Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts


  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Abbott, Barbara. 2010. Reference (Oxford Surveys in Semantics and Pragmatics 2). Oxford University Press.

    Adams, Ernest W. 1970. Subjunctive and indicative conditionals. Foundations of Language 6. 89–94.

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2004. Evidentiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2009. Semantics and grammar in clause linking. In R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Aikhenvald (eds.), The semantics of clause linking: A cross-linguistic typology, 380–402. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Akatsuka, Noriko. 1985. Conditionals and the epistemic scale. Language 61(3). 625–639.

    Allen, J. H. & J. B. Greenough. 1903. Allen and Greenough’s new Latin grammar for schools and colleges. Boston: Ginn & Company. Edited by J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kitteredge, A. A. Howard, and Benjamin L. D’Ooge.

    Allwood, Jens, Lars-Gunnar Andersson & Östen Dahl. 1977. Logic in linguistics. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Apresjan, Jurij. 1974. Regular polysemy. Linguistics 142. 5–32.

    Arka, I. Wayan. 2005. Speech levels, social predicates and pragmatic structure in Balinese: A lexical approach. Pragmatics 2/3. 169–203.

    Aronoff, Mark & Kirsten Fudeman. 2011. What is morphology? 2nd edn. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Ashton, E. O. 1944. Swahili grammar (including intonation). London: Longman.

    Austin, J. L. 1956. Ifs and cans. Proceedings of the British Academy 42. 107–132.

    Austin, J. L. 1961. Performative utterances. J. O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2nd edition, 1970.

    Austin, J. L. 1962. How to do things with words. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Edited by James O. Urmson and Marina Sbisá.

    Bach, Emmon. 1989. Informal lectures on formal semantics. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Bach, Kent. 1994. Conversational impliciture. Mind and Language 9. 124–162.

    Bach, Kent. 2010. Impliciture vs explicature: What’s the difference? In Belén Soria & Esther Romero (eds.), Explicit communication: Robyn Carston’s pragmatics, 126–137. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Baker, Mark C. 1995. On the absence of certain quantifiers in Mohawk. In E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kratzer & B. H. Partee (eds.), Quantification in natural languages, 21–58. Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Bar-el, Leora, Henry Davis & Lisa Matthewson. 2005. On non-culminating accomplishments (Proceedings of the North Eastern Linguistics Society 35). Amherst, MA: GLSA.

    Bariki, Ozidi. 2008. On the relationship between translation and pragmatics. International Journal of Translation 20(1–2). 67–75.

    Barker, Chris. 2002. Lexical semantics. In Encyclopedia of cognitive science. Macmillan Reference Ltd.

    Barnes, Janet. 1984. Evidentials in the Tuyuca verb. International Journal of American Linguistics 50. 255–271.

    Barwise, Jon & Robin Cooper. 1981. Generalized quantifiers in natural language. Linguistics and Philosophy 4. 159–219.

    Beekman, John & John Callow. 1974. Translating the word of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

    Bennett, Jonathan. 1982. Even if. Linguistics and Philosophy 5. 403–18.

    Bennett, Jonathan. 2003. A philosophical guide to conditionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bhatt, Rajesh & Roumyana Pancheva. 2006. Conditionals. In Martin Everaert & Henk van Riemsdijk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, vol. 1, 638–687. London: Blackwell.

    Binnick, Robert I. 2006. Aspect and aspectuality. In Bas Aarts & April McMahon (eds.), The handbook of English linguistics, 244–268. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

    Birner, Betty J. 2012/2013. Introduction to pragmatics. Malden, MA & Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Bittner, Maria. 1995. Quantification in Eskimo: a challenge for compositional semantics. In E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kratzer & B. H. Partee (eds.), Quantification in natural languages, 59–80. Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Blackburn, P., M. de Rijke & Y. Venema. 2008. Modal logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Blum-Kulka, S., J. House & G. Kasper (eds.). 1989. Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies (Advances in Discourse Processes XXXI). New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

    Bohnemeyer, Jürgen. 2014. Aspect vs. relative tense: The case reopened. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 32. 917–954.

    Bolinger, Dwight. 1967. Adjectives in English: Attribution and predication. Lingua 18. 1–34.

    Botne, Robert. 2012. Remoteness distinctions. In R. Binnick (ed.), The handbook of tense and aspect, 536–562. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bross, Fabian. 2012. German modal particles and the common ground. Helikon: A Multidisciplinary Online Journal 2. 182–209.

    Brown, Penelope & Stephen C. Levinson. 1978. Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In E. N. Goody (ed.), Questions and politeness: Strategies of social interaction, 56–311. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Bybee, Joan. 1992. Tense, aspect, and mood. In William Bright (ed.), International encyclopedia of linguistics, vol. 4, 144–145. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar: Tense, aspect and modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Cable, Seth. 2013. Beyond the past, present and future: Towards the semantics of ‘graded tense’ in Gĩkũyũ. Natural Language Semantics 21(3). 219–276.

    Cann, Ronnie. 2011. Sense relations. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics, vol. 1, 456–478. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Carlson, Greg. 1977. Reference to kinds in English. MIT dissertation.

    Carston, Robyn. 1988. Implicature, explicature and truth-theoretic semantics. In R. Kempson (ed.), Mental representations: The interface between language and reality, 155–181. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reprinted in Davis, S. (ed.) (1991).

