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7.E: Thinking and Intelligence (Exercises)

7.1: What Is Cognition?

Simply put, cognition is thinking, and it encompasses the processes associated with perception, knowledge, problem solving, judgment, language, and memory. Scientists who study cognition are searching for ways to understand how we integrate, organize, and utilize our conscious cognitive experiences without being aware of all of the unconscious work that our brains are doing.

Review Questions

Q1

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of ________.

  1. human development
  2. human thinking
  3. human behavior
  4. human society

Q2

Which of the following is an example of a prototype for the concept of leadership on an athletic team?

  1. the equipment manager
  2. the scorekeeper
  3. the team captain
  4. the quietest member of the team

Q3

Which of the following is an example of an artificial concept?

  1. mammals
  2. a triangle’s area
  3. gemstones
  4. teachers

Q4

An event schema is also known as a cognitive ________.

  1. stereotype
  2. concept
  3. script
  4. prototype

Critical Thinking Questions

Q5

Describe an event schema that you would notice at a sporting event.

Q6

Explain why event schemata have so much power over human behavior.

Personal Application Question

Q7

Describe a natural concept that you know fully but that would be difficult for someone else to understand and explain why it would be difficult.

Solution

S1

B

S2

B

S3

B

S4

C

S5

Answers will vary. When attending a basketball game, it is typical to support your team by wearing the team colors and sitting behind their bench.

S6

Event schemata are rooted in the social fabric of our communities. We expect people to behave in certain ways in certain types of situations, and we hold ourselves to the same social standards. It is uncomfortable to go against an event schema—it feels almost like we are breaking the rules.

7.2: Language

Language is a communication system that involves using words and systematic rules to organize those words to transmit information from one individual to another. While language is a form of communication, not all communication is language. Many species communicate with one another through their postures, movements, odors, or vocalizations. This communication is crucial for species that need to interact and develop social relationships with their conspecifics.

Review Questions

Q1

________ provides general principles for organizing words into meaningful sentences.

  1. Linguistic determinism
  2. Lexicon
  3. Semantics
  4. Syntax

Q2

________ are the smallest unit of language that carry meaning.

  1. Lexicon
  2. Phonemes
  3. Morphemes
  4. Syntax

Q3

The meaning of words and phrases is determined by applying the rules of ________.

  1. lexicon
  2. phonemes
  3. overgeneralization
  4. semantics

Q4

________ is (are) the basic sound units of a spoken language.

  1. Syntax
  2. Phonemes
  3. Morphemes
  4. Grammar

Critical Thinking Questions

Q5

How do words not only represent our thoughts but also represent our values?

Q6

How could grammatical errors actually be indicative of language acquisition in children?

Q7

How do words not only represent our thoughts but also represent our values?

Personal Application Question

Q8

Can you think of examples of how language affects cognition?

Solution

S1

D

S2

C

S3

D

S4

B

S5

People tend to talk about the things that are important to them or the things they think about the most. What we talk about, therefore, is a reflection of our values.

S6

People tend to talk about the things that are important to them or the things they think about the most. What we talk about, therefore, is a reflection of our values.

S7

Grammatical errors that involve overgeneralization of specific rules of a given language indicate that the child recognizes the rule, even if he or she doesn’t recognize all of the subtleties or exceptions involved in the rule’s application.

7.3: Problem Solving

When you are presented with a problem—whether it is a complex mathematical problem or a broken printer, how do you solve it? Before finding a solution to the problem, the problem must first be clearly identified. After that, one of many problem solving strategies can be applied, hopefully resulting in a solution. A problem-solving strategy is a plan of action used to find a solution. Different strategies have different action plans associated with them. For example, a well-known strategy is tri

Review Questions

Q1

A specific formula for solving a problem is called ________.

  1. an algorithm
  2. a heuristic
  3. a mental set
  4. trial and error

Q2

A mental shortcut in the form of a general problem-solving framework is called ________.

  1. an algorithm
  2. a heuristic
  3. a mental set
  4. trial and error

Q3

Which type of bias involves becoming fixated on a single trait of a problem?

  1. anchoring bias
  2. confirmation bias
  3. representative bias
  4. availability bias

Q4

Which type of bias involves relying on a false stereotype to make a decision?

  1. anchoring bias
  2. confirmation bias
  3. representative bias
  4. availability bias

Critical Thinking Questions

Q5

What is functional fixedness and how can overcoming it help you solve problems?

Q6

How does an algorithm save you time and energy when solving a problem?

Personal Application Question

Q7

Which type of bias do you recognize in your own decision making processes? How has this bias affected how you’ve made decisions in the past and how can you use your awareness of it to improve your decisions making skills in the future?

Solution

S1

A

S2

B

S3

A

S4

C

S5

Functional fixedness occurs when you cannot see a use for an object other than the use for which it was intended. For example, if you need something to hold up a tarp in the rain, but only have a pitchfork, you must overcome your expectation that a pitchfork can only be used for garden chores before you realize that you could stick it in the ground and drape the tarp on top of it to hold it up.

S6

An algorithm is a proven formula for achieving a desired outcome. It saves time because if you follow it exactly, you will solve the problem without having to figure out how to solve the problem. It is a bit like not reinventing the wheel.

7.4: What Are Intelligence and Creativity?

