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Glossary

  • Page ID
    71869
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    accommodating A cooperative and unassertive conflict-handling style.
    active listening A type of listening in which we are interested in what the other person has to say and check our understanding with the speaker.
    acute stress The most common form of stress and normally comes from demands and pressures of the past and future demands.
    adjourning stage Time when group members leave the group.
    Affect displays An expression of emotion or mood.
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Created in 1967 and enforced by the EEOC, this law prohibits discrimination based on age and covers people who are age forty or older.
    aggressive communicator The style of a person who stands up for his or her rights but possibly violates the rights of others.
    Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Includes mediation, arbitration, and other ways of resolving conflicts with the help of a specially trained, neutral third party without the need for a formal trial or hearing.
    alternatives Other possible solutions to a problem in a decision-making process.
    analysis paralysis A decision-making process in which more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it, but no decisions actually get made.
    analytical communication style A communication style in which a person tends to ask a lot of questions and behave methodically.
    Anchoring The tendency for individuals to rely too heavily on a single piece of information.
    anticipation step Raising the hand slightly to signal a nonverbal foreshadowing.
    appointed leader Individual designated by an authority to serve in the leadership capacity.
    arbitration A process that involves bringing in a third party, the arbitrator, who has the authority to act as a judge and make a binding decision to which both parties must adhere.
    arbitration A process that involves bringing in a third party, the arbitrator, who has the authority to act as a judge and make a binding decision to which both parties must adhere.
    arbitrator An impartial third party who is selected by both parties in a grievance and who ultimately makes a binding decision in the situation.
    arbitrator An impartial third party who is selected by both parties in a grievance and who ultimately makes a binding decision in the situation.
    Artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.
    Artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.
    assertive communicator Respects the rights of herself and others when communicating.
    assertive communicator Respects the rights of herself and others when communicating.
    attitudes Favorable or unfavorable feelings toward people, things, or situations.
    attitudes Favorable or unfavorable feelings toward people, things, or situations.
    autocratic style A management style that takes a task-only focus and tends to make most of the decisions for the department.
    autocratic style A management style that takes a task-only focus and tends to make most of the decisions for the department.
    avoiding An uncooperative and unassertive conflict-handling style.
    avoiding An uncooperative and unassertive conflict-handling style.
    BATNA Stands for the “best alternative to a negotiated agreement.” Determining your BATNA is one important part of the investigation and planning phase in negotiation.
    BATNA Stands for the “best alternative to a negotiated agreement.” Determining your BATNA is one important part of the investigation and planning phase in negotiation.
    behavioral school of management During the 1920s when employees had begun to unionize, researchers began to look at the human aspect of workers.
    behavioral school of management During the 1920s when employees had begun to unionize, researchers began to look at the human aspect of workers.
    behavioral science approach During the 1950s when researchers began to explore management techniques as opposed to earlier years where the focus was more on productivity.
    behavioral science approach During the 1950s when researchers began to explore management techniques as opposed to earlier years where the focus was more on productivity.
    bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) A quality or attribute employers are allowed to consider when making decisions during the selection process.
    bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) A quality or attribute employers are allowed to consider when making decisions during the selection process.
    checkoff provision The employer, on behalf of the union, automatically deducts dues from union members’ paychecks.
    checkoff provision The employer, on behalf of the union, automatically deducts dues from union members’ paychecks.
    Chronemics The study of how we refer to and perceive time.
    Chronemics The study of how we refer to and perceive time.
    Chronic stress This is long-term stress where people see little way out of a situation.
    Chronic stress This is long-term stress where people see little way out of a situation.
    classical school of management A time period relating to the research of human relations that focused on efficiency. The time period for this school of thought took place from 1900 to the early 1920s.
    classical school of management A time period relating to the research of human relations that focused on efficiency. The time period for this school of thought took place from 1900 to the early 1920s.
    closed shop A type of union agreement in which a person must be a union member to be hired; it was made illegal under the Taft-Hartley Act.
    closed shop A type of union agreement in which a person must be a union member to be hired; it was made illegal under the Taft-Hartley Act.
    Closure The last part of negotiation in which you and the other party have either come to an agreement on the terms, or one party has decided that the final offer is unacceptable and therefore must be walked away from.
