Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

10.5: Notes

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    1 Guy Standing, The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class (London: Bloomsbury, 2011).

    2 Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (New York: Routledge, 2006 [1942]).

    3 ABS, “8515.0—Digital Game Development Services, Australia, 2006–2007,” last issue April 8, 2008.

    4 Ibid.; ABS, “8679.0—Film, Television, and Digital Games, Australia, 2011–2012,” last issue June 18, 2013.

    5 Antony Reed, CEO, GDAA, interview with the authors, Melbourne, August 28, 2014.

    6 Ibid.

    7 Antony Reed, e-mail message to authors, September 30, 2014.

    8 Rachel Parker, Stephen Cox, and Paul Thompson, “How Technological Change Affects Power Relations in Global Markets: Remote Developers in the Console and Mobile Games Industry,” Environment and Planning A 46.1 (2014): 168–185.

    9 John Vanderhoef and Michael Curtin, “The Crunch Heard Round the World: The Global Era of Digital Game Labor,” in Production Studies: The Sequel! ed. Bridget Conor, Miranda Banks, and Vicki Mayer (New York: Routledge, 2015).

    10 Larissa Hjorth, “Games: Mobile, Locative and Social,” in The Media and Communications in Australia, ed. Stuart Cunningham and Sue Turnbull (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2014), 281.

    11 See John Banks, “The iPhone as Innovation Platform: Reimagining the Videogames Developer,” in Studying Mobile Media: Cultural Technologies, Mobile Communication, and the iPhone, ed. Larissa Hjorth, Jean Burgess, and Ingrid Richardson (New York: Routledge, 2012), 155–172.

    12 John Banks and Stuart Cunningham, “Games and Entertainment Software,” in Handbook of the Digital Creative Economy, ed. Ruth Towse and Christian Handke (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013), 416–427.

    13 “Number of Available Apps in the Apple App Store from July 2008 to September 2014,” October 12, 2014,; “Most Popular Apple App Store Categories in September 2014, by Share of Available Apps,” October 12, 2014,

    14 Innovation, captured in Schumpeter’s powerful phrase creative destruction, can have extraordinarily two-edged social, economic, and cultural effects. Runaway innovation occurs when change outstrips even its progenitors’ comfort and control. See, e.g., David Lane, “Towards an Agenda for Social Innovation,” European Centre for Living Technology, uploads/2014/02/Social-Innovation-Manifesto_INSITE.pdf, 2–3.

    15 The research on which this chapter draws includes semistructured interviews conducted in Q3 2014 by the authors with sixteen developers from eight development studios, as well as with leaders in the games association and in government program support.

    16 Dean Ferguson, interview with John Banks, August 21, 2014.

    17 Morgan Jaffit, interview with John Banks, November 27, 2014.

    18 Trent Kusters, interview with John Banks, September 24, 2014.

    19 For a short history, see Banks, “The iPhone as Innovation Platform.”

    20 Wicked Witch CEO Daniel Visser, interview with John Banks, September 23, 2014.

    21 “Armello Press Kit,”

    22 Trent Kusters interview.

    23 Ibid.

    24 Ibid.

    25 Simon Joslin, interview with the authors, August 29, 2014.

    26 Ibid.

    27 George Fidler, interview with the authors, September 10, 2014.

    28 Ibid.

    29 The Media, Entertainment & Arts Alliance (MEAA), the largest and most established union and industry advocate for Australia’s creative professionals, has no section for games.

    30 Christian McCrea, “Australian Video Games: The Collapse and Reconstruction of an Industry,” in Gaming Globally, ed. Nina Huntemann and Ben Aslinger (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 203–207.

    31 Screen Australia, “Australian Interactive Games Fund Industry Consultation: Objectives and Context,”

    32 Queensland, the major northern state, and Victoria, the major southern state, have been the twin centers of the Australian industry; the largest state located between them (New South Wales) has had a smaller proportion of the industry.

    33 Entertainment and Software Association, “2014 Sales Demographic and Usage Data: Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry,” ESA (2014), uploads/2014/10/ESA_EF_2014.pdf; DataGenetics, “Casual Games Demographics,”

    34 IGDA, “Press Release: IGDA Developer Satisfaction Survey Results Are Released,”

    35 Casey O’Donnell, Developer’s Dilemma: The Secret World of Videogame Creators (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2014).

    36 Ibid., 28.

    37 Ibid., 74.

    38 Ibid., 161.

    39 Antony Reed, interview with the authors, August 28, 2014.

    40 Mark Deuze, Chase Bowen Martin, and Christian Allen, “The Professional Identity of Gameworkers,” Convergence 31 (2007): 336.

    41 Casey O’Donnell, “This Is Not a Software Industry,” in The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State and Future, ed. P. Zackariasson & T.L. Wilson (New York: Routledge, 2012), 17–33.

    42 Gina Neff, Venture Labor: Work and the Burden of Risk in Innovative Industries (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2012).

    This page titled 10.5: Notes is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by John Banks & Stuart Cunningham (University of California Press) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.