Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

7.S: Conclusion and Questions

  • Page ID
    6983
  • Citing both state and stateless societies, this chapter has examined levels of socio-cultural integration, types of social class (from none to stratified), and mechanisms of social control exercised in various forms of political organization from foragers to large, fully developed states. The chapter offers explanations for these patterns, and additional theories are provided by the works in the bibliography. Still, there are many more questions than answers. Why does socio-economic inequality arise in the first place? How do states reinforce (or generate) inequality? Societies that have not developed a state have lasted far longer—about 100,000 to 150,000 years longer—than societies that became states. Will states persist despite the demonstrable disadvantages they present for the majority of their citizens?

    A Chinese curse wishes that you may “live in interesting times.” 
    These are interesting times indeed.

    DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    In large communities, it can be difficult for people to feel a sense of connection or loyalty to people outside their immediate families. Choose one of the social-integration techniques used in tribes and chiefdoms and explain why it can successfully encourage solidarity between people. Can you identify similar systems for encouraging social integration in your own community?

    Although state societies are efficient in organizing people and resources, they also are associated with many disadvantages, such as extreme disparities in wealth, use of force to keep people in line, and harsh laws. Given these difficulties, why do you think the state has survived? Do you think human populations can develop alternative political organizations in the future?

    McDowell presents detailed information about the organization of the Islamic State. Does the Islamic State meet the seven criteria for a state-level society? Why is it important to understand whether ISIS is or is not likely to become a state?

    GLOSSARY

    Affinal: family relationships created through marriage.

    Age grades: groups of men who are close to one another in age and share similar duties or responsibilities.

    Age sets: named categories to which men of a certain age are assigned at birth.

    Band: the smallest unit of political organization, consisting of only a few families and no formal leadership positions.

    Big man: a form of temporary or situational leadership; influence results from acquiring followers.

    Bilateral cross-cousin marriage: a man marries a woman who is both his mother’s brother’s daughter and his father’s sister’s daughter.

    Bilateral descent: kinship (family) systems that recognize both the mother’s and the father’s “sides” of the family.

    Caste system: the division of society into hierarchical levels; one’s position is determined by birth and remains fixed for life.

    Chiefdom: large political units in which the chief, who usually is determined by heredity, holds a formal position of power.

    Circumscription: the enclosure of an area by a geographic feature such as mountain ranges or desert or by the boundaries of a state.

    Codified law: formal legal systems in which damages, crimes, remedies, and punishments are specified.

    Egalitarian: societies in which there is no great difference in status or power between individuals and there are as many valued status positions in the societies as there are persons able to fill them.

    Feuds: disputes of long duration characterized by a state of recurring hostilities between families, lineages, or other kin groups.

    Ideologies: ideas designed to reinforce the right of powerholders to rule.

    Legitimacy: the perception that an individual has a valid right to leadership.

    Lineage: individuals who can trace or demonstrate their descent through a line of males or females back to a founding ancestor.

    Matrilateral cross-cousin marriage: a man marries a woman who is his mother’s brother’s daughter.

    Matrilineal: kinship (family) systems that recognize only relatives through a line of female ancestors.

    Nation: an ethnic population.

    Negative reinforcements: punishments for noncompliance through fines, imprisonment, and death sentences.

    Oaths: the practice of calling on a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says.

    Ordeal: a test used to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous, painful, or risky tests believed to be controlled by supernatural forces.

    Patrilineal: kinship (family) systems that recognize only relatives through a line of male ancestors.

    Peasants: residents of a state who earn a living through farming.

    Poro and sande: secret societies for men and women, respectively, found in the Mande-speaking peoples of West Africa, particularly in Liberia, Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast, and Guinea.

    Positive reinforcements: rewards for compliance; examples include medals, financial incentives, and other forms of public recognition.

    Proletarianization: a process through which farmers are removed from the land and forced to take wage labor employment.

    Raids: short-term uses of physical force organized and planned to achieve a limited objective.

