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10.13: The Global Gender Gap Report

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    5948
  • [ "article:topic", "Global Gender Gap Report" ]

    The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2014 report covers 144 major and emerging economies. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.

    Methodology

    The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gaps. The assumption is that women are strictly disadvantaged compared to men and as such, only measures where women are traditionally disadvantaged to men are used. Information about gender imbalances to the advantage of women is explicitly prevented from affecting the score.[1] So, for example, the indicator “number of years of a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value” would score 1 if the number of years was 25, but would still score 1 if the number of years was 50. Due to this methodology, gender gaps that favor women over men are reported as equality.

    The three highest ranking countries have closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest ranking country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap. It “assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities,” the Report says.[2] “By providing a comprehensible framework for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these resources equitably between women and men, the Report serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater exchange between policymakers.”[2]

    The report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in 130 economies around the globe, over 93% of the world’s population:

    • Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
    • Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
    • Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures
    • Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. In this case parity is not assumed, there are assumed to be less female births than male (944 female for every 1,000 males), and men are assumed to die younger. Provided that women live at least six percent longer than men parity is assumed, if it is less than six percent it counts as a gender gap.[3]

    Thirteen out of the fourteen variables used to create the index are from publicly available “hard data” indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.[4]

    WEF Global Gender Gap Index Rankings

    The highest possible score is 1 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan, 106% or better for women) and the lowest possible score is 0. Data for some countries are unavailable.[5][6][7]

    2014_Gender_gap_index_world_map,_Gender_Inequality_Distribution.svg.png

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) - The WEF Gender gap index world map for 2014[8]

    Country Region Year[note 1]
    2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[8]
     
    Albania
    Europe 0.6607 0.6685 0.6591 0.6601 0.6726 0.6748 0.6655 0.6412 0.6869  
     
    Algeria
    Africa 0.6018 0.6068 0.6111 0.6119 0.6052 0.5991 0.6112 0.5966 0.6182  
     
    Angola
    Africa 0.6039 0.6034 0.6032 0.6353 0.6712 0.6624 N/A 0.6659 0.6311  

     Argentina
    South America 0.6829 0.6982 0.7209 0.7211 0.7187 0.7236 0.7212 0.7195 0.7317  
     
    Armenia
    Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6651 0.6677 0.6619 0.6669 0.6654 0.6636 0.6634 0.6622  
     
    Australia
    Oceania 0.7163 0.7204 0.7241 0.7282 0.7271 0.7291 0.7294 0.7390 0.7409  
     
    Austria
    Europe 0.6986 0.7060 0.7153 0.7031 0.7091 0.7165 0.7391 0.7437 0.7266  

     Azerbaijan
    Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6781 0.6856 0.6626 0.6446 0.6577 0.6546 0.6582 0.6753  
     
    Bahamas
    North America N/A N/A N/A 0.7179 0.7128 0.7340 0.7156 0.7128 0.7269  
     
    Bahrain
    Middle East 0.5894 0.5931 0.5927 0.6136 0.6217 0.6232 0.6298 0.6334 0.6261  

     Bangladesh
    South Asia 0.6270 0.6314 0.6531 0.6526 0.6702 0.6812 0.6684 0.6848 0.6973  

     Barbados
    North America N/A N/A 0.7188 0.7236 0.7176 0.7170 0.7232 0.7301 0.7289  
     
    Belgium
    Europe 0.7078 0.7198 0.7163 0.7165 0.7509 0.7531 0.7652 0.7684 0.7809  
     
    Belize
    North America N/A 0.6426 0.6610 0.6636 0.6536 0.6489 0.6465 0.6449 0.6701  
     
    Benin
    Africa 0.5780 0.5656 0.5582 0.5643 0.5719 0.5832 0.6258 0.5885 N/A  
     
    Bhutan
    South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6651 0.6364  
     
    Bolivia
    South America 0.6335 0.6574 0.6667 0.6693 0.6751 0.6862 0.7222 0.7340 0.7049  

     Botswana
    Africa 0.6897 0.6797 0.6839 0.7071 0.6876 0.6832 0.6744 0.6752 0.7129  
     
    Brazil
    South America 0.6543 0.6637 0.6737 0.6695 0.6655 0.6679 0.6909 0.6949 0.6941  
     
    Brunei Darussalam
    Southeast Asia N/A N/A 0.6392 0.6524 0.6748 0.6787 0.6750 0.6730 0.6719  
     
