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10.10: Key Terms

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    bully pulpit
    the national podium presidents have to speak on issues they believe are important and from which they can attempt to gain support for their position
    an institution that is hierarchal in nature and exists to formulate, enact, and enforce public policy in an efficient and equitable manner
    formal groups of advisors to the chief executive
    coalition government
    within a parliamentary regime, a government in which two or more parties have aligned together to rule
    confidence vote
    a procedural move in a parliamentary regime in which ministers vote on whether to continue to support the prime minister; sometimes called a “no confidence vote”
    formal powers
    powers specifically granted an executive by statute or by the country’s constitution
    formalized rules
    established regulations within a bureaucracy, often called standard operating procedures (SOP)
    a stalemate between competing parties that prevents governments from passing major legislation
    head of government
    performed by a country’s leader, a political role in which the individual leads the country’s government
    head of state
    performed by country’s leader, a ceremonial role in which the individual symbolically represents the country
    hierarchical authority
    the chain of command that exists within a bureaucracy; officials at the top have authority over those in the middle, who have authority over those at the bottom
    within bureaucracies, treating individuals fairly, equally, and impartially
    informal powers
    powers that emerge through tradition or custom or are inherent in the office
    iron triangle
    the relationship among bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and Congress that works to fashion public policy; focuses on the shared interest the members have and protecting that interest
    issue networks
    relationships among varied actors—policy experts, bureaucrats, and media—that form to address an issue and affect public policy; unlike iron triangles that form around a shared interest, issue networks form around an issue and attempt to address the issue through public policy
    job specialization
    the explicit definition of job responsibilities within bureaucratic organizations; also referred to as division of labor
    kitchen cabinet
    an informal group of advisors to a chief executive
    majority government
    within a parliamentary regime, when one party holds a clear majority and forms the government
    merit system
    the hiring and promotion of individuals based upon formal, competitive examination
    neutral competence
    the idea that bureaucrats are policy experts who follow set procedures and do not consider personal, political, or professional loyalties in performing their responsibilities
    parliamentary regimes
    democratic government systems in which the chief executive is selected by the legislative body and is a member of that legislature
    the hiring and promotion of individuals based upon political loyalty
    plurality voting
    a voting system in which the winning candidate is the one who receives the most votes even if the candidate does not receive more than 50 percent of the vote; also known as “first-past-the-post”
    political approach that uses emotional appeals to promise the masses a political voice in a system that has been perceived to be run by elites
    presidential regimes
    democratic governments in which the chief executive is selected separately from the legislative body and there exists a separation of powers between the presidency and the legislature
    prime minister
    the chief executive and head of government in a parliamentary regime
    semi-presidential regimes
    democratic government systems in which executive power is split between a prime minister (selected by the legislature) and a president (directly elected by the citizenry)
    single-member districts
    electoral districts in which only a single individual is elected to represent an area
    spoils system
    primarily used in the 1800s, this system filled government positions based on party loyalty; see patronage

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