    Ranked: societies in which there are substantial differences in the wealth and social status of individuals; there are a limited number of positions of power or status, and only a few can occupy them.

    Restricted exchange: a marriage system in which only two extended families can engage in this exchange.

    Reverse dominance: societies in which people reject attempts by any individual to exercise power.

    Segmentary lineage: a hierarchy of lineages that contains both close and relatively distant family members.

    Social classes: the division of society into groups based on wealth and status.

    Sodality: a system used to encourage solidarity or feelings of connectedness between people who are not related by family ties.

    State: the most complex form of political organization characterized by a central government that has a monopoly over legitimate uses of physical force, a sizeable bureaucracy, a system of formal laws, and a standing military force.

    Stratified: societies in which there are large differences in the wealth, status, and power of individuals based on unequal access to resources and positions of power.

    Sumptuary rules: norms that permit persons of higher rank to enjoy greater social status by wearing distinctive clothing, jewelry, and/or decorations denied those of lower rank.

    Tribe: political units organized around family ties that have fluid or shifting systems of temporary leadership.

    Unilineal descent: kinship (family) systems that recognize only one sex-based “side” of the family.

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR


    Paul McDowell (Ph.D. University of British Columbia, 1974) examined the transition of the civil-religious hierarchy in a factory and peasant community in Guatemala to a secular town government and church organization called Accion Catolica. He is the author of Cultural Anthropology: A Concise Introduction and Cultures Around the World: An Ethnographic Reader; he has also read several papers on the political globalization of Guatemala.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness. New York: The New Press, 2010.

    Atwan, Abdel Bari. Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate. London: Saqi Books, 2015.

    Befu, Harumi. Japan: An Anthropological Introduction. San Francisco: Chandler, 1971.

    Bellman, Beryl. The Language of Secrecy: Symbols and Metaphors in Poro Ritual. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

    Bledsoe, Caroline H. Women and Marriage in Kpelle Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1980.

    Boehm, Christopher. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

    Bohannan, Paul. Justice and Judgment among the Tiv. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1989.

    Butterfield, Fox. 1996. “Study Finds Disparity of Justice for Blacks.” New York Times, February 13: 8A.

    Carneiro, Robert. “On the Relationship between Size of Population and Complexity of Social Organization.” Southwest Journal of Anthropology 23 (1967): 234–243.

    ———. “A Theory of the Origin of the State.” Science 169 no. 3947 (1970):733–738.

    ———. “Chiefdom: Precursor to the State.” In The Transition to Statehood in the New World, edited by Grant Jones and Grant, and Robert Kautz, 37–75. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

    Chagnon, Napoleon. Yanomamo. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997.

    Childe, V. Gordon. “The Urban Revolution.” Town Planning Review 21 (1950):3–17.

    Clay, J.W. “What’s a Nation?” In Talking about People, edited by William Haviland and R.J. Gordon. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 1996.

    Cockburn, Patrick. The Age of Jihad. London: Verso, 2016.

    ———. Chaos and Caliphate: Jihadis and the West in the Struggle for the Middle East. New York: OR Books, 2016.

    Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking, 2004.

    Drucker, Philip. Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: Natural History Press, 1955.

    Ember, Melvin, and Carol Ember. Cultural Anthropology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002.

    Evans-Pritchard, Edward E. The Nuer. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1940.

    ———. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

    Fallers, Louis. “Are African Cultivators to Be Called Peasants?” Current Anthropology 2 no. 2 (1961): 108–110.

    Fox, Robin. Kinship and Marriage. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1967.

    Frank, Thomas. What’s the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004.

    ———. Listen Liberal: Or, Whatever Happened To the Party of the People? New York: Metropolitan Books, 2016.

    Fried, Morton. The Evolution of Political Society: An Essay in Political Anthropology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.

    ———. “The State, the Chicken, and the Egg or What Came First?” In Origins of the State, edited by Ronald Cohen and Elman Service. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1978.