    Carston, Robyn. 1998. Informativeness, relevance and scalar implicature. In R. Carston & S. Uchida (eds.), Relevance theory: Applications and implications, 179–236. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Carston, Robyn. 2002. Thoughts and utterances: The pragmatics of explicit communication. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Carston, Robyn. 2004. Relevance theory and the saying/implicating distinction. In Laurence Horn & Gregory Ward (eds.), The handbook of pragmatics, 633–656. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Carston, Robyn & Alison Hall. 2012. Implicature and explicature. In Hans-Jörg Schmid (ed.), Cognitive pragmatics (Handbooks in Pragmatics 4), 47–84. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Chang, Chen Chung & H. Jerome Keisler. 1990. Model theory. 3rd edn. (Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics 73). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Chao, Yuen-Ren. 1968. A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Chen, Chien-chou. 2009. Experientiality and reversibility of the aspectual morpheme guo in Mandarin Chinese: Temporal and atemporal perspectives. Dong Hwa Journal of Humanities (東華人文學報) 1. 247–94. ir . ndhu . edu . tw /bitstream/987654321/4910/1/14-247-294.pdf.

    Chen, Gwang-tsai. 1979. The aspect markers le, guo and zhe in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 14(2). 27–46.

    Cherchia, Gennaro & Sally McConnell-Ginet. 1990. Meaning and grammar: An introduction to semantics. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

    Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge: MIT. Press.

    Chomsky, Noam. 1970. Deep structure, surface structure and semantic interpretation. In R. Jakobson & S. Kawamoto (eds.), Studies in general and Oriental linguistics, 62–119. Tokyo: TEC Corporation.

    Chu, Chauncey. 1998. A discourse grammar of Mandarin Chinese. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

    Chung, Sandra & Alan Timberlake. 1985. Tense, aspect, and mood. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description: Grammatical categories and the lexicon, vol. 3, 202–258. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Cohen, L. Jonathan. 1971. The logical particles of natural language. In Y. Bar-Hillel (ed.), Pragmatics of natural language, 50–68. Dordrecht: Reidel.

    Cole, Peter. 1982. Imbabura Quechua (Lingua Descriptive Studies 5). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

    Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Comrie, Bernard. 1985. Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Comrie, Bernard. 1986. Conditionals: A typology. In Elizatbeth C. Traugott, Alice ter Meulen, Judy Snitzer Reilly & Charles Ferguson (eds.), On conditionals, 77–99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Coppock, Elizabeth. 2016. Semantics boot camp. Unpublished ms.

    Cotterell, Peter & Max Turner. 1989. Linguistics and biblical interpretation. Illinois: InterVarsity Press.

    Croft, William & D. Alan Cruse. 2004. Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Cruse, D. Alan. 1986. Lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Cruse, D. Alan. 2000. Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Cruse, D. Alan. 2004. Lexical facets and metonymy. Revista Ilha do Desterro: A Journal of English Language, Literatures in English and Cultural Studies 47. 73–96.

    de Haan, Ferdinand. 1997. The interaction of modality and negation. New York: Garland.

    de Haan, Ferdinand. 1999. Evidentiality and epistemic modality: Setting boundaries. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 18. 83–101.

    de Haan, Ferdinand. 2005. Encoding speaker perspective: Evidentials. In Zygmunt Frajzyngier & David Rood (eds.), Linguistic diversity and language theories, 379–397. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

    de Haan, Ferdinand. 2006. Typological approaches to modality. In William Frawley (ed.), Modality, 27–69. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    de Haan, Ferdinand. 2012. Evidentiality and mirativity. In Robert I. Binnick (ed.), The Oxford handbook of tense and aspect, 1020–1046. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    de Haan, Ferdinand. 2013. Semantic distinctions of evidentiality. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds.), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

    de Swart, Henriette. 1998. Aspect shift and coercion. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. 347–385.

    Declerck, Renaat. 1991. Tense in English. London: Routledge.

    DeLancey, Scott. 1995. Verbal Case Frames in English and Tibetan. Unpublished ms., Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

    DeLancey, Scott. 2000. The universal basis of case. Logos and Language 1(2). 1–15.

    Dell, François. 1983. An aspectual distinction in Tagalog. Oceanic Linguistics 22-23. 175–206.

    DeRose, Keith & Richard E. Grandy. 1999. Conditional assertions and “biscuit” conditionals. Noûs 33(3). 405–420.

    Dowty, David. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar: The semantics of verbs and times in generative semantics and in Montague’s PTQ. Dordrecht & Boston: Reidel.

    Dowty, David. 1991. Thematic proto-roles and argument selection. Language 67. 547–619.

    Dowty, David, Robert Wall & Stanley Peters. 1981. Introduction to Montague semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.

    Drubig, Hans B. 2001. On the syntactic form of epistemic modality. Unpublished ms. Tübingen, University of Tübingen.

    Dutton, Thomas E. 1973. Conversational New Guinea Pidgin (Pacific Linguistics D-12). Canberra: The Australian National University.

    Ebert, Christian, Cornelia Endriss & Stefan Hinterwimmer. 2008. A unified analysis of indicative and biscuit conditionals as topics. In Tova Friedman & Satoshi Ito (eds.), Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 18, 266–283. Ithaca: Cornell University.

    Egner, Inge. 2002. The speech act of promising in an intercultural perspective (SIL Electronic Working Papers). SIL.

    Enderton, Herbert B. 1977. Elements of set theory. New York: Academic Press.

    Engelberg, Stefan. 2011. Lexical decomposition: Foundational issues. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 1, 122–142. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.

    Ernst, Thomas. 2009. Speaker-oriented adverbs. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 27. 497–544. DOI:10.1007/s11049-009-9069-1

    Faller, Martina. 2002. Semantics and pragmatics of evidentials in Cuzco Quechua. Department of Linguistics, Stanford University dissertation.

    Faller, Martina. 2003. Propositional- and illocutionary-level evidentiality in Cuzco Quechua. In Jan Anderssen, Paula Menendez-Benito & Adam Werle (eds.), The Proceedings of SULA 2 (The Second Conference on the Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas),Vancouver, BC, 19–33. Amherst: GLSA.