    Closure The last part of negotiation in which you and the other party have either come to an agreement on the terms, or one party has decided that the final offer is unacceptable and therefore must be walked away from.
    code of conduct A guideline for dealing with ethics in an organization.
    code of conduct A guideline for dealing with ethics in an organization.
    collaborating A conflict-handling style that is high on both assertiveness and cooperation.
    collaborating A conflict-handling style that is high on both assertiveness and cooperation.
    Collective bargaining The process of negotiating an agreement between management and employees.
    Collective bargaining The process of negotiating an agreement between management and employees.
    common good approach A source of ethical standards that says, when making ethical decisions, we should try to benefit the community as a whole.
    common good approach A source of ethical standards that says, when making ethical decisions, we should try to benefit the community as a whole.
    competing A conflict-handling style that is highly assertive but low on cooperation.
    competing A conflict-handling style that is highly assertive but low on cooperation.
    compromising A middle-ground conflict-handling style, in which a person has some desire to express their own concerns and get their way but still respects the other person’s goals as well.
    compromising A middle-ground conflict-handling style, in which a person has some desire to express their own concerns and get their way but still respects the other person’s goals as well.
    concessions Giving up one thing to get something else in return.
    concessions Giving up one thing to get something else in return.
    Conflict A process that involves people disagreeing.
    Conflict A process that involves people disagreeing.
    Conflict management Resolving disagreements effectively.
    Conflict management Resolving disagreements effectively.
    Consensus A decision-making rule that groups may use when the goal is to gain support for an idea or plan of action. This decision-making rule is inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and democratic.
    Consensus A decision-making rule that groups may use when the goal is to gain support for an idea or plan of action. This decision-making rule is inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and democratic.
    Continuous learning Involves the process of constantly trying to update skills and learn new ones.
    Continuous learning Involves the process of constantly trying to update skills and learn new ones.
    Creating shared value (CSV) Creating shared value is the premise that companies and the community are tied closely together, and if one benefits, they both benefit.
    Creating shared value (CSV) Creating shared value is the premise that companies and the community are tied closely together, and if one benefits, they both benefit.
    Creativity The generation of new ideas that are original, fluent, and flexible.
    Creativity The generation of new ideas that are original, fluent, and flexible.
    Decision making Making choices among alternative courses of action, including inaction.
    Decision making Making choices among alternative courses of action, including inaction.
    decision rule Automated response to problems that occur routinely.
    decision rule Automated response to problems that occur routinely.
    Decision trees Diagrams where answers to yes or no questions lead decision makers to address additional questions until they reach the end of the tree.
    Decision trees Diagrams where answers to yes or no questions lead decision makers to address additional questions until they reach the end of the tree.
    Delphi Technique A group process that utilizes written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision.
    Delphi Technique A group process that utilizes written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision.
    democratic leader Individual elected by a group to serve as its leader.
    democratic leader Individual elected by a group to serve as its leader.
    diagonal communication Interdepartmental communication occurring at various levels of the organization.
    diagonal communication Interdepartmental communication occurring at various levels of the organization.
    directing management style A management style in which the manager tends to direct rather than allow for feedback.
    directing management style A management style in which the manager tends to direct rather than allow for feedback.
    distributive view The traditional fixed-pie approach in which negotiators see the situation as a pie that they have to divide between them.
    distributive view The traditional fixed-pie approach in which negotiators see the situation as a pie that they have to divide between them.
    Diversity The real or perceived differences between individuals.
    Diversity The real or perceived differences between individuals.
    double-booking Misunderstanding in which two meetings are scheduled at the same time in the same place.
    double-booking Misunderstanding in which two meetings are scheduled at the same time in the same place.
    Downward communication The opposite of upward communication, in that the communication occurs from the upper levels of an organization down to the lower levels of the organization.
    Downward communication The opposite of upward communication, in that the communication occurs from the upper levels of an organization down to the lower levels of the organization.
    driver style A communication style in which a person likes to have his or her own way and be decisive.
    driver style A communication style in which a person likes to have his or her own way and be decisive.
    emblem Nonverbal gesture that carries a specific meaning and can replace or reinforce words.
    emblem Nonverbal gesture that carries a specific meaning and can replace or reinforce words.
    emergent leader Individual who grows into the leadership role, often out of necessity.
    emergent leader Individual who grows into the leadership role, often out of necessity.