    Good, Kenneth. Into The Heart: One Man’s Pursuit of Love and Knowledge among the Yanomami. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

    Harris, Marvin. Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches. New York: Vintage, 1974.

    Harris, Marvin, and Orna Johnson. Cultural Anthropology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2003.

    Hart, C.W.M, Arnold R. Pilling, and Jane Goodale. The Tiwi of North Australia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1988.

    Haviland, William. Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2005.

    Heider, Karl. The Dugum Dani: A Papuan Culture in the Highlands of West New Guinea. Chicago: Aldine, 1970.

    Hochschild, Arlie Russell. Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning of Our Political Divide. New York: New Press, 2016.

    Hoebel, E. Adamson. The Law of Primitive Man. New York: Atheneum, 1968 [1954].

    Isenberg, Nancy. White Trash: The 400 Year Untold History of Class in America. New York: Viking, 2016.

    Johnson, Chalmers. The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004.

    Khare, Ravindra. The Untouchable as Himself: Identity and Pragmatism among the Lucknow Chamars. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

    Koch, Klaus-Friedrich, Soraya Altorki, Andrew Arno and Letitia Hickson. “Ritual Reconciliation and the Obviation of Grievances: A Comparative Study in the Ethnography of Law.” Ethnology 16 (1977): 269–284.

    Kroeber, Alfred L. Anthropology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1948.

    Lancaster, William. The Rwala Bedouin Today. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1997.

    Lee, Richard. The Dobe Ju/’hoansi. New York: Thomson, 2003.

    Little, Kenneth. “The Political Function of the Poro, Part 1.” Africa 35 (1965): 349–365.

    Long, Bruce. “Reincarnation.” Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 12, 265–269. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

    Maloney, William. “Dharma.” Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 4, 239–332. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

    ———. “Karma.” Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 8, 261–266. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

    Martin, M. Kay, and Barbara Voorhies. Female of the Species. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.

    Mauss, Marcel. The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. London: Routledge, 2001 [1925].

    McCants, William. The Isis Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State. New York: St. Martins, 2015.

    McDowell, Paul V. “Political and Religious Change in a Guatemalan Factory Community.” Ph.D. Diss., University of British Columbia, 1974.

    ———. “The Decline of the Civil-Religious Hierarchy: The Case of Cantel.” NorthSouth: Canadian Journal of Latin American Studies 35 no. 10 (1980): 17–35.

    Meggitt, Mervyn. Blood is their Argument: Warfare among the Mae-Enga. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield, 1977.

    Murphy, Robert F, and Leonard Kasdan. “The Structure of Parallel Cousin Marriage.” American Anthropologist 61 no. 1 (1959.):17–29.

    Nader, Laura. Harmony Ideology: Justice and Control in a Zapotec Mountain Village. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

    Nance, Malcolm. Defeating ISIS: Who They Are, What They Want, What They Believe. New York: Skyhorse Press, 2016.

    Napoleoni, Loretta. The Islamic Phoenix: The Islamic State and the Redrawing of the Middle East. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2014.

    Oliver, Douglas. A Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955.

    Otterbein, Keith. “The Anthropology of War.” In Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, edited by John Huntington. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1974.

    ———. The Evolution of War: A Cross-cultural Study. New Haven, CT: Human Relation Area Files, 1989.

    Perelman, Michael. The Invention of Capitalism: Classical Political Economy and the Secret History of Primitive Accumulation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.

    Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation. New York: Beacon Press, 1944.

    Redfield, Robert. The Little Community and Peasant Society and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

    Roberts, Sam. “Fighting the Tide of Bloodshed on Streets Resembling a War Zone.” New York Times, November 15, 1993: B12.

    Sahlins, Marshall. “The Segmentary Lineage: An Organization of Predatory Expansion.” American Anthropologist 63 (1961):322–343.

    Sangree, Walter. “The Bantu Tiriki of Western Kenya.” In Peoples of Africa, edited by James Gibbs. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965.

    Scupin, Raymond. Cultural Anthropology: A Global Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2012.

    Service, Elman. Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Random House, 1962.

