temperament is identifiable at birth, whereas, your personality is something that develops over your lifespan. Although we cannot change the biological aspects of our temperament, we can learn how to adjust our behaviors in light of our temperaments.

    End of Chapter

    Key Terms
    • Affectionless Psychopathy
    • Affective Orientation
    • Anxious Shyness
    • Argumentativeness
    • Assertiveness
    • Authoritarianism
    • Cognitive Dispositions
    • Communication Apprehension
    • Communication Dispositions
    • Depression
    • Dismissing Attachment
    • Dogmatism
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Emotional Loneliness
    • Empathy
    • External Locus of Control
    • Extraversion
    • Fearful Attachment
    • Ideal-Self
    • Internal Locus of Control
    • Intrapersonal
    • Intrapersonal Communication
    • Introversion
    • Locus of Control
    • Loneliness
    • Machiavellianism
    • Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis
    • Narcissism
    • Personality
    • Preoccupied Attachment
    • Rejection Sensitivity
    • Relational Dispositions
    • Responsiveness
    • Right-Wing Authoritarians
    • Secure Attachment
    • Self-Concept
    • Self-Conscious Shyness
    • Self-Esteem
    • Self-Image
    • Self-Monitoring
    • Self-Worth
    • Shyness
    • Social Loneliness
    • Social-Personal Dispositions
    • Sociocommunicative Orientation
    • Temperament
    • Verbal Aggression
    • Versatility
    • Willingness to Communicate

    Real World Case Study

    John’s mother, Kathleen, was 16 years old when he was born. Kathleen’s mother had died during her childbirth because she had refused to get cancer treatments, which could have harmed her unborn child. After Kathleen’s birth and her mother’s death, Kathleen’s father was always cold towards his daughter and often blamed her for his wife’s death.

    When Kathleen entered her teenage years, she started acting out and started participating in several risky behaviors, which is how she ended up pregnant at 16. After John’s birth, Kathleen was simply ill-equipped to handle a child, let alone attempt to bond with a child. During John’s first two years of life, he was often dropped at Kathleen’s friends’ houses or even her grandmother’s house, and then Kathleen would disappear for days. After two years of attempting to raise John, Kathleen’s grandmother convinced her to put her child up for adoption.

    When John was two, he was adopted by Bobby and Priscilla Wright. The couple already had one child, Mikey, and they desperately wanted another child, but Priscilla was unable to have more children, so the addition of John to their family was very welcome. Although Bobby and Priscilla were amazing parents, John always felt somewhat disconnected.

    In school, John rarely kept the same friends as he progressed through his education. He found it easy to leave one set of friends behind and create a new set wherever he went. He often found it very odd when people were still friends with people they’d known since birth. This same pattern of behavior continued into adulthood, and John quickly found himself with a small circle of friends. Honestly, he was horrible at keeping up with his friends. It’s not that he didn’t like his friends, but he felt that friends needed to fit into his schedule. As time went by, he quickly found himself with more and more acquaintances and fewer and fewer closer relationships. Even his relationship with his family seemed remote and non-essential. He loved his family, but they were almost out of sight, out of mind since they were on the other side of the country.

    When John turned 40, he started trying to figure out how his social and relationship life was in such shambles. He wanted to have relationships with other people but simply didn’t know how.

    1. Based on the information contained in the case, how would you characterize John in this story?
    2. Apply John Bowlby’s theory of attachment to this story.
    3. Apply Karen Horney’s theory of rejection sensitivity to this story.

    End of Chapter Quiz

    1. Which of the following is NOT one of Charles Horton Cooley’s postulates related to the “looking-glass self?”
      a. Actors learn about themselves in every situation by exercising their imagination to reflect on their social performance.
      b. Actors next imagine what those others must think of them.
      c. Actors assess those perceptions through prior interactions with others.
      d. Actors experience an affective reaction to the imagined evaluation of the other
    2. Which of the following is the truest statement about the relationship between communication and self-esteem?
      a. There is no relationship between communication and self-esteem.
      b. One’s self-esteem impacts how he/she/they communicate.
      c. One’s communication impacts an individual’s self-esteem.
      d. There is a circular relationship between self-esteem and communication.
    3. Which of John Daly’s personality dispositions refers to general patterns of mental processes that impact how people socially relate to others or view themselves?
      a. Cognitive
      b. Communicative
      c. Relational
      d. Personal-social
    4. Jerry is highly in-tune with his emotions. He generally believes that whatever his feelings are telling him to do, it’s probably the right thing for him to do. What personality trait is Jerry exhibiting?
      a. Cognitive complexity
      b. Affective orientation
      c. Emotional intelligence
      d. Shyness
    5. Which of Kim Bartholomew and Leonard Horowitz’s attachment styles describes individuals who see themselves as unworthy of love and generally believe that others will react negatively through either deception or rejection?
      a. Alienated
      b. Dismissing
      c. Fearful
      d. Secure

    References

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    3 Riccillo, S. C. (1994). Phylogenesis: Understanding the biological origins of intrapersonal communication. In D. R. Vocate (Ed.), Intrapersonal communication: Different voices, different minds (pp. 33-56). Lawrence Erlbaum; 35.