    Faller, Martina. 2006. Evidentiality above and below speech acts.

    Fillmore, Charles. 1970. The grammar of hitting and breaking. In Roderick Jacobs & Peter Rosenbaum (eds.), Readings in English transformational grammar, 120–33. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

    Fillmore, Charles. 1977. The case for case reopened. In Peter Cole & Jerrold Sadock (eds.), Grammatical relations (Syntax and Semantics 8), 59–81. New York: Academic Press.

    Fillmore, Charles & Beryl T. Atkins. 2000. Describing polysemy: The case of ‘crawl’. In Yael Ravin & Claudia Leacock (eds.), Polysemy: Theoretical and computational approaches, 1–29. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Finegan, Edward. 1999. Language: Its structure and use. Vol. 3. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

    Fodor, Janet & Ivan Sag. 1982. Referential and quantificational indefinites. Linguistics and Philosophy 5. 355–398.

    Fodor, Jerry A. 1975. The language of thought. New York: Crowell.

    Fortescue, Michael. 1984. West Greenlandic (Croom Helm Descriptive Grammars). London: Croom Helm.

    Fortin, Antonio. 2011. The morphology and semantics of expressive affixes. University of Oxford dissertation.

    Franke, Michael. 2007. The pragmatics of biscuit conditionals. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th Amsterdam colloquium, 91–96.

    Frawley, William. 1992. Linguistic semantics. Hillsdale, NJ, Hove & London: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Frege, Gottlob. 1892. Über Sinn und Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Philosophische Kritik 100. 25–50. Translated as ‘On sense and reference’, in P. Geach and M. Black (eds.), Translations from the philosophical writings of Gottlob Frege, 56–78. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Frege, Gottlob. 1918–1919. Der Gedanke. Eine logische Untersuchung. Beiträge zur Philosophie des deutschen Idealismus Band I. 58–77. Translated by Peter Geach (1956) as ‘The thought: A logical inquiry’ in Mind 55: 289–311.

    Gamut, L. T. F. 1991a. Logic, language and meaning. Vol. I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Gamut, L. T. F. 1991b. Logic, language and meaning: Intensional logic and logical grammar. Vol. II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Garson, James. 2016. Modal logic. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (spring 2016 edition). Stanford.

    Gass, Susan & Joyce Neu (eds.). 2006. Speech acts across cultures. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Gazdar, Gerald. 1979. Pragmatics: Implicature, presupposition and logical form. New York: Academic Press.

    Geurts, Bart. 2011. Quantity implicatures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Geurts, Bart & David Beaver. 2011. Presupposition. In E. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Stanford: Stanford University. revised version: Beaver, David and Bart Geurts. 2012. Presupposition. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: an international handbook of natural language meaning, Vol. 3, 2432–2460. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2011. (Non)veridicality and mood choice: Subjunctive, polarity and time. In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense across languages, 59–90. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

    Gillon, Brendan. 1990. Ambiguity, generality and indeterminacy: Tests and definitions. Synthese 85. 391–416.

    Givón, Talmy. 1972. Studies in ChiBemba and Bantu grammar. Studies in African linguistics, supplement 3. 1–247.

    Goldberg, Adele E. 2015. Compositionality. In Nick Riemer (ed.), The Routledge handbook of semantics, 419–433. London: Routledge.

    Gomes, Gilberto. 2008. Three types of conditionals and their verb forms in English and Portuguese. Cognitive Linguistics 19(2). 219–40.

    Green, Georgia. 1990. The universality of Gricean interpretation. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 411–428.

    Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. In Greenberg (ed.), Universals of language, 73–113. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. 2nd edition 1966.

    Grice, H. Paul. 1961. The causal theory of perception. Arisotelian Society Supplement 35. 121–152.

    Grice, H. Paul. 1975. Logic and conversation. In Peter Cole & Jerry L. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and semantics 3: Speech acts, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.

    Grice, H. Paul. 1978. Further notes on logic and conversation. In Peter Cole & Jerry L. Morgan (eds.), Pragmatics (Syntax and Semantics 9), 113–127. New York: Academic Press.

    Grice, H. Paul. 1981. Presupposition and conversational implicature. In Peter Cole (ed.), Radical pragmatics, 183–198. New York: Academic Press.

    Grosz, Patrick. 2010. German doch: An element that triggers a contrast presupposition. In T. Grinsell, A. Baker, J. Thomas, R. Baglini & J. Keane (eds.), Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society, vol. 46, 163–177.

    Guerssel, Mohamed, Kenneth Hale, Mary Laughren, Beth Levin & Josie White Eagle. 1985. A crosslinguistic study of transitivity alternations. In William Eilfort,
    Paul Kroeber & Karen Peterson (eds.), Papers from the parasession on causatives and agentivity at the 21st regional meeting, 48–63. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

    Gutierrez-Rexach, Javier. 2013. Quantification. In Philipp Strazny (ed.), Encyclopedia of linguistics, 885–887. London: Routledge.

    Gutzmann, Daniel. 2015. Use-conditional meaning: Studies in multidimensional semantics (Oxford Studies in Semantics and Pragmatics 6). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Hacquard, Valentine. 2007. Speaker-oriented vs. subject-oriented modals: A split in implicative behavior. In E. Puig-Waldmüller (ed.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 11, 305–319. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

    Hacquard, Valentine. 2011. Modality. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language and meaning, vol. 2 (HSK 33.2), 1484–1515. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Haegeman, Liliane. 2010. The internal syntax of adverbial clauses. Lingua 120. 628–648.

