Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

10.13: The Global Gender Gap Report

The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2014 report covers 144 major and emerging economies. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.

Methodology

The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gaps. The assumption is that women are strictly disadvantaged compared to men and as such, only measures where women are traditionally disadvantaged to men are used. Information about gender imbalances to the advantage of women is explicitly prevented from affecting the score.[1] So, for example, the indicator “number of years of a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value” would score 1 if the number of years was 25, but would still score 1 if the number of years was 50. Due to this methodology, gender gaps that favor women over men are reported as equality.

The three highest ranking countries have closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest ranking country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap. It “assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities,” the Report says.[2] “By providing a comprehensible framework for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these resources equitably between women and men, the Report serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater exchange between policymakers.”[2]

The report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in 130 economies around the globe, over 93% of the world’s population:

  • Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
  • Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
  • Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures
  • Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. In this case parity is not assumed, there are assumed to be less female births than male (944 female for every 1,000 males), and men are assumed to die younger. Provided that women live at least six percent longer than men parity is assumed, if it is less than six percent it counts as a gender gap.[3]

Thirteen out of the fourteen variables used to create the index are from publicly available “hard data” indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.[4]

WEF Global Gender Gap Index Rankings

The highest possible score is 1 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan, 106% or better for women) and the lowest possible score is 0. Data for some countries are unavailable.[5][6][7]

2014_Gender_gap_index_world_map,_Gender_Inequality_Distribution.svg.png

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) - The WEF Gender gap index world map for 2014[8]

Country Region Year[note 1]
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[8]
 
Albania
Europe 0.6607 0.6685 0.6591 0.6601 0.6726 0.6748 0.6655 0.6412 0.6869  
 
Algeria
Africa 0.6018 0.6068 0.6111 0.6119 0.6052 0.5991 0.6112 0.5966 0.6182  
 
Angola
Africa 0.6039 0.6034 0.6032 0.6353 0.6712 0.6624 N/A 0.6659 0.6311  

 Argentina
South America 0.6829 0.6982 0.7209 0.7211 0.7187 0.7236 0.7212 0.7195 0.7317  
 
Armenia
Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6651 0.6677 0.6619 0.6669 0.6654 0.6636 0.6634 0.6622  
 
Australia
Oceania 0.7163 0.7204 0.7241 0.7282 0.7271 0.7291 0.7294 0.7390 0.7409  
 
Austria
Europe 0.6986 0.7060 0.7153 0.7031 0.7091 0.7165 0.7391 0.7437 0.7266  

 Azerbaijan
Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6781 0.6856 0.6626 0.6446 0.6577 0.6546 0.6582 0.6753  
 
Bahamas
North America N/A N/A N/A 0.7179 0.7128 0.7340 0.7156 0.7128 0.7269  
 
Bahrain
Middle East 0.5894 0.5931 0.5927 0.6136 0.6217 0.6232 0.6298 0.6334 0.6261  

 Bangladesh
South Asia 0.6270 0.6314 0.6531 0.6526 0.6702 0.6812 0.6684 0.6848 0.6973  

 Barbados
North America N/A N/A 0.7188 0.7236 0.7176 0.7170 0.7232 0.7301 0.7289  
 
Belgium
Europe 0.7078 0.7198 0.7163 0.7165 0.7509 0.7531 0.7652 0.7684 0.7809  
 
Belize
North America N/A 0.6426 0.6610 0.6636 0.6536 0.6489 0.6465 0.6449 0.6701  
 
Benin
Africa 0.5780 0.5656 0.5582 0.5643 0.5719 0.5832 0.6258 0.5885 N/A  
 
Bhutan
South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6651 0.6364  
 
Bolivia
South America 0.6335 0.6574 0.6667 0.6693 0.6751 0.6862 0.7222 0.7340 0.7049  

 Botswana
Africa 0.6897 0.6797 0.6839 0.7071 0.6876 0.6832 0.6744 0.6752 0.7129  
 
Brazil
South America 0.6543 0.6637 0.6737 0.6695 0.6655 0.6679 0.6909 0.6949 0.6941  
 
Brunei Darussalam
Southeast Asia N/A N/A 0.6392 0.6524 0.6748 0.6787 0.6750 0.6730 0.6719  
 