    Emotional intelligence The ability to know and manage our emotions, motivate ourselves, understand others’ emotions, and manage relationships.
    Emotional intelligence The ability to know and manage our emotions, motivate ourselves, understand others’ emotions, and manage relationships.
    Employee empowerment A way to involve employees in their work by allowing them to make decisions and act upon those decisions, with the support of the organization.
    Employee empowerment A way to involve employees in their work by allowing them to make decisions and act upon those decisions, with the support of the organization.
    empower When an organization gives the employees freedom in making decisions about how their work gets done.
    empower When an organization gives the employees freedom in making decisions about how their work gets done.
    Environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.
    Environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.
    Episodic acute stress Can be a more serious form of acute stress; the person feels stress on a daily basis and rarely gets relief.
    Episodic acute stress Can be a more serious form of acute stress; the person feels stress on a daily basis and rarely gets relief.
    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) A federal agency charged with the task of enforcing federal employment discrimination laws.
    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) A federal agency charged with the task of enforcing federal employment discrimination laws.
    Escalation of commitment When individuals continue on a failing course of action after information reveals it may be a poor path to follow.
    Escalation of commitment When individuals continue on a failing course of action after information reveals it may be a poor path to follow.
    eustress Positive stress to help us achieve at a higher level and challenge us.
    eustress Positive stress to help us achieve at a higher level and challenge us.
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.
    expresser communication style A communication style that is easily excitable and relies heavily on hunches and feelings.
    expresser communication style A communication style that is easily excitable and relies heavily on hunches and feelings.
    Eye contact The speaker’s gaze that engages the audience members.
    Eye contact The speaker’s gaze that engages the audience members.
    Facial gestures Using your face to display feelings and attitudes nonverbally.
    Facial gestures Using your face to display feelings and attitudes nonverbally.
    Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) This law gives twelve weeks of unpaid leave for childbirth, adoption, or caregiving of sick family members.
    Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) This law gives twelve weeks of unpaid leave for childbirth, adoption, or caregiving of sick family members.
    fight or flight response Physiological reactions in the body that enable us to mobilize to deal with a stressful situation.
    fight or flight response Physiological reactions in the body that enable us to mobilize to deal with a stressful situation.
    Forums Theme-based websites that gather a community of individuals dedicated to a common interest.
    Forums Theme-based websites that gather a community of individuals dedicated to a common interest.
    Framing bias The tendency of decision makers to be influenced by the way problems are presented.
    Framing bias The tendency of decision makers to be influenced by the way problems are presented.
    free-rein style A management style that gives employees freedom to make decisions.
    free-rein style A management style that gives employees freedom to make decisions.
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.
    grievance procedure Outlined in the contract, the process by which contract violations are handled.
    grievance procedure Outlined in the contract, the process by which contract violations are handled.
    group Three or more individuals who affiliate, interact, or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.
    group Three or more individuals who affiliate, interact, or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically alike.
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically alike.
    Group socialization Involves how the group members interact with one another and form relationships.
    Group socialization Involves how the group members interact with one another and form relationships.
    grouplets A specific teamwork management style approach used by many organizations.
    grouplets A specific teamwork management style approach used by many organizations.
    Groupthink A tendency to avoid a critical evaluation of ideas the group favors.
    Groupthink A tendency to avoid a critical evaluation of ideas the group favors.
    haptics Touch in communication interaction.
    haptics Touch in communication interaction.
    Hawthorne effect Coined during the 1920s during a series of experiments where workers had higher productivity because they were being watched by researchers and felt cared about.
    Hawthorne effect Coined during the 1920s during a series of experiments where workers had higher productivity because they were being watched by researchers and felt cared about.
    Hindsight bias The opposite of overconfidence bias, as it occurs when looking backward in time and mistakes seem obvious after they have already occurred.
    Hindsight bias The opposite of overconfidence bias, as it occurs when looking backward in time and mistakes seem obvious after they have already occurred.