What exactly is intelligence? The way that researchers have defined the concept of intelligence has been modified many times since the birth of psychology. British psychologist Charles Spearman believed intelligence consisted of one general factor, called g, which could be measured and compared among individuals. Spearman focused on the commonalities among various intellectual abilities and demphasized what made each unique..

Review Questions

Q1

Fluid intelligence is characterized by ________.

  1. being able to recall information
  2. being able to create new products
  3. being able to understand and communicate with different cultures
  4. being able to see complex relationships and solve problems

Q2

Which of the following is not one of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences?

  1. creative
  2. spatial
  3. linguistic
  4. musical

Q3

Which theorist put forth the triarchic theory of intelligence?

  1. Goleman
  2. Gardner
  3. Sternberg
  4. Steitz

Q4

When you are examining data to look for trends, which type of intelligence are you using most?

  1. practical
  2. analytical
  3. emotional
  4. creative

Critical Thinking Questions

Q5

Describe a situation in which you would need to use practical intelligence.

Q6

Describe a situation in which cultural intelligence would help you communicate better.

Personal Application Question

Q7

What influence do you think emotional intelligence plays in your personal life?

Solution

S1

D

S2

A

S3

C

S4

B

S5

You are out with friends and it is getting late. You need to make it home before your curfew, but you don’t have a ride home. You need to get in touch with your parents, but your cell phone is dead. So, you enter a nearby convenience store and explain your situation to the clerk. He allows you to use the store’s phone to call your parents, and they come and pick you and your friends up, and take all of you home.

S6

You are visiting Madrid, Spain, on a language immersion trip. Your Spanish is okay, but you still not sure about some of the facial expressions and body language of the native speakers. When faced with a sticky social situation, you do not engage immediately as you might back home. Instead, you hold back and observe what others are doing before reacting.

7.5: Measures of Intelligence

While you’re likely familiar with the term “IQ” and associate it with the idea of intelligence, what does IQ really mean? IQ stands for intelligence quotient and describes a score earned on a test designed to measure intelligence. You’ve already learned that there are many ways psychologists describe intelligence (or more aptly, intelligences). Similarly, IQ tests—the tools designed to measure intelligence—have been the subject of debate throughout their development and use.

Review Questions

Q1

In order for a test to be normed and standardized it must be tested on ________.

  1. a group of same-age peers
  2. a representative sample
  3. children with mental disabilities
  4. children of average intelligence

Q2

The mean score for a person with an average IQ is ________.

  1. \(70\)
  2. \(130\)
  3. \(85\)
  4. \(100\)

Q3

Who developed the IQ test most widely used today?

  1. Sir Francis Galton
  2. Alfred Binet
  3. Louis Terman
  4. David Wechsler

Q4

The DSM-5 now uses ________ as a diagnostic label for what was once referred to as mental retardation.

  1. autism and developmental disabilities
  2. lowered intelligence
  3. intellectual disability
  4. cognitive disruption

Critical Thinking Questions

Q5

Why do you think different theorists have defined intelligence in different ways?

Q6

Compare and contrast the benefits of the Stanford-Binet IQ test and Wechsler’s IQ tests.

Personal Application Question

Q7

In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?

Solution

S1

B

S2

D

S3

D

S4

C

S5

Since cognitive processes are complex, ascertaining them in a measurable way is challenging. Researchers have taken different approaches to define intelligence in an attempt to comprehensively describe and measure it.

S6

The Wechsler-Bellevue IQ test combined a series of subtests that tested verbal and nonverbal skills into a single IQ test in order to get a reliable, descriptive score of intelligence. While the Stanford-Binet test was normed and standardized, it focused more on verbal skills than variations in other cognitive processes.

7.6: The Source of Intelligence

Where does high intelligence come from? Some researchers believe that intelligence is a trait inherited from a person’s parents. Scientists who research this topic typically use twin studies to determine the heritability of intelligence.

Review Questions

Q1

Where does high intelligence come from?

  1. genetics
  2. environment
  3. both A and B
  4. neither A nor B

Q2

Arthur Jensen believed that ________.

  1. genetics was solely responsible for intelligence
  2. environment was solely responsible for intelligence
  3. intelligence level was determined by race
  4. IQ tests do not take socioeconomic status into account

Q3

What is a learning disability?

  1. a developmental disorder
  2. a neurological disorder
  3. an emotional disorder
  4. an intellectual disorder

Q4

Which of the following statements is true?

  1. Poverty always affects whether individuals are able to reach their full intellectual potential.
  2. An individual’s intelligence is determined solely by the intelligence levels of his siblings.
  3. The environment in which an individual is raised is the strongest predictor of her future intelligence
  4. There are many factors working together to influence an individual’s intelligence level.

Critical Thinking Questions

Q5

What evidence exists for a genetic component to an individual’s IQ?

Q6

Describe the relationship between learning disabilities and intellectual disabilities to intelligence.

Personal Application Question

Q7

Do you believe your level of intelligence was improved because of the stimuli in your childhood environment? Why or why not?

S1

C

S2

A

S3

B

S4

D

S5

Twin studies are one strong indication that IQ has a genetic component. Another indication is anecdotal evidence in the form of stories about highly intelligent individuals who come from difficult backgrounds yet still become highly successful adults.

S6

Learning disabilities are specific neurological problems within the brain and are separate from intelligence. Intellectual disabilities are pervasive and related to intelligence.

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