Bulgaria
Europe 0.6870 0.7085 0.7077 0.7072 0.6983 0.6987 0.7021 0.7097 0.7444  
 
Burkina Faso
Africa 0.5854 0.5912 0.6029 0.6081 0.6162 0.6153 0.6455 0.6513 0.6500  
 
Burundi
Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7270 0.7338 0.7397 0.7565  

 Cambodia
Southeast Asia 0.6291 0.6353 0.6469 0.6410 0.6482 0.6464 0.6457 0.6509 0.6520  
 
Cameroon
Africa 0.5865 0.5919 0.6017 0.6108 0.6110 0.6073 0.6291 0.6560 N/A  
 
Canada
North America 0.7165 0.7198 0.7136 0.7196 0.7372 0.7407 0.7381 0.7425 0.7464  
 
Cape Verde
Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7180 0.7122 0.7133  
 
Chad
Africa 0.5247 0.5381 0.5290 0.5417 0.5330 0.5334 0.5594 0.5588 0.5764  
 
Chile
South America 0.6455 0.6482 0.6818 0.6884 0.7013 0.7030 0.6676 0.6670 0.6975  
 
China
East Asia 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 0.6853 0.6908 0.6830  
 
Colombia
South America 0.7049 0.7090 0.6944 0.6939 0.6927 0.6714 0.6901 0.7171 0.7122  
 
Costa Rica
North America 0.6936 0.7014 0.7111 0.7180 0.7194 0.7266 0.7225 0.7241 0.7165  
 
Côte d’Ivoire
Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.5691 0.5773 0.5785 0.5814 0.5874  
 
Croatia
Europe 0.7145 0.7210 0.6967 0.6944 0.6939 0.7006 0.7053 0.7069 0.7075  
 
Cuba
North America N/A 0.7169 0.7195 0.7176 0.7253 0.7394 0.7417 0.7540 0.7317  
 
Cyprus
Europe and Middle East 0.6430 0.6522 0.6694 0.6706 0.6642 0.6567 0.6732 0.6801 0.6741  
 
Czech Republic
Europe 0.6712 0.6718 0.6770 0.6789 0.6850 0.6789 0.6767 0.6770 0.6737  
 
Denmark
Europe 0.7462 0.7519 0.7538 0.7628 0.7719 0.7778 0.7777 0.7779 0.8025  

 Dominican Republic
North America 0.6639 0.6705 0.6744 0.6859 0.6774 0.6682 0.6659 0.6867 0.6906  
 
Ecuador
South America 0.6433 0.6881 0.7091 0.7220 0.7072 0.7035 0.7206 0.7389 0.7455  
 
Egypt
Middle East and Africa 0.5786 0.5809 0.5832 0.5862 0.5899 0.5933 0.5975 0.5935 0.6064  
 
El Salvador
North America 0.6837 0.6853 0.6875 0.6939 0.6596 0.6567 0.6630 0.6609 0.6863  
 
Estonia
Europe 0.6944 0.7008 0.7076 0.7094 0.7018 0.6983 0.6977 0.6997 0.7017  
 
Ethiopia
Africa 0.5946 0.5991 0.5867 0.5948 0.6019 0.6136 0.6200 0.6198 0.6144  
 
Fiji
Oceania N/A N/A N/A 0.6414 0.6256 0.6255 0.6285 0.6286 0.6286  
 
Finland
Europe 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 0.8451 0.8421 0.8453  
 
France
Europe 0.6520 0.6824 0.7341 0.7331 0.7025 0.7018 0.6984 0.7089 0.7588  
 
Gambia, The
Africa 0.6448 0.6421 0.6622 0.6752 0.6762 0.6763 0.6630 N/A N/A  
 
Georgia
Europe and Central Asia 0.6700 0.6665 0.6654 0.6680 0.6598 0.6624 0.6691 0.6750 0.6855  
 
Germany
Europe 0.7524 0.7618 0.7394 0.7449 0.7530 0.7590 0.7629 0.7583 0.7780  
 
Ghana
Africa 0.6653 0.6725 0.6679 0.6704 0.6782 0.6811 0.6778 0.6811 0.6661  
 
Greece
Europe 0.6540 0.6648 0.6727 0.6662 0.6908 0.6916 0.6716 0.6782 0.6784  

 Guatemala
North America 0.6067 0.6144 0.6072 0.6209 0.6238 0.6229 0.6260 0.6304 0.6821  
 
