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5.9: Key Terms

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    cluster sampling
    when researchers divide the overall population into clusters, based on characteristics such as shared cities or schools, then randomly select people to poll from within those clusters
    politically speaking, an individual who generally does not believe in government intervention and tends to maintain that governmental control means fewer individual freedoms
    convenience sample
    a sample based on convenience rather than probability
    eligible voters
    voters who meet the requirements of their localities or states to cast a ballot in an election
    elite opinion
    the opinion not of the broader public but of business, political, and other cultural elites
    the manipulation of voting districts in order to favor candidates from one party over another
    interviewer bias
    when individual characteristics such as the race or gender of the interviewer affect a person’s survey response
    issue publics
    small segments of the overall public that express interest or vote based on a single issue
    Jim Crow laws
    a set of laws enforced mostly in the southern United States from the late 1800s until 1965 that legalized discrimination based on race, preventing Black Americans from enjoying fundamental rights such as equal access to education and voting
    politically speaking, an individual who supports government intervention and social welfare programs
    majority opinion
    the opinion of the majority of those polled
    measurement error
    limitations in response validity due to survey design problems
    opinion leaders
    individuals who can affect the opinions of other individuals, whether through their prominence, influence, or experience
    political ideology
    a set of beliefs, principles, or doctrines that guide one’s views of how government should work
    political participation
    activities that express opinions on public officials and public policy; the ways in which people can influence political outcomes
    probability sampling
    when researchers choose samples at random from the larger population
    public opinion
    views that individuals are willing to express openly at a specific point in time
    question wording effects
    when the wording of the questions on a survey affects how individuals respond
    random digit dialing
    a survey method that selects people for involvement by generating telephone numbers at random
    response bias
    when respondents to a survey inaccurately report their true opinions for one reason or another
    a group selected by researchers to represent the characteristics of the entire population
    sampling errors
    errors that occur in a statistical analysis due to the unrepresentativeness of the sample
    selection bias
    when the method by which a sample is chosen causes the sample to be unrepresentative of the population being studied
    when the people of a given country are the ones who grant the power to govern that country, through either direct or indirect representation
    social capital
    the effects of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively
    social desirability bias
    when respondents answer survey questions in a manner intended to cause them to be viewed favorably by others
    the right to vote in political elections
    voter fatigue
    feelings of apathy that the electorate can experience under certain circumstances—for example, when they are required to vote too often or are exposed to too much political information or negative news
    voter suppression
    discouraging or preventing specific groups of people from voting in order to alter the outcome of an election
    voter turnout
    the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election

    5.9: Key Terms is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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