    Hale, Kenneth L. & Samuel J. Keyser. 1987. A view from the middle (Lexicon Project Working Papers 10). Cambridge, MA: Center for Cognitive Science, MIT Press.

    Halmos, Paul. 1960. Naive set theory. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company. Reprinted by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1974.

    Harada, Shin-Ichi. 1976. Honorifics. In Masayoshi Shibatani (ed.), Japanese generative grammar (Syntax and Semantics 5), 499–561. New York: Academic Press.

    Hardy, Heather K. & Lynn Gordon. 1980. Types of adverbial and modal constructions in Tolkapaya. International Journal of American Linguistics 46(3). 183–196.

    Hartmann, R. R. K. & Gregory James. 1998. Dictionary of lexicography. London & New York: Routledge.

    Haspelmath, Martin. 1995. The converb as a cross-linguistically valid category. In M. Haspelmath & E. König (eds.), Converbs in cross-linguistic perspective: Structure and meaning of adverbial verb forms – adverbial participles, gerunds, 1–55. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Heim, Irene & Angelika Kratzer. 1998. Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Hjelmslev, Louis. 1953[1943]. Prolegomena to a theory of language. (Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics, IJAL Memoir 7). Baltimore: Waverly Press. (Translated by Francis J. Whitfield; first published in Danish in 1943; 2nd English edition, slightly rev., Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.)

    Hockett, Charles F. 1958. A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan.

    Hockett, Charles F. 1960. The origin of speech. Scientific American 203. 88–96.

    Hodges, Wilfrid. 1997. A shorter model theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Hodges, Wilfrid. 2013. Model theory. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2013 edition). Stanford.

    Holm, John. 2000. An introduction to pidgins and creoles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Horn, Laurence. 1972. On the semantic properties of logical operators in English. University of California, Los Angeles dissertation.

    Horn, Laurence. 1985. Metalinguistic negation and pragmatic ambiguity. Language 61. 121–174.

    Horn, Laurence. 1989. A natural history of negation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Horn, Laurence. 1992. The said and the unsaid. In Chris Barker & David Dowty (eds.), SALT II: Proceedings of the 2nd Semantics and Linguistic Theory conference (Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 40), 163–192. DOI:

    Horn, Laurence. 1997. Presupposition and implicature. In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The handbook of contemporary semantic theory, 209–319. London: Blackwell Publishing.

    Horn, Laurence. 2004. Implicature. In Laurence Horn & Gregory Ward (eds.), The handbook of pragmatics, 3–28. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    Huang, Lillian Mei-Jin & Philip W. Davis. 1989. An aspectual system in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 17. 128–66.

    Huddleston, Rodney & Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Iatridou, Sabine. 1991. Topics in conditionals. MIT dissertation.

    Idris, Abdul Aziz. 1980. Modality in Malay. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 5(1). 1–14.

    Iljic, Robert. 1990. The verbal suffix –guo in Mandarin Chinese and the notion of recurrence. Lingua 81. 301–326.

    Innes, Gordon. 1966. An introduction to Grebo. London: School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London.

    Izvorski, Roumyana. 1997. The present perfect as an epistemic modal. In Aaron Lawson (ed.), Proceedings from Semantics and Linguistic Theory VII, 222–239. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

    Jackendoff, Ray. 1976. Toward an explanatory semantic representation. Linguistic Inquiry 7(1). 89–150.

    Jackendoff, Ray. 1983. Semantics and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Jespersen, Otto. 1924. The philosophy of grammar. London: Allen & Unwin.

    Jespersen, Otto. 1931. A modern English grammar on historical principles. Part 4, Syntax (third volume): Time and tense. London: G. Allen & Unwin; Copenhagen: E. Munksgaard.

    Jespersen, Otto. 1933. Essentials of English grammar. London: G. Allen & Unwin; Reprinted by University of Alabama Press, 1964.

    Johnston, Michael. 1994. The syntax and semantics of adverbial adjuncts. University of California Santa Cruz dissertation.

    Kalisz, Roman. 1992. Different cultures, different languages and different speech acts revisited. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 27. 107–118.

    Karagjosova, Elena. 2000. A unified approach to the meaning and function of modal particles in dialogue. In Catherine Pilire (ed.), Proceedings of the ESSLLI 2000 Student Session, August 6-18. Birmingham, UK: University of Birmingham.

    Karttunen, Lauri & Stanley Peters. 1979. Conventional implicature. In Choon-Kyu Oh & David Dinneen (eds.), Syntax and semantics, volume 11: Presupposition, 1–56. New York: Academic Press.

    Katz, Jerrold J. 1972. Semantic theory. New York: Harper & Row.

    Katz, Jerrold J. 1978. Effability and translation. In F. Guenthner & M. GuenthnerReutter (eds.), Meaning and translation, 191–234. New York: New York University Press.

    Katz, Jerrold J. & Jerry A. Fodor. 1963. The structure of a semantic theory. Language 39. 170–210.

    Kearns, Kate. 2000. Semantics (Modern Linguistics series). New York: St. Martin’s Press.

    Kearns, Kate. 2011. Semantics. 2nd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Keenan, Elinor O. 1974. The universality of conversational implicatures. In Ralph W. Fasold & Roger W. Shuy (eds.), Studies in linguistic variation: Semantics, syntax, phonology, pragmatics, social situations, ethnographic approaches, 255–268. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.

    Kempson, Ruth. M. 1975. Presupposition and the delimitation of semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Kempson, Ruth M. 1977. Semantic theory (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Kennedy, Christopher. 2011. Ambiguity and vagueness: An overview. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 1, 507–535. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Kim, Jong-Bok & Peter Sells. 2007. Korean honorification: A kind of expressive meaning. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 16(4). 303–336.