Guyana
South America N/A N/A N/A 0.7108 0.7090 0.7084 0.7119 0.7085 0.7010  

 Honduras
North America 0.6483 0.6661 0.6960 0.6893 0.6927 0.6945 0.6763 0.6773 0.6935  
 
Hungary
Europe 0.6698 0.6731 0.6867 0.6879 0.6720 0.6642 0.6718 0.6742 0.6759  

 Iceland
Europe 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 0.8640 0.8731 0.8594 0.881

 India
South Asia 0.6011 0.5936 0.6060 0.6151 0.6155 0.6190 0.6442 0.6551 0.6455 0.664
 
Indonesia
Southeast Asia 0.6541 0.6550 0.6473 0.6580 0.6615 0.6594 0.6591 0.6613 0.6725  
 
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Middle East 0.5803 0.5903 0.6021 0.5839 0.5933 0.5894 0.5927 0.5842 0.5811  
 
Ireland
Europe 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 0.7839 0.7823 0.7850  
 
Israel
Middle East 0.6889 0.6965 0.6900 0.7019 0.6957 0.6926 0.6989 0.7032 0.7005  
 
Italy
Europe 0.6456 0.6498 0.6788 0.6798 0.6765 0.6796 0.6729 0.6885 0.6973  
 
Jamaica
North America 0.7014 0.6925 0.6980 0.7013 0.7037 0.7028 0.7035 0.7085 0.7128  
 
Japan
East Asia 0.6447 0.6455 0.6434 0.6447 0.6524 0.6514 0.6530 0.6498 0.6584  
 
Jordan
Middle East 0.6109 0.6203 0.6275 0.6182 0.6048 0.6117 0.6103 0.6093 0.5968  

 Kazakhstan
Central Asia 0.6928 0.6983 0.6976 0.7013 0.7055 0.7010 0.7213 0.7218 0.7210  
 
Kenya
Africa 0.6486 0.6508 0.6547 0.6512 0.6499 0.6493 0.6768 0.6803 0.7258  
 
Korea, Rep.
East Asia 0.6157 0.6409 0.6154 0.6146 0.6342 0.6281 0.6356 0.6351 0.6403  
 
Kuwait
Middle East 0.6341 0.6409 0.6358 0.6356 0.6318 0.6322 0.6320 0.6292 0.6457  
 
Kyrgyz Republic
Central Asia 0.6742 0.6653 0.7045 0.7058 0.6973 0.7036 0.7013 0.6948 0.6974  

 Laos
Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6993 0.7044  
 
Latvia
Europe 0.7091 0.7333 0.7397 0.7416 0.7429 0.7399 0.7572 0.7610 0.7691  
 
Lebanon
Middle East N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6084 0.6083 0.6030 0.6028 0.5923  
 
Lesotho
Africa 0.6807 0.7078 0.7320 0.7495 0.7678 0.7666 0.7608 0.7530 0.7255  
 
Lithuania
Europe 0.7077 0.7234 0.7222 0.7175 0.7132 0.7131 0.7191 0.7308 0.7208  
 
Luxembourg
Europe 0.6671 0.6786 0.6802 0.6889 0.7231 0.7216 0.7439 0.7410 0.7333  

 Macedonia
Europe 0.6983 0.6967 0.6914 0.6950 0.6996 0.6966 0.6968 0.7013 0.6943  
 
Madagascar
Africa 0.6385 0.6461 0.6736 0.6732 0.6713 0.6797 0.6982 0.7016 0.7214  

 Malawi
Africa 0.6437 0.6480 0.6664 0.6738 0.6824 0.6850 0.7166 0.7139 0.7281  
 
Malaysia
Southeast Asia 0.6509 0.6444 0.6442 0.6467 0.6479 0.6525 0.6539 0.6518 0.6520  
 