    Horizontal communication When people at the same level in the organization communicate.
    Horizontal communication When people at the same level in the organization communicate.
    human relations Relations with or between people, particularly in a workplace or professional setting.
    human relations Relations with or between people, particularly in a workplace or professional setting.
    hygiene factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will not necessarily motivate employees but will cause dissatisfaction if not present.
    hygiene factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will not necessarily motivate employees but will cause dissatisfaction if not present.
    illegal topics A bargaining topic that is illegal in both the bargaining agreement and within society, such as plans to discriminate against a specific group in employment.
    illegal topics A bargaining topic that is illegal in both the bargaining agreement and within society, such as plans to discriminate against a specific group in employment.
    implementation step Holding one hand at waist level pointing outward and raising it up with your palm forward, as in the “stop” gesture.
    implementation step Holding one hand at waist level pointing outward and raising it up with your palm forward, as in the “stop” gesture.
    influence The application of the power we have to get people to do what we want them to do.
    influence The application of the power we have to get people to do what we want them to do.
    integrative approach An approach to negotiation in which both parties look for ways to integrate their goals under a larger umbrella.
    integrative approach An approach to negotiation in which both parties look for ways to integrate their goals under a larger umbrella.
    intelligence quotient (IQ) The measure of intelligence based on a score derived from an intelligence test.
    intelligence quotient (IQ) The measure of intelligence based on a score derived from an intelligence test.
    Intergroup conflict Conflict that takes place among different groups, such as different departments or divisions in a company; between union and management; or between companies, such as companies who supply the same customer.
    Intergroup conflict Conflict that takes place among different groups, such as different departments or divisions in a company; between union and management; or between companies, such as companies who supply the same customer.
    Interpersonal conflict A type of conflict between two people.
    Interpersonal conflict A type of conflict between two people.
    Intrapersonal conflict Conflict that arises within a person.
    Intrapersonal conflict Conflict that arises within a person.
    intuitive decision-making model Arriving at decisions without conscious reasoning. The model argues that in a given situation, experts making decisions scan the environment for cues to recognize patterns.
    intuitive decision-making model Arriving at decisions without conscious reasoning. The model argues that in a given situation, experts making decisions scan the environment for cues to recognize patterns.
    investigation The first step in negotiation in which information is gathered.
    investigation The first step in negotiation in which information is gathered.
    ISR (individual social responsibility) An individual’s awareness of how personal actions have an effect on the community.
    ISR (individual social responsibility) An individual’s awareness of how personal actions have an effect on the community.
    job enlargement Adding new challenges or responsibilities to a current job.
    job enlargement Adding new challenges or responsibilities to a current job.
    Job enrichment Adding more meaningful tasks to enhance a job and make the employee’s work more rewarding.
    Job enrichment Adding more meaningful tasks to enhance a job and make the employee’s work more rewarding.
    Johari window A tool that can help us determine how we see ourselves and how others see us.
    Johari window A tool that can help us determine how we see ourselves and how others see us.
    kinesics The study of body movements.
    kinesics The study of body movements.
    knowledge management systems Systems for managing knowledge in organizations, supporting creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of information.
    knowledge management systems Systems for managing knowledge in organizations, supporting creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of information.
    labor union A group of workers who band together to meet common goals, such as better pay, benefits, or promotion rules.
    labor union A group of workers who band together to meet common goals, such as better pay, benefits, or promotion rules.
    Landrum Griffin Act An act passed in 1959 that is supposed to limit corruption in unions by requiring secret elections and reporting of financial information.
    Landrum Griffin Act An act passed in 1959 that is supposed to limit corruption in unions by requiring secret elections and reporting of financial information.
    leader-as-coach Individual serving as a teacher, motivator, and keeper of the goals of the group.
    leader-as-coach Individual serving as a teacher, motivator, and keeper of the goals of the group.
    leader-as-conductor Central role of bringing people together for a common goal.
    leader-as-conductor Central role of bringing people together for a common goal.
    leader-as-technician Occurs when the leader has skills that others do not.
    leader-as-technician Occurs when the leader has skills that others do not.