    Kiparsky, Paul. 2002. Event structure and the perfect. In David I. Beaver, Luis D. Casillas Martínez, Brady Z. Clark & Stefan Kaufmann (eds.), The construction of meaning. Stanford CA: CSLI Publications.

    Kiparsky, Paul & Carol Kiparsky. 1970. Fact. In Manfred Bierwisch & Karl Heidolph (eds.), Progress in linguistics, 143–173. The Hague: Mouton. Reprinted in L. Jakobovits and D. Steinberg (eds.), Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

    Kitis, Eliza. 2006. Causality and subjectivity: The causal connectives of Modern Greek. In Hanna Pishwa (ed.), Language and memory: Aspects of knowledge representation, 223–267. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Klein, Wolfgang. 1992. The present perfect puzzle. Language 68. 525–552.

    Klein, Wolfgang. 1994. Time in language. London: Routledge.

    Klein, Wolfgang. 2009. How time is encoded. In Wolfgang Klein & Ping Li (eds.), The expression of time, 5–38. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Klein, Wolfgang, Ping Li & Henriette Hendriks. 2000. Aspect and assertion in Mandarin Chinese. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18. 723–770.

    Koenig, Jean-Pierre & Liancheng Chief. 2008. Scalarity and state-changes in Mandarin (and other languages). In O. Bonami & P. Cabredo Hofherr (eds.), Empirical issues in syntax and semantics, vol. 7, 241–262. Paris: CNRS.

    Koenig, Jean-Pierre & Karin Michelson. 2010. How to quantify over entities in Iroquoian. Paper presented at the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, Baltimore, MD.

    Koenig, Jean-Pierre & N. Muansuwan. 2000. How to end without ever finishing: Thai semi-perfectivity. Journal of Semantics 17. 147–184.

    König, Ekkehard. 1991. The meaning of focus particles: A comparative perspective. London: Routledge.

    König, Ekkehard, Detlef Stark & Susanne Requardt. 1990. Adverbien und Partikeln: Ein deutschenglisches Wörterbuch [Adverbs and particles: A German–English dictionary]. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

    Kratzer, Angelika. 1981. The notional category of modality. In H.-J. Eikmeyer & H. Rieser (eds.), Words, worlds, and contexts: New approaches in word semantics, 38–74. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Kratzer, Angelika. 1986. Conditionals. Chicago Linguistics Society 22(2). 1–15.

    Kratzer, Angelika. 1991. Modality. In Arnim von Stechow & Dieter Wunderlich (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of contemporary research, 639–650. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Kratzer, Angelika. 1995. Stage-level/individual-level predicates. In G. N. Carlson & F. J. Pelletier (eds.), The generic book, 125–175. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Kratzer, Angelika. 1999. Beyond ‘Ouch’ and ‘Oops’: How descriptive and expressive meaning interact. Comment on Kaplan’s paper at the Cornell Conference on Context Dependency.

    Kroeger, Paul. 2005. Analyzing grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Kroeger, Paul. 2010. The grammar of hitting, breaking and cutting in Kimaragang Dusun. Oceanic Linguistics 49. 2–20.

    Kroeger, Paul. 2017. Frustration, culmination and inertia in Kimaragang grammar. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 56(1). 1–29.

    LaCross, Lisa. 2016. Past temporal remoteness in Kimanianga. Paper presented at the Texas Linguistic Society conference, Feb. 2016, Austin TX.

    Lakoff, George. 1970. A note on vagueness and ambiguity. Linguistic Inquiry 1. 357–359.

    Langacker, Ronald W. 2001. The English present tense. English Language and Linguistics 5. 251–272.

    Lee, Sooman Noah. 2008. A grammar of Iranian Azerbaijani. Seoul: The Altaic Society of Korea.

    Leech, Geoffrey N. 1971. Meaning and the English verb. London: Longman.

    Levin, Beth. 1993. English verb classes and alternations: A preliminary investigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Levin, Beth. 2015. Verb classes within and across languages. In A. Malchukov & B. Comrie (eds.), Valency classes: A comparative handbook, 1627–1670. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Levinson, Stephen C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Levinson, Stephen C. 1995. Three levels of meaning. In F. R. Palmer (ed.), Grammar and meaning: Essays in honour of Sir John Lyons, 90–115. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Levinson, Stephen C. 2000. Presumptive meanings: The theory of generalized conversational implicature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Levinson, Stephen C. & E. Annamalai. 1992. Why presuppositions aren’t conventional. In R. N. Srivastava (ed.), Language and text: Studies in honour of Ashok
    R. Kelkar
    , 227–242. Delhi: Kalinga Publications.

    Lewis, Clarence I. 1918. Survey of symbolic logic. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Lewis, David. 1973a. Causation. Journal of Philosophy 70. 556–567.

    Lewis, David. 1973b. Counterfactuals. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Lewis, David. 1975. Adverbs of quantification. In Edward Keenan (ed.), Formal semantics of natural language, 3–15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Lewis, David. 2000. Causation as influence. Journal of Philosophy 97. 182–197.

    Li, Charles & Sandra A. Thompson. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Lin, Jo-Wang. 2007. Predicate restriction, discontinuity property and the meaning of the perfective marker guo in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 16. 237–257.

    Lovestrand, Joseph. 2012. The linguistic structure of Baraïn (Chadic). Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics MA thesis.

    Lyons, John. 1977. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. vol. 1-2.

    Lyons, John. 1995. Linguistic semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Ma, Jing Sheng. 1977. Some aspects of the teaching of -guo and -le. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 12(1). 14–26.

    Marques, Rui. 2004. On the system of mood in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 3(1). 89–109.

    Martin, John N. 1987. Elements of formal semantics: An introduction to logic for students of language. Orlando: Academic Press.

