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5.1: Introduction to Chapter 5
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- Young children’s development can be conceptualized in four main areas: physical, intellectual, emotional, and social.
- Understanding how children develop is important to ensure healthy developmental progression.
- While there are many commonalities, there are also individual and cultural differences in development such that development is not identical for each child.
- High-quality classroom settings and practices should support individual and cultural developmental needs.
- Atypical development: When a child does not develop in the way that is congruent with averages for a given age, causing a disturbance to everyday activities.
- Child development: The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through adolescence.
- Culturally relevant pedagogy: The practice of including ideas and artifacts that refer to a child’s individual culture.
- Developmentally appropriate practice: Methods that promote each child’s optimal development and learning through a strengths-based, play-based approach to joyful, engaged learning.
- Developmental domains: Specific areas in which growth occurs – Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Social.
- Differentiation: The thoughtful practice of tailoring activities to meet children’s individual needs.
- Early childhood period: Ages birth through age eight.
- Executive function: Collection of processes that encompass attention, working memory, and inhibition.
- Fine motor skills: Movement related to small muscle groups in the body.
- Gross motor skills: Movement related to the large muscle groups in the body.
- Joint attention: The action of a child and a caregiver focusing on the same object or concept at the same time.
- Metacognition: Self-reflection; an ability to think about one’s own thoughts.
- Open-ended questions: Questions that do not have a yes or no answer.
- Separation anxiety: A fear of being separated from their primary caregiver.
- Temperament: An infant’s regular way of reacting with their environment.
- Toxic stress: Physical or emotional abuse, neglect, witnessing of physical or emotional abuse of another person, or extreme poverty.
- Typical development: When a child develops in the way that is congruent with averages for a given age.