    4 Baumeister, R. F. (1999). The self in social psychology. Psychology Press. pg. 247.

    5 Anderson, N. H. (1968). Likableness ratings of 555 personality-trait words. Journal of Social Psychology, 9, 272-279.

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    8 Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R. K., Cooper, M. L., & Bouvrette, A.. (2012). Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale. Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved from www.midss.org/sites/default/files/ contingencies_of_self-worth_scale.pdf

    9 Ackerman, C. (2019, May 17). What is self-worth and how do we increase it? Positive Psychology Program. Retrieved from positivepsychologyprogram.com/self-worth/

    10 Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context (pp. 184-256). McGraw Hill.

    11 Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. Scribner’s; pg. 184. Retrieved from brocku. ca/MeadProject/Cooley/Cooley_1902/Cooley_1902toc.html

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    13 Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., & Davis, P. J. (2013). The positive effects of mindfulness on self-esteem. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(5), 376-386. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2013.807353

    14 Ibid.

    15 Nauman, E. (2014, March 10). Feeling self-critical? Try mindfulness. Greater Good Magazine. https:// greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/feeling_self_critical_try_mindfulness

    16 Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2(2), 85-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309032

    17 Ibid pgs. 86-87.

    18 Ibid; pg. 87.

    19 Ibid; pg. 89.

    20 Neff, K., & Germer, C. (2018). The mindful self-compassion workbook: A proven way to accept yourself, build inner strength, and thrive. Guilford.

    21 Neff, K., & Germer, C. (2018). The mindful self-compassion workbook: A proven way to accept yourself, build inner strength, and thrive. Guilford; pg. 11.

    22 Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2(2), 85-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309032; pg. 89.

    23 Simon, S. B. (1977). Vulture: A modern allegory on the art of putting oneself down. Argus Communications.

    24 Ibid; pgs. 48-49.

    25 Richmond, V. P., Wrench, J. S., & Gorham, J. (2020). Communication, affect, and learning in the classroom (4th ed.). Authors. http://www.jasonswrench.com/pdf/CommAffect4.pdf

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    27 Daly, J. A. (2002). Personality and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (3rd ed., pp. 133-180). Sage; pg. 144.

    28 Galton, F. (1875). The history of twins, as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture. Fraser’s Magazine, 12, 566-576. Retrieved from: http://galton.org/essays/1870-1879/g...tory-twins.pdf

    29 Ibid; pg. 576.

    30 Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223-228. doi. org/10.1126/science.2218526

    31 Hoersten, J. (2015, July 28). Reunited after 39 years: A look back at the ‘Jim Twins.’ Lima News. Retrieved from: https://www.limaohio.com/features/li...after-39-years

    32 Segal, N. L. (2012). Born together – Reared apart: The landmark Minnesota Twin Study. Harvard University Press.

    33 Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223-228. doi. org/10.1126/science.2218526

    34 Horvath, C. W. (1995). Biological origins of communicator style. Communication Quarterly, 43(4), 394–407. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379509369987

    35 Norton, R. W. (1978). Foundation of a communicator style construct. Human Communication Research, 4(2), 99–112. doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1978.tb00600.x

    36 Beatty, M. J., Heisel, A. D., Hall, A. E., Levine, T. R., & La France, B. H. (2002). What can we learn from the study of twins about genetic and environmental influences on interpersonal affiliation, aggressiveness, and social anxiety? A meta-analytic study. Communication Monographs, 69(1), 1-18. doi. org/10.1080/03637750216534

    37 Hazel, M., Karst, J., Saezkleriga, G., Wongprasert, T. K., & Ayres, J. (2017). Testing the communibiological paradigm: The similarity of fraternal and identical twins across three communication variables. Northwest Journal of Communication, 45(1), 37–51.

    38 Beatty, M. J., Marshall, L. A., & Rudd, J. E. (2001). A twins study of communicative adaptability: Heritability of individual differences. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 87(4), 366–377. doi. org/10.1080/00335630109384346

    39 Strelau, J. (1987). Emotion as a key concept in temperament research. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 510-528; pg. 182.