    ———. Origins of the State and Civilization: The Process of Cultural Evolution. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975.

    ———. Profiles of Ethnology. New York: Harper Collins, 1978.

    Stavrianos, Leften S. Global Rift. New York: Quill, 1974.

    Steward, Julian. The Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955.

    Strathern, Andrew, and Pamela J. Stewart. Collaborations and Conflict: A Leader through Time. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1999.

    Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. The Harmless People. New York: Knopf, 1959.

    Turnbull, Colin. 1963. The Forest People: A Study of the Pygmies of the Congo. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    ———. “The Mbuti Pygmies in the Congo.” In Peoples of Africa, edited by James Gibbs, 279– 318. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965.

    ———. The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1983.

    Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Free Press, 1997 [1947].

    White, Douglas. “Rethinking Polygyny, Co-wives, Codes, and Cultural Systems.” Current Anthropology 29 no. 4 (1988): 529–533.

    Wray, Matt. Not Quite White: White Trash and the Boundaries of Whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

    Wolf, Eric R. “Closed Corporate Communities in Mesoamerica and Central Java.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 13 no. 1 (1957):1–18.

    ———. Peasants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

    NOTES

    Portions of this chapter were first published in Cultural Anthropology: A Concise Introduction by Paul McDowell and are reproduced here with permission of Kendall Hunt Publishing company.

    1. Morton Fried, The Evolution of Political Society: An Essay in Political Anthropology (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

    2. E. Adamson Hoebel, The Law of Primitive Man (New York: Atheneum, 1968 [1954]). For a critique of Hoebel see John Steckley, White Lies about the Inuit (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007).

    3. Elman Service, Origins of the State and Civilization: The Process of Cultural Evolution (New York: W.W. Norton, 1975).

    4. Christopher Boehm. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

    5. Richard Lee, The Dobe Ju/’hoansi (New York: Thomson, 2003).

    6. Julian Steward, The Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955), 54.

    7. Elman Service, Origins of the State and Civilization.

    8. Morton Fried, The Evolution of Political Society.

    9. Richard Lee, The Dobe Ju/’hoansi, 109–111.

    10. Julian Steward, The Theory of Culture Change.

    11. Elman Service, Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective (New York: Random House, 1962).

    12. M. Kay Martin and Barbara Voorhies, Female of the Species (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975).

    13. E. Adamson Hoebel, The Law of Primitive Man, 168.

    14. See Colin Turnbull, The Forest People: A Study of the Pygmies of the Congo (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963) and Colin Turnbull, The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1983).

    15. C.W. Merton Hart, Arnold R. Pilling, and Jane Goodale. The Tiwi of North Australia (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1988).

    16. Richard Lee, The Dobe Ju/’hoansi, 112–118.

    17. Napoleon Chagnon, Yanomamo (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997), 133–137.

    18. Marcel Mauss, The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies (London: Routledge, 2001 [1925]).

    19. Douglas Oliver, A Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955). For an account of Ongka, the big man in a Kawelka village, see Andrew Strathern and Pamela J. Stewart, Collaborations and Conflict: A Leader through Time (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1999).

    20. Walter Sangree, “The Bantu Tiriki of Western Kenya,” in Peoples of Africa, James Gibbs, ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), 71. The reader will notice the discrepancies between Sangree’s description of age grades and sets—15 year for each, totaling a cycle of 105 years—and his chart from which the one shown here is extrapolated to 1994. First, the age grade “small boys,” is 10 years, not 15. Second, the age grade “ritual elders” is 20 years, not 15. Why this discrepancy exists, Sangree does not answer. This discrepancy demonstrates the questions raised when ideal types do not match all the ethnographic information. For example, if the Jiminigayi ranged 15 years in 1939, why did they suddenly expand to a range of 20 years in 1954? By the same token, why did the Sawe age set cover 10 years in 1939 and expand to 15 years in 1954? It is discrepancies such as this that raise questions and drive further research

    21. Mervyn Meggitt, Blood Is Their Argument: Warfare among the Mae-Enga (Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield, 1977) 202–224.