Maldives
South Asia N/A 0.6350 0.6501 0.6482 0.6452 0.6480 0.6616 0.6604 0.6557  
 
Mali
Africa 0.5996 0.6019 0.6117 0.5860 0.5680 0.5752 0.5842 0.5872 0.5779  
 
Malta
Europe 0.6518 0.6615 0.6634 0.6635 0.6695 0.6658 0.6666 0.6761 0.6707  

 Mauritania
Africa 0.5835 0.6022 0.6117 0.6103 0.6152 0.6164 0.6129 0.5810 0.6029  
 
Mauritius
Africa 0.6328 0.6487 0.6466 0.6513 0.6520 0.6529 0.6547 0.6599 0.6541  
 
Mexico
North America 0.6462 0.6441 0.6441 0.6503 0.6577 0.6604 0.6712 0.6917 0.6900  
 
Moldova
Europe 0.7128 0.7172 0.7244 0.7104 0.7160 0.7083 0.7101 0.7037 0.7405  
 
Mongolia
East Asia 0.6821 0.6731 0.7049 0.7221 0.7194 0.7140 0.7111 0.7204 0.7212  

 Morocco
Africa 0.5827 0.5676 0.5757 0.5926 0.5767 0.5804 0.5833 0.5845 0.5988  
 
Mozambique
Africa N/A 0.6883 0.7266 0.7195 0.7329 0.7251 0.7350 0.7349 0.7370  
 
Namibia
Africa 0.6864 0.7012 0.7141 0.7167 0.7238 0.7177 0.7121 0.7094 0.7219  
  
 Nepal
Central Asia 0.5478 0.5575 0.5942 0.6213 0.6084 0.5888 0.6026 0.6053 0.6458  
 
Netherlands
Europe 0.7250 0.7383 0.7399 0.7490 0.7444 0.7470 0.7659 0.7608 0.7730  
 
New Zealand
Oceania 0.7509 0.7649 0.7859 0.7880 0.7808 0.7810 0.7805 0.7799 0.7772  

 Nicaragua
North America 0.6566 0.6458 0.6747 0.7002 0.7176 0.7245 0.7697 0.7715 0.7894  
 
Nigeria
Africa 0.6104 0.6122 0.6339 0.6280 0.6055 0.6011 0.6315 0.6469 0.6391  
 
Norway
Europe 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 0.8403 0.8417 0.8374  
 
Oman
Middle East N/A 0.5903 0.5960 0.5938 0.5950 0.5873 0.5986 0.6053 0.6091  
 
Pakistan
South Asia 0.5434 0.5509 0.5549 0.5458 0.5465 0.5583 0.5478 0.5459 0.5522  

 Panama
North America 0.6935 0.6954 0.7095 0.7024 0.7072 0.7042 0.7122 0.7164 0.7195  

 Paraguay
South America 0.6556 0.6659 0.6379 0.6868 0.6804 0.6818 0.6714 0.6724 0.6890  
 
Peru
South America 0.6619 0.6624 0.6959 0.7024 0.6895 0.6796 0.6742 0.6787 0.7198  

 Philippines
Southeast Asia 0.7516 0.7629 0.7568 0.7579 0.7654 0.7685 0.7757 0.7832 0.7814  

 Poland
Europe 0.6802 0.6756 0.6951 0.6998 0.7037 0.7038 0.7015 0.7031 0.7051  
 
Portugal
Europe 0.6922 0.6959 0.7051 0.7013 0.7171 0.7144 0.7071 0.7056 0.7243  
 
Qatar
Middle East N/A 0.6041 0.5948 0.5907 0.6059 0.6230 0.6264 0.6299 0.6403  
 
Romania
Europe 0.6797 0.6859 0.6763 0.6805 0.6826 0.6812 0.6859 0.6908 0.6936  
 
Russian Federation
Europe and Northern Asia 0.6770 0.6866 0.6994 0.6987 0.7036 0.7037 0.6980 0.6983 0.6927  
 
Saudi Arabia
Middle East 0.5242 0.5647 0.5537 0.5651 0.5713 0.5753 0.5731 0.5879 0.6059  
 
Senegal
Africa N/A N/A N/A 0.6427 0.6414 0.6573 0.6657 0.6923 0.6912  
 
Serbia
Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7037 0.7116 0.7086  

 Singapore
Southeast Asia 0.6550 0.6609 0.6625 0.6664 0.6914 0.6914 0.6989 0.7000 0.7046  
 