    40 Keirsey, D., & Marilyn, B. (1984). Please understand me: Character & temperament types (4th ed.). Prometheus Nemesis.

    41 Keirsey, D. (1998) Please understand me II. Prometheus Nemesis.

    42 Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1958). Stability of personality trait rating factors obtained under diverse conditions. (Technical Note WADC· TN-58-6L) Personnel Laboratory, Wright Air Development Center: Lackland Air Force Base, TX.

    43 Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings (USAF ASD Technical Report No. 61-97). Aeronautical Systems Division, Personnel Laboratory: Lackland Air Force Base, TX. (Reprinted as Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E, [1992]. Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings. Journal of Personality, 60, 225-251.)

    44 McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1983). Joint factors in self-reports and ratings: Neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience. Personality and Individual Differences, 4(3), 245–255. doi.org/10.1016/0191- 8869(83)90146-0

    45 Ibid

    46 Daly, J. A. (2011). Personality and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 131-167). Sage.

    47 Ibid pg. 144.

    48 Burleson, B. R., & Caplan, S. E. (1998). Cognitive complexity. In J. C. McCroskey, J. A. Daly, M. M. Martin, & M. J. Beatty (Eds.), Communication and personality: Trait perspectives (pp. 233-286). Hampton Press; pg. 239.

    49 Wrench, J. S., McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (2008). Human communication in everyday life: Explanations and applications. Allyn & Bacon.

    50 Daly, J. A. (2002). Personality and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (3rd ed., pp. 133-180). Sage; pg. 144.

    51 Altemeyer, B. (2006). The Authoritarians. Winnipeg, Canada, Author; pg. 9.

    52 Manuel, L. (2006). Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles. Psychological Reports, 98(1), 193-198. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.98.1.193-198

    53 Walker, W. D., Rowe, R. C., & Quinsey, V. L. (1993). Authoritarianism and Sexual Aggression. Journal Of Personality & Social Psychology, 65(5), 1036-1045.

    54 Altemeyer, B. (2006). The Authoritarians. Winnipeg, Canada, Author.

    55 Goleman, D. P. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health and lifelong achievement. Bantam Books.

    56 Bar-On, R., Parker, J. D. A., & Goleman, D. (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school and in the workplace. Jossey-Bass.

    57 Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185- 211.

    58 Booth-Butterfield, M., & Booth-Butterfield, S. (1994). The affective orientation to communication: Conceptual and empirical distinctions. Communication Quarterly, 42(4), 331-344. doi. org/10.1080/01463379409369941

    59 Ibid; pg. 332.

    60 Booth-Butterfield, M., & Booth-Butterfield, S. (1996). Using your emotions: Improving the measurement of affective orientation. Communication Research Reports, 13(2), 157-163. doi. org/10.1080/08824099609362082

    61 Ibid; pg. 159.

    62 Booth-Butterfield, M., & Sidelinger, R. J. (1997). The relationship between parental traits and open family communication: Affective orientation and verbal aggression. Communication Research Reports, 14(4), 408-417. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099709388684

    63 Daly, J. A. (2011). Personality and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 131-167). Sage.

    64 Anderson, C. A., Miller, R. S., Riger, A. L., Dill, J. C., & Sedikides, C. (1994). Behavioral and chategorlogical attributional styles as predictors of depression and loneliness: Review, refinement, and test. Journal of Personality and Social Relationships, 66(3), 549-558.

    65 Vangelisti, A. L., Knapp, M. L., & Daly, J. A. (1990). Conversational narcissism. Communication Monographs, 57(4), 251-274. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637759009376202

    66 Christie, R., & Geis, F. L. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. Academic Press.

    67 Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 526-537. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0037039

    68 Daly, J. A. (2011). Personality and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 131-167). Sage.

    69 Beatty, M. J., & McCroskey, J. C., & Valencic, K. M. (2001). The biology of communication: A communibiological perspective. Hampton Press. 70 Richmond, V. P., Wrench, J. S., & McCroskey, J. C. (2018). Scared speechless: Cmmunication apprehension, avoidance, and effectiveness (7th ed.). Kendall-Hunt. 71 Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Addison-Wesley. 72 McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1982). Communication apprehension and shyness: Conceptual and operational distinctions. Central States Speech Journal, 33, 458-468.

    73 Buss, A. (2009). Anxious and self-conscious shyness. In J. A. Daly, J. C. McCroskey, J. Ayers, T. Hopf, D. M. Ayres Sonandre, & T. K. Wongprasert (Eds.), Avoiding communication: Shyness, reticence, and communication apprehension (3rd ed., pp. 129-148). Hampton Press.

    74 McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Classroom consequences of communication apprehension. Communication Education, 26(1), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634527709378196; pg. 28.