    22. Marcel Mauss, The Gift.

    23. Ibid.

    24. Ibid.

    25. Claude Levi-Strauss’ concept is further described in Robin Fox, Kinship and Marriage (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1967), 182–187.

    26. Evans-Pritchard, Edward E. The Nuer. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1940.

    27. Paul Bohannan, Justice and Judgment among the Tiv. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1989. And Murphy, Robert F, and Leonard Kasdan. “The Structure of Parallel Cousin Marriage.” American Anthropologist 61 no. 1 (1959.):17–29.

    28. Marshall Sahlins, “The Segmentary Lineage: An Organization of Predatory Expansion.” American Anthropologist 63 (1961):322–343.

    29. Ibid.

    30. E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1976).

    31. Klaus-Friedrich Koch et al., “Ritual Reconciliation and the Obviation of Grievances: A Comparative Study in the Ethnography of Law.” Ethnology 16 (1977):269–270.

    32. E.E. Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1940), 291.

    33. Laura Nader, Harmony Ideology: Justice and Control in a Zapotec Mountain Village. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991).

    34. Marvin Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches. New York: Vintage, 1974. Good, Kenneth. Into The Heart: One Man’s Pursuit of Love and Knowledge among the Yanomami. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

    35. Napoleon Chagnon, Yanomamo, 91–97.

    36. Douglas White, “Rethinking Polygyny, Co-wives, Codes, and Cultural Systems,” Current Anthropology 29 no. 4 (1988): 529–533.

    37. Karl Heider, The Dugum Dani: A Papuan Culture in the Highlands of West New Guinea (Chicago: Aldine, 1970).

    38. Philip Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast (New York: Natural History Press, 1955).

    39. Ibid.

    40. For more information about the reasons for the potlatch ban, see Douglas Cole and Ira Chaiken, An Iron Hand upon the People: The Law against the Potlatch on the Northwest Coast (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990). The website of the U’Mista Cultural Society in Alert Bay, British Columbia, Canada offers more information about potlatch traditions and the impact of the ban: www.umista.ca.

    41. Philip Drucker, Indians of the Northwest Coast.

    42. Edmund Leach, cited in Robin Fox, Kinship and Marriage, 215–216.

    43. Raymond Scupin, Cultural Anthropology: A Global Perspective (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2012).

    44. The information comes from William Lancaster, The Rwala Bedouin Today (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1997) and Elman Service, Profiles of Ethnology (New York: Harper Collins, 1978).

    45. Beryl Bellman, The Language of Secrecy: Symbols and Metaphors in Poro Ritual (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984).

    46. Kenneth Little, “The Political Function of the Poro, Part 1.” Africa 35 (1965):349–365. See also Caroline Bledsoe, Women and Marriage in Kpelle Society (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1980).

    47. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation (New York: Beacon Press, 1944).

    48. Bruce Long, “Reincarnation,” Encyclopedia of Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1987) and William Maloney, “Dharma,” Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol. 4 (New York: Macmillan, 1987).

    49. Ravindra Khare, The Untouchable as Himself: Identity and Pragmatism among the Lucknow Chamars (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

    50. Harumi Befu, Japan: An Anthropological Introduction (San Francisco: Chandler, 1971).

    51. William Haviland, Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge.

    52. Morton Fried, The Evolution of Political Society: An Essay in Political Anthropology (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967) and Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (New York: Free Press, 1997 [1947]).

    53. For instance, Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization.

    54. J.W. Clay, “What’s a Nation?” in Talking about People, William Haviland and R.J. Gordon, eds. (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield), 1996.

    55. Robert Carneiro, “A Theory of the Origin of the State.” Science 169 no. 3947 (1970): 733–738 and Robert Carneiro, “Chiefdom: Precursor to the State,” in The Transition to Statehood in the New World, Grant Jones and Robert Kautz, eds. 37–75. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    56. Alfred L. Kroeber, Anthropology (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1948), 284.