    Martin, Samuel E. 1992. A reference grammar of Korean: A complete guide to the grammar and history of the Korean language. Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company.

    Matsumoto, Yo. 1995. The conversational condition on Horn scales. Linguistics and Philosophy 18. 21–60.

    Matthewson, Lisa. 2006. Presupposition and cross-linguistic variation. NorthEastern Linguistic Society (NELS) 26. 63–76.

    Matthewson, Lisa. 2010. Cross-linguistic variation in modality systems: The role of mood. Semantics and Pragmatics 3. 1–74.

    Matthewson, Lisa. 2016. Modality. In Maria Aloni & Paul Dekker (eds.), Cambridge handbook of formal semantics, 525–559. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Matthewson, Lisa, Henry Davis & Hotze Rullmann. 2007. Evidentials as epistemic modals: Evidence from St’át’imcets. Linguistic Variation Yearbook 7. 201–254.

    McCawley, James D. 1968. Concerning the base component of a transformational grammar. Foundations of Language 4. 243–269.

    McCawley, James D. 1971. Tense and time reference in English. In Langendoen & Fillmore (eds.), Studies in linguistic semantics, 97–113. New York: Holt Rinehart.

    McCawley, James D. 1981a. Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic… but were ashamed to ask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    McCawley, James D. 1981b. Notes on the English perfect. Australian Journal of Linguistics 1. 81–90.

    McCloskey, James. 2001. The morphosyntax of WH-extraction in Irish. Journal of Linguistics 37. 67–100.

    McCoard, Robert W. 1978. The English perfect: Tense choice and pragmatic inferences. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.

    Meibauer, Jörg. 2005. Lying and falsely implicating. Journal of Pragmatics 37. 1373–1399.

    Michaelis, Laura A. 1994. The ambiguity of the English present perfect. Journal of Linguistics 30. 111–157.

    Michaelis, Laura A. 1998. Aspectual grammar and past-time reference. London: Routledge.

    Michaelis, Laura A. 2006. Time and tense. In B. Aarts & A. MacMahon (eds.), The handbook of English linguistics, 220–234. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Milsark, Gary L. 1977. Toward an explanation of certain peculiarities of the existential construction in English. Linguistic Analysis 3. 1–30.

    Moens, Marc & Mark Steedman. 1988. Temporal ontology and temporal reference. Computational Linguistics 14(2). 15–28.

    Morton, Adam. 2004. Indicative versus subjunctive future conditionals. Analysis 64(4). 289–293.

    Morzycki, Marcin. 2015. Modification (Key Topics in Semantics and Pragmatics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Murray, Sarah E. 2010. Evidentiality and the structure of speech acts. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey dissertation.

    Nida, Eugene. 1951. A system for the description of semantic elements. Word 7. 1–14.

    Nunberg, Geoffrey. 1979. The non-uniqueness of semantic solutions: Polysemy. Linguistics and Philosophy 3(2). 143–184.

    Nunberg, Geoffrey. 1995. Transfers of meaning. Journal of Semantics 12(2). 109–132.

    Nunberg, Geoffrey & Annie Zaenen. 1992. Systematic polysemy in lexicology and lexicography. In H. Tommola, K. Varantola, T. Salmi-Tolonen & J.
    Schopp (eds.), Proceedings of Euralex II, 387–398. Tampere: University of Tampere.

    Nurse, Derek. 2008. Tense and aspect in Bantu. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Olshtain, Elite & Andrew Cohen. 1989. Speech act behaviour across languages. In Hans W. Dechert & Manfred Raupach (eds.), Transfer in language production, 53–68. Norwood, N. J.: Ablex.

    Pagin, Peter & Dag Westerståhl. 2010. Compositionality II: Arguments and problems. Philosophy Compass 5(3). 265–282.

    Pak, Miok. 2008. Types of clauses and sentence end particles in Korean. Korean Linguistics 14. 113–155.

    Pak, Miok, Paul Portner & Raffaella Zanuttini. 2013. Politeness, formality and main clause phenomena. Handout for talk at LSA annual meeting, Jan. 2013.

    Palmer, F. R. 1986. Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Pan, H. & P. Lee. 2004. The role of pragmatics in interpreting the Chinese perfective markers -guo and -le. Journal of Pragmatics 36. 441–466.

    Papafragou, Anna. 2006. Epistemic modality and truth conditions. Lingua 116. 1688–1702.

    Partee, Barbara Hall. 1973. Some structural analogies between tenses and pronouns in English. The Journal of Philosophy 70. 601–609.

    Partee, Barbara Hall. 1995. Lexical semantics and compositionality. In Lila Gleitman & Mark Liberman (eds.), Invitation to cognitive science, volume 1, 2nd edn., 311–360. Cambridge, MA: Language MIT Press. Prepublication version is available online at:

    Partee, Barbara Hall. 2008. Negation, intensionality, and aspect: Interaction with NP semantics. In Susan Rothstein (ed.), Theoretical and crosslinguistic approaches to the semantics of aspect, 291–320. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    Pelletier, Francis. 2001. Did Frege believe Frege’s principle? Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10. 87–114.

    Peters, Stanley & Dag Westerståhl. 2006. Quantifiers in language and logic. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Pinker, Steven. 1994. The language instinct. New York: W. Morrow & Co.

    Pit, Mirna. 2003. How to express yourself with a causal connective: Subjectivity and causal connectives in Dutch, German and French. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

    Podlesskaya, Vera. 2001. Conditional constructions. In Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible (eds.), Language typology and language universals, vol. 2, 998–1010. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Portner, Paul. 2003. The temporal semantics and modal pragmatics of the perfect. Linguistics and Philosophy 26. 459–510.