    Majority rule A decision-making rule in which each member of the group is given a single vote, and the option receiving the greatest number of votes is selected.
    Majority rule A decision-making rule in which each member of the group is given a single vote, and the option receiving the greatest number of votes is selected.
    management science school During the 1960s when the research on human relations was more focused on statistical aspects, due to the increase in technology.
    management science school During the 1960s when the research on human relations was more focused on statistical aspects, due to the increase in technology.
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.
    mediation A process in which an outside third party (the mediator) enters the situation with the goal of assisting the parties to reach an agreement.
    mediation A process in which an outside third party (the mediator) enters the situation with the goal of assisting the parties to reach an agreement.
    mediator An impartial third party called in to help resolve a grievance. Any recommendation or decision is not binding.
    mediator An impartial third party called in to help resolve a grievance. Any recommendation or decision is not binding.
    mentor Someone who is a trusted counselor or teacher.
    mentor Someone who is a trusted counselor or teacher.
    microgroup A small, independent group that has a link, affiliation, or association with a larger group.
    microgroup A small, independent group that has a link, affiliation, or association with a larger group.
    motivation factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will motivate an employee, such as being given responsibility.
    motivation factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will motivate an employee, such as being given responsibility.
    Multiculturalism Looks at power and privilege differences in society.
    Multiculturalism Looks at power and privilege differences in society.
    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) The organization that oversees and enforces the Wagner and Taft-Hartley acts. It handles unfair labor practice complaints and facilitates unionization efforts.
    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) The organization that oversees and enforces the Wagner and Taft-Hartley acts. It handles unfair labor practice complaints and facilitates unionization efforts.
    Negotiation A process whereby two or more parties work toward an agreement.
    Negotiation A process whereby two or more parties work toward an agreement.
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.
    Nominal Group Technique (NGT) A technique designed to help with group decision making by ensuring that all members participate fully.
    Nominal Group Technique (NGT) A technique designed to help with group decision making by ensuring that all members participate fully.
    nonprogrammed decisions Unique, nonroutine, and important. These decisions require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives.
    nonprogrammed decisions Unique, nonroutine, and important. These decisions require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives.
    Nonverbal communication The process of conveying a message without the use of words.
    Nonverbal communication The process of conveying a message without the use of words.
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.
    object-adaptor Use of an object for a purpose other than its intended design.
    object-adaptor Use of an object for a purpose other than its intended design.
    Objectives The shorter-term goals we must do in order to accomplish our bigger goals.
    Objectives The shorter-term goals we must do in order to accomplish our bigger goals.
    operational decisions Decisions employees make each day to make the organization function.
    operational decisions Decisions employees make each day to make the organization function.
    Originality How unique a person’s ideas are.
    Originality How unique a person’s ideas are.
    Overconfidence bias What occurs when individuals overestimate their ability to predict future events.
    Overconfidence bias What occurs when individuals overestimate their ability to predict future events.
    Paralanguage Involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and silence.
    Paralanguage Involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and silence.
    participative style A management style that seeks input from employees.
    participative style A management style that seeks input from employees.
    passive communicator A communication style in which a person puts the rights of others over his or her own.
    passive communicator A communication style in which a person puts the rights of others over his or her own.
    people-oriented A management style mostly concerned with the interpersonal relationships within the organization.
    people-oriented A management style mostly concerned with the interpersonal relationships within the organization.
    Perception The recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based upon our memory.
    Perception The recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based upon our memory.
    performance appraisal A method by which job performance is measured.
    performance appraisal A method by which job performance is measured.
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.
    personal space The “bubble” of space surrounding each individual.
    personal space The “bubble” of space surrounding each individual.
    personality A set of traits that can explain or predict a person’s behavior in variety of situations.
    personality A set of traits that can explain or predict a person’s behavior in variety of situations.
    Pitch Frequency, high or low, of one’s voice.
    Pitch Frequency, high or low, of one’s voice.