    Bulgaria
    Europe 0.6870 0.7085 0.7077 0.7072 0.6983 0.6987 0.7021 0.7097 0.7444  
     
    Burkina Faso
    Africa 0.5854 0.5912 0.6029 0.6081 0.6162 0.6153 0.6455 0.6513 0.6500  
     
    Burundi
    Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7270 0.7338 0.7397 0.7565  

     Cambodia
    Southeast Asia 0.6291 0.6353 0.6469 0.6410 0.6482 0.6464 0.6457 0.6509 0.6520  
     
    Cameroon
    Africa 0.5865 0.5919 0.6017 0.6108 0.6110 0.6073 0.6291 0.6560 N/A  
     
    Canada
    North America 0.7165 0.7198 0.7136 0.7196 0.7372 0.7407 0.7381 0.7425 0.7464  
     
    Cape Verde
    Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7180 0.7122 0.7133  
     
    Chad
    Africa 0.5247 0.5381 0.5290 0.5417 0.5330 0.5334 0.5594 0.5588 0.5764  
     
    Chile
    South America 0.6455 0.6482 0.6818 0.6884 0.7013 0.7030 0.6676 0.6670 0.6975  
     
    China
    East Asia 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 0.6853 0.6908 0.6830  
     
    Colombia
    South America 0.7049 0.7090 0.6944 0.6939 0.6927 0.6714 0.6901 0.7171 0.7122  
     
    Costa Rica
    North America 0.6936 0.7014 0.7111 0.7180 0.7194 0.7266 0.7225 0.7241 0.7165  
     
    Côte d’Ivoire
    Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.5691 0.5773 0.5785 0.5814 0.5874  
     
    Croatia
    Europe 0.7145 0.7210 0.6967 0.6944 0.6939 0.7006 0.7053 0.7069 0.7075  
     
    Cuba
    North America N/A 0.7169 0.7195 0.7176 0.7253 0.7394 0.7417 0.7540 0.7317  
     
    Cyprus
    Europe and Middle East 0.6430 0.6522 0.6694 0.6706 0.6642 0.6567 0.6732 0.6801 0.6741  
     
    Czech Republic
    Europe 0.6712 0.6718 0.6770 0.6789 0.6850 0.6789 0.6767 0.6770 0.6737  
     
    Denmark
    Europe 0.7462 0.7519 0.7538 0.7628 0.7719 0.7778 0.7777 0.7779 0.8025  

     Dominican Republic
    North America 0.6639 0.6705 0.6744 0.6859 0.6774 0.6682 0.6659 0.6867 0.6906  
     
    Ecuador
    South America 0.6433 0.6881 0.7091 0.7220 0.7072 0.7035 0.7206 0.7389 0.7455  
     
    Egypt
    Middle East and Africa 0.5786 0.5809 0.5832 0.5862 0.5899 0.5933 0.5975 0.5935 0.6064  
     
    El Salvador
    North America 0.6837 0.6853 0.6875 0.6939 0.6596 0.6567 0.6630 0.6609 0.6863  
     
    Estonia
    Europe 0.6944 0.7008 0.7076 0.7094 0.7018 0.6983 0.6977 0.6997 0.7017  
     
    Ethiopia
    Africa 0.5946 0.5991 0.5867 0.5948 0.6019 0.6136 0.6200 0.6198 0.6144  
     
    Fiji
    Oceania N/A N/A N/A 0.6414 0.6256 0.6255 0.6285 0.6286 0.6286  
     
    Finland
    Europe 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 0.8451 0.8421 0.8453  
     
    France
    Europe 0.6520 0.6824 0.7341 0.7331 0.7025 0.7018 0.6984 0.7089 0.7588  
     
    Gambia, The
    Africa 0.6448 0.6421 0.6622 0.6752 0.6762 0.6763 0.6630 N/A N/A  
     
    Georgia
    Europe and Central Asia 0.6700 0.6665 0.6654 0.6680 0.6598 0.6624 0.6691 0.6750 0.6855  
     
    Germany
    Europe 0.7524 0.7618 0.7394 0.7449 0.7530 0.7590 0.7629 0.7583 0.7780  
     