    Portner, Paul. 2011. Perfect and progressive. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, 1217–1261. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Posner, Roland. 1980. Semantics and pragmatics of sentence connectives in natural language. In John R. Searle, Ferenc Kiefer & Manfred Bierwisch (eds.), Speech act theory and pragmatics, 168–203. Dordrecht: Reidel.

    Potts, Christopher. 2005. The logic of conventional implicatures (Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Potts, Christopher. 2007a. Conventional implicatures, a distinguished class of meanings. In Gillian Ramchand & Charles Reiss (eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces. Studies in theoretical linguistics, 475–501. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Potts, Christopher. 2007b. Into the conventional-implicature dimension. Philosophy Compass 4(2). 665–679.

    Potts, Christopher. 2007c. The expressive dimension. Theoretical Linguistics 33(2). 165–197.

    Potts, Christopher. 2012. The pragmatics of conventional implicature and expressive content. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 3, 2516–2536. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Potts, Christopher. 2015. Presupposition and implicature. In Shalom Lappin & Chris Fox (eds.), Wiley-Blackwell handbook of contemporary semantics, 2nd edn., 168–202. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Prince, Ellen F. 1982. Grice and universality: A reappraisal. ms, University of Pennsylvania.

    Prior, A. N. 1957. Time and modality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Prior, Arthur N. 1967. Past, present and future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Pulte, William. 1985. The experienced and non-experienced past in Cherokee. International Journal of American Linguistics 4. 543–544.

    Pustejovsky, James. 1995. The generative lexicon. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    Quine, Willard van Orman. 1956.Quantifiers and propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 53. 177–187.

    Quine, Willard van Orman. 1960. Word and object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Rappaport Hovav, Malka & Beth Levin. 1998. Building verb meanings. In Miriam Butt & Wilhelm Geuder (eds.), The projection of arguments: Lexical and compositional factors, 97–134. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

    Ravin, Yael & Claudia Leacock. 2000. Polysemy: an overview. In Yael Ravin & Claudia Leacock (eds.), Polysemy: theoretical and computational approaches. 91–110. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Recanati, François. 2004. Pragmatics and semantics. In Laurence Horn & Gregory Ward (eds.), The handbook of pragmatics, 442–462. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Reichenbach, Hans. 1947. Elements of symbolic logic. London: Macmillan.

    Ritz, Marie-Eve. 2012. Perfect tense and aspect. In Robert I. Binnick (ed.), The Oxford handbook of tense and aspect, 881–907. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Rundell, Michael. 2006. More than one way to skin a cat: Why full-sentence definitions have not been universally adopted. In Corino E., Marello C. & Onesti C. (eds.), Proceedings of 12th EURALEX International Congress. Alessandria: Edizioni Dell’Orso.

    Russell, Bertrand. 1905. On denoting. Mind 14. 479–493.

    Sadock, Jerry. 1978. On testing for conversational implicature. In Peter Cole (ed.), Pragmatics (Syntax and Semantics 9), 281–297. New York: Academic Press.

    Sæbø, Kjell Johan. 1991. Causal and purposive clauses. In Arnim von Stechow & Dieter Wunderlich (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of contemporary research, 623–631. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Sæbø, Kjell Johan. 2011. Adverbial clauses. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: an international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 2, 1420–1441. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

    Saeed, John. 2009. Semantics. 3rd edn. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Schachter, Paul & Fe T. Otanes. 1972. Tagalog reference grammar. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

    Scheffler, Tatjana. 2005. Syntax and semantics of causal denn in German. In Proceedings of the 15th Amsterdam colloquium. Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Scheffler, Tatjana. 2008. Semantic operators in different dimensions. University of Pennsylvania dissertation.

    Scheffler, Tatjana. 2013. Two-dimensional semantics: Clausal adjuncts and complements. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

    Searle, John. 1969. Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Searle, John. 1975. Indirect speech acts. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (eds.), Speech acts (Syntax and Semantics 3), 59–82. New York: Academic Press.

    Sebba, Mark. 1997. Contact languages: Pidgins and creoles. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Siegel, Muffy. 1976. Capturing the adjective. University of Massachusetts dissertation.

    Singh, Mona. 1991. The perfective paradox or how to eat your cake and have it too. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on The Grammar of Event Structure, 469–479.

    Singh, Mona. 1998. On the semantics of the perfective aspect. Natural Language Semantics 6. 171–199.

    Smith, Carlota. 1997. The parameter of aspect. 2nd edn. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. (1st edition 1991).

    Smith, Geoff. 2002. Growing up with Tok Pisin: Contact, creolization, and change in Papua New Guinea’s national language. London: Battlebridge Publications.

    Soh, Hooi Ling & Jenny Yi-Chun Kuo. 2005. Perfective aspect and accomplishment situations in Mandarin Chinese. In Angeliek van Hout, Henriette de Swart & Henk Verkuyl (eds.), Perspectives on aspect, 199–216. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Soh, Hooi-Ling. 2009. Speaker presupposition and Mandarin Chinese sentence final –le: A unified analysis of the “change of state” and the “contrary to expectation” reading. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 27. 623–657.

    Sohn, Ho-Min. 1999. The Korean language. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Sperber, Dan & Deirdre Wilson. 1986. Relevance: communication and cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Stalnaker, Robert. 1968. A theory of conditionals. In Nicholas Rescher (ed.), Studies in logical theory, vol. 2 (American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph Series), 98–112. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Stalnaker, Robert. 1973. Presuppositions. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2. 447–457.

    Stalnaker, Robert. 1974. Pragmatic presuppositions. In Milton K. Munitz & Peter K. Unger (eds.), Semantics and philosophy, 197–213. New York: New York University Press.