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.
    power and privilege A system of advantages based on race, gender, sexual orientation, and other components of diversity.
    power and privilege A system of advantages based on race, gender, sexual orientation, and other components of diversity.
    power position The use of power in an appropriate way when getting ahead in an organization.
    power position The use of power in an appropriate way when getting ahead in an organization.
    power-shy A personality characteristic of someone who prefers not to be in charge of things and is not comfortable using power.
    power-shy A personality characteristic of someone who prefers not to be in charge of things and is not comfortable using power.
    pregnant pause A silence between verbal messages that is full of meaning.
    pregnant pause A silence between verbal messages that is full of meaning.
    presentation The third phase of negotiation.
    presentation The third phase of negotiation.
    procedural justice The process used to determine the outcomes received.
    procedural justice The process used to determine the outcomes received.
    Projection Refers to how your self-esteem is reflected in the way you treat others.
    Projection Refers to how your self-esteem is reflected in the way you treat others.
    pronunciation The way a word or phrase sounds when stated orally.
    pronunciation The way a word or phrase sounds when stated orally.
    proxemics The study of the human use of space and distance in communication.
    proxemics The study of the human use of space and distance in communication.
    psychological capital Four aspects to positive psychological capital include hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency.
    psychological capital Four aspects to positive psychological capital include hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency.
    Railway Labor Act (RLA) Passed in 1926, the act applies to railroads and airlines. The goal of the act is to ensure no disruption of interstate commerce.
    Railway Labor Act (RLA) Passed in 1926, the act applies to railroads and airlines. The goal of the act is to ensure no disruption of interstate commerce.
    rational decision-making model A series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize their outcome and make the best choice.
    rational decision-making model A series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize their outcome and make the best choice.
    reasonable accommodation A change in the work environment or the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities.
    reasonable accommodation A change in the work environment or the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities.
    Regulators Nonverbal expression that controls, encourages, or discourages interaction.
    Regulators Nonverbal expression that controls, encourages, or discourages interaction.
    relater style A communication style by someone who prefers to be warmly regarded and have positive attention.
    relater style A communication style by someone who prefers to be warmly regarded and have positive attention.
    Relationship management Refers to our ability to communicate clearly, maintain good relationships with others, work well in teams, and manage conflict.
    Relationship management Refers to our ability to communicate clearly, maintain good relationships with others, work well in teams, and manage conflict.
    relaxation step Lowering your hand past your waistline and away from your body.
    relaxation step Lowering your hand past your waistline and away from your body.
    reverse halo effect If we find an undesirable trait in someone, we assume all traits are undesirable.
    reverse halo effect If we find an undesirable trait in someone, we assume all traits are undesirable.
    rights approach A source of ethical standards that says we look at how our actions will affect the rights of those around us.
    rights approach A source of ethical standards that says we look at how our actions will affect the rights of those around us.
    satisfice To accept the first alternative that meets minimum criteria.
    satisfice To accept the first alternative that meets minimum criteria.
    secondary actions Made illegal by the Taft-Hartley Act, which disallowed a union from going on strike in sympathy for another union.
    secondary actions Made illegal by the Taft-Hartley Act, which disallowed a union from going on strike in sympathy for another union.
    secondary groups Groups that meet some but not all of individuals’ needs.
    secondary groups Groups that meet some but not all of individuals’ needs.
    Self-confidence Your belief in yourself and your abilities.
    Self-confidence Your belief in yourself and your abilities.
    Self-efficacy The confidence you have to carry out a specific task.
    Self-efficacy The confidence you have to carry out a specific task.
    Self-esteem The opinion you have for yourself and your value as a person.
    Self-esteem The opinion you have for yourself and your value as a person.
    Self-image How an individual thinks others view him or her.
    Self-image How an individual thinks others view him or her.
    self-talk Refers to the thoughts we have about ourselves and situations throughout the day.
    self-talk Refers to the thoughts we have about ourselves and situations throughout the day.
    situational leadership model A method of viewing the application of management styles, as developed by Ken Blanchard.
    situational leadership model A method of viewing the application of management styles, as developed by Ken Blanchard.
    SMART philosophy A strategy to use when setting goals; includes goals being specific, measureable, attainable, realistic, and time-oriented.
    SMART philosophy A strategy to use when setting goals; includes goals being specific, measureable, attainable, realistic, and time-oriented.
    social networking site A site where people gather virtually to interact.
    social networking site A site where people gather virtually to interact.