    Ghana
    Africa 0.6653 0.6725 0.6679 0.6704 0.6782 0.6811 0.6778 0.6811 0.6661  
     
    Greece
    Europe 0.6540 0.6648 0.6727 0.6662 0.6908 0.6916 0.6716 0.6782 0.6784  

     Guatemala
    North America 0.6067 0.6144 0.6072 0.6209 0.6238 0.6229 0.6260 0.6304 0.6821  
     
    Guyana
    South America N/A N/A N/A 0.7108 0.7090 0.7084 0.7119 0.7085 0.7010  

     Honduras
    North America 0.6483 0.6661 0.6960 0.6893 0.6927 0.6945 0.6763 0.6773 0.6935  
     
    Hungary
    Europe 0.6698 0.6731 0.6867 0.6879 0.6720 0.6642 0.6718 0.6742 0.6759  

     Iceland
    Europe 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 0.8640 0.8731 0.8594 0.881

     India
    South Asia 0.6011 0.5936 0.6060 0.6151 0.6155 0.6190 0.6442 0.6551 0.6455 0.664
     
    Indonesia
    Southeast Asia 0.6541 0.6550 0.6473 0.6580 0.6615 0.6594 0.6591 0.6613 0.6725  
     
    Iran, Islamic Rep.
    Middle East 0.5803 0.5903 0.6021 0.5839 0.5933 0.5894 0.5927 0.5842 0.5811  
     
    Ireland
    Europe 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 0.7839 0.7823 0.7850  
     
    Israel
    Middle East 0.6889 0.6965 0.6900 0.7019 0.6957 0.6926 0.6989 0.7032 0.7005  
     
    Italy
    Europe 0.6456 0.6498 0.6788 0.6798 0.6765 0.6796 0.6729 0.6885 0.6973  
     
    Jamaica
    North America 0.7014 0.6925 0.6980 0.7013 0.7037 0.7028 0.7035 0.7085 0.7128  
     
    Japan
    East Asia 0.6447 0.6455 0.6434 0.6447 0.6524 0.6514 0.6530 0.6498 0.6584  
     
    Jordan
    Middle East 0.6109 0.6203 0.6275 0.6182 0.6048 0.6117 0.6103 0.6093 0.5968  

     Kazakhstan
    Central Asia 0.6928 0.6983 0.6976 0.7013 0.7055 0.7010 0.7213 0.7218 0.7210  
     
    Kenya
    Africa 0.6486 0.6508 0.6547 0.6512 0.6499 0.6493 0.6768 0.6803 0.7258  
     
    Korea, Rep.
    East Asia 0.6157 0.6409 0.6154 0.6146 0.6342 0.6281 0.6356 0.6351 0.6403  
     
    Kuwait
    Middle East 0.6341 0.6409 0.6358 0.6356 0.6318 0.6322 0.6320 0.6292 0.6457  
     
    Kyrgyz Republic
    Central Asia 0.6742 0.6653 0.7045 0.7058 0.6973 0.7036 0.7013 0.6948 0.6974  

     Laos
    Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6993 0.7044  
     
    Latvia
    Europe 0.7091 0.7333 0.7397 0.7416 0.7429 0.7399 0.7572 0.7610 0.7691  
     
    Lebanon
    Middle East N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6084 0.6083 0.6030 0.6028 0.5923  
     
    Lesotho
    Africa 0.6807 0.7078 0.7320 0.7495 0.7678 0.7666 0.7608 0.7530 0.7255  
     
    Lithuania
    Europe 0.7077 0.7234 0.7222 0.7175 0.7132 0.7131 0.7191 0.7308 0.7208  
     
    Luxembourg
    Europe 0.6671 0.6786 0.6802 0.6889 0.7231 0.7216 0.7439 0.7410 0.7333  

     Macedonia
    Europe 0.6983 0.6967 0.6914 0.6950 0.6996 0.6966 0.6968 0.7013 0.6943  
     
    Madagascar
    Africa 0.6385 0.6461 0.6736 0.6732 0.6713 0.6797 0.6982 0.7016 0.7214  

     Malawi
    Africa 0.6437 0.6480 0.6664 0.6738 0.6824 0.6850 0.7166 0.7139 0.7281  
     
    Malaysia
    Southeast Asia 0.6509 0.6444 0.6442 0.6467 0.6479 0.6525 0.6539 0.6518 0.6520  
     
    Maldives
    South Asia N/A 0.6350 0.6501 0.6482 0.6452 0.6480 0.6616 0.6604 0.6557  
     