    Strawson, Peter. 1950. On referring. Mind 59. 320–344. Reprinted in A. P. Martinich (ed.), 1990, The Philosophy of Language. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 219–234.

    Strawson, Peter. 1952. Introduction to logical theory. London: Methuen.

    Sun, Chen-Chen. 2008. Variations in the ba construction and its relevance to DP: A minimalist perspective. Arizona State University dissertation.

    Svensén, Bo. 2009. A handbook of lexicography: The theory and practice of dictionary-making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Sweetser, Eve. 1990. From etymology to pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Szabolcsi, Anna. 2015. Varieties of quantification. In Nick Riemer (ed.), The Routledge handbook of semantics, 320–337. London: Routledge.

    Tannen, Deborah. 1975. Communication mix and mixup, or how linguistics can ruin a marriage. San Jose State Occasional Papers in Linguistics. 205–211.

    Tannen, Deborah. 1981. Indirectness in discourse: Ethnicity as conversational style. Discourse Processes 4(3). 221–238.

    Tannen, Deborah. 1986. That’s not what I meant! How conversational style makes or breaks relationships. New York: Ballantine.

    Tenny, Carol. 1987. Grammaticalizing aspect and affectedness. Massachusetts Institute of Technology dissertation.

    Thompson, Sandra A., Robert E. Longacre & Shin Ja Hwang. 2007. Adverbial clauses. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, 2nd edn., vol. 2, 237–300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Tonhauser, Judith, David Beaver, Craige Roberts & Mandy Simons. 2013. Towards a taxonomy of projective content. Language 89(1). 66–109.

    Tuggy, David. 1993. Ambiguity, polysemy and vagueness. Cognitive Linguistics 4(3). 273–290.

    van der Auwera, Johan. 1986. Conditionals and speech-acts. In Elizabeth C. Traugott, Alice ter Meulen, Judy Snitzer Reilly & Charles Ferguson (eds.), On conditionals, 197–214. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    van der Auwera, Johan & Andreas Ammann. 2013. Overlap between situational and epistemic modal marking. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds.), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

    Van Valin, Robert D. & Randy J. LaPolla. 1997. Syntax: Structure, meaning and function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    van Benthem, Johan. 1988. A manual of intensional logic. 2nd edn. Stanford, CA: CSLI.

    van Benthem, Johan. 2010. Modal logic for open minds. Stanford, CA: CSLI.

    Vendler, Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. Philosophical Review 66. 143–160. Reprinted in Vendler (1967), Linguistics in Philosophy, 97–121. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.

    Verhaar, John W. M. 1985. Toward a reference grammar of Tok Pisin: An experiment in corpus linguistics (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication 26). Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

    Vogel, Alan R. 2005. Jarawara verb classes. University of Pittsburgh Doctoral dissertation.

    von Fintel, Kai. 2004. Would you believe it? The king of France is back! Presuppositions and truth-value intuitions. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds.), Descriptions and beyond: An interdisciplinary collection of essays on definite and indefinite descriptions and other related phenomena, 315–341. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    von Fintel, Kai. 2006. Modality and language. In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy, 2nd edn., vol. 10, 20–27. Detroit: MacMillan Reference USA.

    von Fintel, Kai. 2011. Conditionals. In Semantics: An international handbook of meaning, vol. 2, 1515–1538. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    von Fintel, Kai. 2012. Subjunctive conditionals. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge companion to philosophy of language, 466–477. New York: Routledge.

    von Fintel, Kai & Lisa Matthewson. 2008. Universals in semantics. The Linguistic Review 25. 139–201.

    von Heusinger, Klaus. 2011. Specificity. In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, vol. 2, 1024–1057. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Waltereit, Richard. 2001. Modal particles and their functional equivalents: A speech-act-theoretic approach. Journal of Pragmatics 33(9). 1391–1417.

    Weber, David J. 1989. A grammar of Huallaga (Huánuco) Quechua (University of California Publications in Linguistics 112). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Wierzbicka, Anna. 1985. Different languages, different cultures, different speech acts: English vs. Polish. Journal of Pragmatics 9. 145–178.

    Wohlgemuth, Jan. 1999. Grammatische Kategorien und ihre Ausprägungen im Tok Pisin von Papua-Neuguinea [Grammatical categories and their realisations in Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea]. Münster: Institute for general linguistics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster.

    Wu, Jiun-Shiung. 2008. Terminability, wholeness and the semantics of the experiential guo. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 17(1). 1–32.

    Wu, Jiun-Shiung. 2009. Aspectual influence on temporal relations: A case study of the experiential guo in Mandarin. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics 7(2). 1–24.

    Xiao, Richard & Tony McEnery. 2004. Aspect in Mandarin Chinese: A corpus-based study. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Yeh, Meng. 1993. Stative situations and the imperfective -zhe in Mandarin. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 28. 69–98.

    Yeh, Meng. 1996. An analysis of the experiential guo in Mandarin: A temporal quantifier. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 5. 151–182.

    Zalta, Edward N. 2011. Gottlob Frege. In E. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2017 edition). Stanford CA: Stanford University.

    Zimmermann, Malte. 2011. Discourse particles. In Paul Portner, Claudia Maienborn & Klaus von Heusinger (eds.), Semantics (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 33.2), 2011–2038. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Zimmermann, Thomas & Wolfgang Sternefeld. 2013. Introduction to semantics: An essential guide to the composition of meaning. Berlin: DeGryter Mouton.

    Zwicky, Arnold & Jerry Sadock. 1975. Ambiguity tests and how to fail them. In J. P. Kimball (ed.), Syntax and semantics, vol. 4, 1–36. New York: Academic Press.

    • Was this article helpful?