    75 McCroskey, J. C. (1982). An introduction to rhetorical communication (4th ed.). Prentice-Hall.

    76 Richmond, V. P., Wrench, J. S., & McCroskey, J. C. (2018). Scared speechless: Cmmunication apprehension, avoidance, and effectiveness (7th ed.). Kendall-Hunt.

    77 Colby, N., Hopf, T., & Ayres, J. (1993). Nice to meet you? Inter/intrapersonal perceptions of communication apprehension in initial interactions. Communication Quarterly, 41(2), 221-230. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/01463379309369881

    78 McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1987). Willingness to communicate. In J. C. McCroskey & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and interpersonal communication (pp. 129-156). Sage.

    79 Richmond, V. P., Wrench, J. S., & McCroskey, J. C. (2013). Communication apprehension, avoidance, and effectiveness (6th ed.). Allyn & Bacon; pg. 18.

    80 Infante, D. A., & Wigley, C. J. (1986). Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure. Communication Monographs, 53(1), 61-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758609376126; pg. 61.

    81 Kinney, T. A. (1994). An inductively derived typology of verbal aggression and its relationship to distress. Human Communication Research, 21(2), 183-222. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1994.tb00345.x

    82 Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1982). A conceptualization and measure of argumentativeness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46(1), 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4601_13 pg. 72.

    83 Myers, S. A., & Johnson, A. D. (2003). Verbal aggression and liking in interpersonal relationships. Communication Research Reports, 20(1), 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090309388803

    84 Martin, M. M., Anderson, C. M., & Horvath, C. L. (1996). Feelings about verbal aggression: Justifications for sending and hurt from receiving verbally aggressive messages. Communication Research Reports, 13(1), 19- 26. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099609362066

    85 Semic, B. A., & Canary, D. J. (1997). Trait argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, and minimally rational argument: An observational analysis of friendship discussions. Communication Quarterly, 45(4), 354-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379709370071

    86 Sandra, B. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(2), 155–162. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0036215

    87 Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1985). Communication apprehension, avoidance, and effectiveness. Gorsuch Scarisbrick.

    88 Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1990). Reliability and separation of factors on the assertiveness-responsiveness measure. Psychological Reports, 67(2), 449–450. doi.org/10.2466/PR0.67.6.449-450

    89 Richmond, V. P., & Martin, M. M. (1998). Sociocommunicative style and sociocommunicative orientation. In J. C. McCroskey, J. A. Daly, M. M. Martin, & M. J. Beatty (Eds.), Communication and personality: Trait perspectives (pp. 133-148). Hampton Press; pgs. 136-137.

    90 Richmond, V. P., & Martin, M. M. (1998). Sociocommunicative style and sociocommunicative orientation. In J. C. McCroskey, J. A. Daly, M. M. Martin, & M. J. Beatty (Eds.), Communication and personality: Trait perspectives (pp. 133-148). Hampton Press; pg. 136.

    91 McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1996). Fundamentals of human communication: An interpersonal perspective. Waveland Press.

    92 Richmond, V. P., & Martin, M. M. (1998). Sociocommunicative style and sociocommunicative orientation. In J. C. McCroskey, J. A. Daly, M. M. Martin, & M. J. Beatty (Eds.), Communication and personality: Trait perspectives (pp. 133-148). Hampton Press; pg. 138.

    93 Patterson, B. R., & Beckett, C. (1995). A re-examination of relational repair and reconciliation: Impact of socio-communicative style on strategy selection. Communication Research Reports, 12(2), 235–240. doi. org/10.1080/08824099509362061

    94 Daly, J. A. (2011). Personality and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 131-167). Sage.

    95 Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2: Separation. Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (I980). Attachment and loss, Vol. 3: Loss, sadness and depression. Basic Books.

    96 Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. Basic Books.

    97 Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0022- 3514.61.2.226

    98 Guerrero, L. K., & Burgoon, J. K. (1996). Attachment styles and reactions to nonverbal involvement change in romantic dyads. Human Communication Research, 22(3), 335-370. doi. org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1996.tb00371.x

    99 Horney, K. (1937). The neurotic personality of our time. W. W. Norton and Company.

    100 Ibid; pg. 135.

    101 Ibid; pg. 136.

    102 Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2: Separation. Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (I980). Attachment and loss, Vol. 3: Loss, sadness and depression. Basic Books.

    103 Downey, G., Freitas, A. L., Michaelis, B., & Khouri, H. (1998). The self-fulfilling prophecy in close relationships: Rejection sensitivity and rejection by romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(2), 545-560. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.545

    104 Downey, G., & Feldman, S. I. (1996). Implications of rejection sensitivity for intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(6), 1327-1343. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.6.1327

    End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key

    1. C
    2. D
    3. D
    4. B
    5. C

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