Slovak Republic
Europe 0.6757 0.6797 0.6824 0.6845 0.6778 0.6797 0.6824 0.6857 0.6806  
 
Slovenia
Europe 0.6745 0.6842 0.6937 0.6982 0.7047 0.7041 0.7132 0.7155 0.7443  
 
South Africa
Africa 0.7125 0.7194 0.7232 0.7709 0.7535 0.7478 0.7496 0.7510 0.7527  
 
Spain
Europe 0.7319 0.7444 0.7281 0.7345 0.7554 0.7580 0.7266 0.7266 0.7325  
 
Sri Lanka
South Asia 0.7199 0.7230 0.7371 0.7402 0.7458 0.7212 0.7122 0.7019 0.6903  

 Suriname
South America N/A 0.6794 0.6674 0.6726 0.6407 0.6395 0.6409 0.6369 0.6504  
 
Sweden
Europe 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 0.8159 0.8129 0.8165  

  Switzerland
Europe 0.6997 0.6924 0.7360 0.7426 0.7562 0.7627 0.7672 0.7736 0.7798  
 
Syria
Middle East N/A 0.6216 0.6181 0.6072 0.5926 0.5896 0.5626 0.5661 0.5775  
 
Tajikistan
Central Asia N/A 0.6578 0.6541 0.6661 0.6598 0.6526 0.6608 0.6682 0.6654  
 
Tanzania
Africa 0.7038 0.6969 0.7068 0.6797 0.6829 0.6904 0.7091 0.6928 0.7182  
 
Thailand
Southeast Asia 0.6831 0.6815 0.6917 0.6907 0.6910 0.6892 0.6893 0.6928 0.7027  
 
Timor-Leste
Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6855 N/A N/A  
 
Trinidad and Tobago
North America 0.6797 0.6859 0.7245 0.7298 0.7353 0.7372 0.7116 0.7166 0.7154  
 
Tunisia
Africa 0.6288 0.6283 0.6295 0.6233 0.6266 0.6255 N/A N/A 0.6272  
 
Turkey
Middle East and Europe 0.5850 0.5768 0.5853 0.5828 0.5876 0.5954 0.6015 0.6081 0.6183  
 
Uganda
Africa 0.6797 0.6833 0.6981 0.7067 0.7169 0.7220 0.7228 0.7086 0.6821  
 
Ukraine
Europe 0.6797 0.6790 0.6856 0.6896 0.6869 0.6861 0.6894 0.6935 0.7056  
 
United Arab Emirates
Middle East 0.5919 0.6184 0.6220 0.6198 0.6397 0.6454 0.6392 0.6372 0.6436  
 
United Kingdom
Europe 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 0.7433 0.7440 0.7383  
 
United States
North America 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 0.7373 0.7392 0.7463  
 
Uruguay
South America 0.6549 0.6608 0.6907 0.6936 0.6897 0.6907 0.6745 0.6803 0.6871  

 Venezuela
South America 0.6664 0.6797 0.6875 0.6839 0.6863 0.6861 0.7060 0.7060 0.6851  
 
Vietnam
Southeast Asia N/A 0.6889 0.6778 0.6802 0.6776 0.6732 0.6867 0.6863 0.6915  
 
Yemen
Middle East 0.4595 0.4510 0.4664 0.4609 0.4603 0.4873 0.5054 0.5128 0.5145  
 
Zambia
Africa 0.6360 0.6288 0.6205 0.6310 0.6293 0.6300 0.6279 0.6312 0.6364  

 Zimbabwe
Africa 0.6461 0.6464 0.6485 0.6518 0.6574 0.6607 N/A N/A 0.7013  

Notes

  1. Years of report publication. Values may reflect data collected the previous year.

References

  1. Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, Editors (2009). “The Global Gender Gap Report 2009” (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (…) the Index rewards countries that reach the point where outcomes for women equal those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women are outperforming men in particular variables
  2. a b 2008 Report, p. 24
  3. 2014 report, page 5
  4. 2008 Report, p. 5
  5. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Gen...eport_2012.pdf
  6. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2013” (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
  7. “Global Gender Gap Report 2014 – Reports – World Economic Forum”. Global Gender Gap Report 2014.
  8. a bhttp://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR2015/cover.pdf