    57. Robert Redfield, The Little Community and Peasant Society and Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989).

    58. Louis Fallers, “Are African Cultivators to Be Called Peasants?” Current Anthropology 2 no. 2 (1961): 108–110.

    59. Eric Wolf, Peasants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

    60. Ibid.

    61. Leften S. Stavrianos, Global Rift (New York: Quill, 1974).

    62. Michael Perelman, The Invention of Capitalism: Classical Political Economy and the Secret History of Primitive Accumulation (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000), 38–59.

    63. For more information about land privatization, see Paul V. McDowell, “Political and Religious Change in a Guatemalan Factory Community.” Ph.D. Diss., University of British Columbia, 1974 and Paul V. McDowell, “The Decline of the Civil-Religious Hierarchy: The Case of Cantel.” NorthSouth: Canadian Journal of Latin American Studies 35 no. 10 (1980):17–35.

    64. Morton Fried “The State, the Chicken, and the Egg or What Came First?” In Origins of the State, edited by Ronald Cohen and Elman Service. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1978.

    65. Sam Roberts, “Fighting the Tide of Bloodshed on Streets Resembling a War Zone.” New York Times, November 15, 1993: B12.

    66. Fox Butterfield, “Study Finds Disparity of Justice for Blacks.” New York Times, Feb. 13, 1996 8A.

    67. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness. New York: The New Press, 2010.

    68. V. Gordon Childe, “The Urban Revolution.” Town Planning Review 21 (1950): 3–17.

    69. Keith Otterbein “The Anthropology of War,” in Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, John Huntington, ed. (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1974) and The Evolution of War: A Cross-cultural Study (New Haven, CT: Human Relation Area Files, 1989).

    70. Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (New York: Viking, 2004).

    71. Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empires: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2005), 285.

    72. Thomas Frank, What’s the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004).

    73. See, for instance, an end-times interpretation of ISIS by William McCants, The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State (New York: St. Martins, 2015); a backgrounder on the crises by Patrick Cockburn, Jihadis and the West in the Struggle for the Middle East (New York: OR Books, 2016); an update by Patrick Cockburn that details ISIS’s role in the crisis, Age of Jihad: The Islamic State and the Great War for the Middle East (London: Verso, 2016); and a comprehensive text on ISIS by Malcolm Nance, Defeating Isis: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe (New York: Skyhorse Press, 2016).

    74. Loretta Napoleoni, The Islamic Phoenix: The Islamic State and the Redrawing of the Middle East. (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2014), 3.

    75. Ibid.

    76. For this initial analysis, the ethnographic present is the time period from July 2014 to February 2015.

    77. Malcolm Nance, Defeating Isis: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe (New York: Skyhorse Press, 2016). Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate (London: Saqi Books, 2015), 132–136 and Malcolm Nance, Defeating ISIS: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe (New York: Skyhorse Press, 2016), 28.

    78. The information comes from Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate (London: Saqi Books, 2015), 132–136 and Malcolm Nance, Defeating ISIS: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe (New York: Skyhorse Press, 2016), 28.

    79. Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State, 3–4.

    80. Loretta Napoleoni, The Islamic Phoenix, 124.

    81. Malcolm Nance, Defeating Isis: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe (New York: Skyhorse Press, 2016).

    82. Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State, 131–137; Nance, Defeating Isis, 50–67.

    83. Ibid., 132.

    84. Ibid., 132.

    85. Ibid., 134.

    86. Ibid., 133.

    87. Ibid., 134–135

    88. Ibid., and Patrick Cockburn, Chaos and Caliphate: Jihadis and the West in the Struggle for the Middle East.

    89. Loretta Napoleoni, The Islamic Phoenix, 96.

    90. Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State, 135.

    91. Ibid.

    92. Patrick Cockburn, Chaos and Caliphate, 397.

    93. Ibid.

    94. Ibid., 382–386.

    95. Samer, The Raqqa Diaries (London: Interlink Publishing Group, 2017).