    Mali
    Africa 0.5996 0.6019 0.6117 0.5860 0.5680 0.5752 0.5842 0.5872 0.5779  
     
    Malta
    Europe 0.6518 0.6615 0.6634 0.6635 0.6695 0.6658 0.6666 0.6761 0.6707  

     Mauritania
    Africa 0.5835 0.6022 0.6117 0.6103 0.6152 0.6164 0.6129 0.5810 0.6029  
     
    Mauritius
    Africa 0.6328 0.6487 0.6466 0.6513 0.6520 0.6529 0.6547 0.6599 0.6541  
     
    Mexico
    North America 0.6462 0.6441 0.6441 0.6503 0.6577 0.6604 0.6712 0.6917 0.6900  
     
    Moldova
    Europe 0.7128 0.7172 0.7244 0.7104 0.7160 0.7083 0.7101 0.7037 0.7405  
     
    Mongolia
    East Asia 0.6821 0.6731 0.7049 0.7221 0.7194 0.7140 0.7111 0.7204 0.7212  

     Morocco
    Africa 0.5827 0.5676 0.5757 0.5926 0.5767 0.5804 0.5833 0.5845 0.5988  
     
    Mozambique
    Africa N/A 0.6883 0.7266 0.7195 0.7329 0.7251 0.7350 0.7349 0.7370  
     
    Namibia
    Africa 0.6864 0.7012 0.7141 0.7167 0.7238 0.7177 0.7121 0.7094 0.7219  
      
     Nepal
    Central Asia 0.5478 0.5575 0.5942 0.6213 0.6084 0.5888 0.6026 0.6053 0.6458  
     
    Netherlands
    Europe 0.7250 0.7383 0.7399 0.7490 0.7444 0.7470 0.7659 0.7608 0.7730  
     
    New Zealand
    Oceania 0.7509 0.7649 0.7859 0.7880 0.7808 0.7810 0.7805 0.7799 0.7772  

     Nicaragua
    North America 0.6566 0.6458 0.6747 0.7002 0.7176 0.7245 0.7697 0.7715 0.7894  
     
    Nigeria
    Africa 0.6104 0.6122 0.6339 0.6280 0.6055 0.6011 0.6315 0.6469 0.6391  
     
    Norway
    Europe 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 0.8403 0.8417 0.8374  
     
    Oman
    Middle East N/A 0.5903 0.5960 0.5938 0.5950 0.5873 0.5986 0.6053 0.6091  
     
    Pakistan
    South Asia 0.5434 0.5509 0.5549 0.5458 0.5465 0.5583 0.5478 0.5459 0.5522  

     Panama
    North America 0.6935 0.6954 0.7095 0.7024 0.7072 0.7042 0.7122 0.7164 0.7195  

     Paraguay
    South America 0.6556 0.6659 0.6379 0.6868 0.6804 0.6818 0.6714 0.6724 0.6890  
     
    Peru
    South America 0.6619 0.6624 0.6959 0.7024 0.6895 0.6796 0.6742 0.6787 0.7198  

     Philippines
    Southeast Asia 0.7516 0.7629 0.7568 0.7579 0.7654 0.7685 0.7757 0.7832 0.7814  

     Poland
    Europe 0.6802 0.6756 0.6951 0.6998 0.7037 0.7038 0.7015 0.7031 0.7051  
     
    Portugal
    Europe 0.6922 0.6959 0.7051 0.7013 0.7171 0.7144 0.7071 0.7056 0.7243  
     
    Qatar
    Middle East N/A 0.6041 0.5948 0.5907 0.6059 0.6230 0.6264 0.6299 0.6403  
     
    Romania
    Europe 0.6797 0.6859 0.6763 0.6805 0.6826 0.6812 0.6859 0.6908 0.6936  
     
    Russian Federation
    Europe and Northern Asia 0.6770 0.6866 0.6994 0.6987 0.7036 0.7037 0.6980 0.6983 0.6927  
     
    Saudi Arabia
    Middle East 0.5242 0.5647 0.5537 0.5651 0.5713 0.5753 0.5731 0.5879 0.6059  
     
    Senegal
    Africa N/A N/A N/A 0.6427 0.6414 0.6573 0.6657 0.6923 0.6912  
     
    Serbia
    Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7037 0.7116 0.7086  

     Singapore
    Southeast Asia 0.6550 0.6609 0.6625 0.6664 0.6914 0.6914 0.6989 0.7000 0.7046  
     
