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7.7: Chapter Glossary and References

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    Glossary of Key Terms

    Economic anthropology - defined by Wilk in 1996 as "the part of the discipline [of anthropology] that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living."

    Production - the process by which natural resources are converted into a more useable form for humans.

    Distribution - the movement of goods and services from the place of manufacture or production to the place of consumption.

    Consumption - the taking in or using up of materials needed for humans to survive.

    Modes of exchange - the patterns by which distribution happens, including reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange.

    Reciprocity - trading goods and services that are of the same value; the three anthropological types of this are generalized, balanced, and negative.

    Redistribution - secondary distribution so that every member of a group contributes economically and then receives the amount of goods that they need.

    Market Exchange - exchanging goods in terms of monetary value and continuing through a supply and demand price mechanism.

    Labor - the work that connects human groups to the environment around them.

    Modes of Production - the grouping of social relations through which labor is used to harness energy from the environment in the forms of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge.

    Means of Production - the actual tools, skills, organization, and knowledge used to take energy from nature.

    Relations of Production - the social relations which connect people who use a certain means of production in the context of a certain mode of production.

    Affluence - the state of more than the amount necessary to fulfill consumption needs.

    Economizing - to practice economically advantageous practices such as avoiding waste, reducing expenditures, or to make economic use of something.

    Animal Husbandry - to create a land to human means by domesticating animals and breeding them to fulfill the need in communities.


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