    Social responsibility The duty of business to do no harm to society.
    Social responsibility The duty of business to do no harm to society.
    socialization The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.
    socialization The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.
    stakeholder Anyone affected by a company’s actions.
    stakeholder Anyone affected by a company’s actions.
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.
    stress The nonspecific response of the body to a demand for a change.
    stress The nonspecific response of the body to a demand for a change.
    Succession planning A process for identifying and developing internal people who have the potential to fill positions.
    Succession planning A process for identifying and developing internal people who have the potential to fill positions.
    Sympathy strikes Work stoppages by other unions designed to show support for the union on strike.
    Sympathy strikes Work stoppages by other unions designed to show support for the union on strike.
    task-oriented style A management style that tends to focus on the details of what must get done.
    task-oriented style A management style that tends to focus on the details of what must get done.
    telecommute The practice of working from a remote location.
    telecommute The practice of working from a remote location.
    Territory The space you claim as your own, are responsible for, or are willing to defend.
    Territory The space you claim as your own, are responsible for, or are willing to defend.
    Theory X managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a negative approach to employee motivation.
    Theory X managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a negative approach to employee motivation.
    Theory Y managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a positive approach to employee motivation.
    Theory Y managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a positive approach to employee motivation.
    Time management Refers to how well we use the time we are given.
    Time management Refers to how well we use the time we are given.
    total person approach This approach recognizes that an organization employs not just someone with skills but rather the whole person.
    total person approach This approach recognizes that an organization employs not just someone with skills but rather the whole person.
    Type B personalities A personality type characterized as more focused on the here and now and are much more laid back than type A personality.
    Type B personalities A personality type characterized as more focused on the here and now and are much more laid back than type A personality.
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.
    union or policy grievance A grievance initiated by the union if an employee or group is not willing to formally file a grievance.
    union or policy grievance A grievance initiated by the union if an employee or group is not willing to formally file a grievance.
    union salting A union strategy that encourages union supporters to apply for jobs in nonunion environments to actively work to unionize other employees when they are hired.
    union salting A union strategy that encourages union supporters to apply for jobs in nonunion environments to actively work to unionize other employees when they are hired.
    union steward An elected person with the organization who represents the interests of union members.
    union steward An elected person with the organization who represents the interests of union members.
    unknown area In the Johari window, the area that neither the person nor others know.
    unknown area In the Johari window, the area that neither the person nor others know.
    Upward communication When the lower levels of an organization communicate with the upper levels of an organization.
    Upward communication When the lower levels of an organization communicate with the upper levels of an organization.
    utilitarian approach A source of ethical standards that says, when choosing one ethical action over another, we should select the one that does the most good and least harm.
    utilitarian approach A source of ethical standards that says, when choosing one ethical action over another, we should select the one that does the most good and least harm.
    values The things we find most important to us.
    values The things we find most important to us.
    Values Principles or standards that a person finds desirable.
    Values Principles or standards that a person finds desirable.
    values statements The guiding principles of the organization, those things that the organization finds important.
    values statements The guiding principles of the organization, those things that the organization finds important.
    virtue approach A source of ethical standards that looks at desirable qualities and says we should act to obtain our highest potential.
    virtue approach A source of ethical standards that looks at desirable qualities and says we should act to obtain our highest potential.
    volume Loudness or softness of one’s voice.
    volume Loudness or softness of one’s voice.
    Wagner Act A law passed in 1935 that changed the way employers can react to several aspects of unions and unionization.
    Wagner Act A law passed in 1935 that changed the way employers can react to several aspects of unions and unionization.
    whistleblower Someone who informs law enforcement of ethical or illegal violations.
    whistleblower Someone who informs law enforcement of ethical or illegal violations.
    wildstorming A variation of brainstorming in which the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible.
    wildstorming A variation of brainstorming in which the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible.
    yellow-dog contracts Before the Norris-LaGuardia Act, contracts in which a worker agreed to not join a union before accepting a job.
    yellow-dog contracts Before the Norris-LaGuardia Act, contracts in which a worker agreed to not join a union before accepting a job.
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