    Slovak Republic
    Europe 0.6757 0.6797 0.6824 0.6845 0.6778 0.6797 0.6824 0.6857 0.6806  
     
    Slovenia
    Europe 0.6745 0.6842 0.6937 0.6982 0.7047 0.7041 0.7132 0.7155 0.7443  
     
    South Africa
    Africa 0.7125 0.7194 0.7232 0.7709 0.7535 0.7478 0.7496 0.7510 0.7527  
     
    Spain
    Europe 0.7319 0.7444 0.7281 0.7345 0.7554 0.7580 0.7266 0.7266 0.7325  
     
    Sri Lanka
    South Asia 0.7199 0.7230 0.7371 0.7402 0.7458 0.7212 0.7122 0.7019 0.6903  

     Suriname
    South America N/A 0.6794 0.6674 0.6726 0.6407 0.6395 0.6409 0.6369 0.6504  
     
    Sweden
    Europe 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 0.8159 0.8129 0.8165  

      Switzerland
    Europe 0.6997 0.6924 0.7360 0.7426 0.7562 0.7627 0.7672 0.7736 0.7798  
     
    Syria
    Middle East N/A 0.6216 0.6181 0.6072 0.5926 0.5896 0.5626 0.5661 0.5775  
     
    Tajikistan
    Central Asia N/A 0.6578 0.6541 0.6661 0.6598 0.6526 0.6608 0.6682 0.6654  
     
    Tanzania
    Africa 0.7038 0.6969 0.7068 0.6797 0.6829 0.6904 0.7091 0.6928 0.7182  
     
    Thailand
    Southeast Asia 0.6831 0.6815 0.6917 0.6907 0.6910 0.6892 0.6893 0.6928 0.7027  
     
    Timor-Leste
    Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6855 N/A N/A  
     
    Trinidad and Tobago
    North America 0.6797 0.6859 0.7245 0.7298 0.7353 0.7372 0.7116 0.7166 0.7154  
     
    Tunisia
    Africa 0.6288 0.6283 0.6295 0.6233 0.6266 0.6255 N/A N/A 0.6272  
     
    Turkey
    Middle East and Europe 0.5850 0.5768 0.5853 0.5828 0.5876 0.5954 0.6015 0.6081 0.6183  
     
    Uganda
    Africa 0.6797 0.6833 0.6981 0.7067 0.7169 0.7220 0.7228 0.7086 0.6821  
     
    Ukraine
    Europe 0.6797 0.6790 0.6856 0.6896 0.6869 0.6861 0.6894 0.6935 0.7056  
     
    United Arab Emirates
    Middle East 0.5919 0.6184 0.6220 0.6198 0.6397 0.6454 0.6392 0.6372 0.6436  
     
    United Kingdom
    Europe 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 0.7433 0.7440 0.7383  
     
    United States
    North America 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 0.7373 0.7392 0.7463  
     
    Uruguay
    South America 0.6549 0.6608 0.6907 0.6936 0.6897 0.6907 0.6745 0.6803 0.6871  

     Venezuela
    South America 0.6664 0.6797 0.6875 0.6839 0.6863 0.6861 0.7060 0.7060 0.6851  
     
    Vietnam
    Southeast Asia N/A 0.6889 0.6778 0.6802 0.6776 0.6732 0.6867 0.6863 0.6915  
     
    Yemen
    Middle East 0.4595 0.4510 0.4664 0.4609 0.4603 0.4873 0.5054 0.5128 0.5145  
     
    Zambia
    Africa 0.6360 0.6288 0.6205 0.6310 0.6293 0.6300 0.6279 0.6312 0.6364  

     Zimbabwe
    Africa 0.6461 0.6464 0.6485 0.6518 0.6574 0.6607 N/A N/A 0.7013  

    Notes

    1. Years of report publication. Values may reflect data collected the previous year.

    References

    1. Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, Editors (2009). “The Global Gender Gap Report 2009” (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (…) the Index rewards countries that reach the point where outcomes for women equal those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women are outperforming men in particular variables
    2. a b 2008 Report, p. 24
    3. 2014 report, page 5
    4. 2008 Report, p. 5
    5. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Gen...eport_2012.pdf
    6. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2013” (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
    7. “Global Gender Gap Report 2014 – Reports – World Economic Forum”. Global Gender Gap Report 2014.
    8. a bhttp://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR2015/cover.pdf