Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

1.6: Chapter Wrap-Up

  • Page ID
    66544
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    In this chapter, we explored why it’s important to study human communication, the basic principles of human communication, the nature of communication competence, the types of human communication, and mindful communication. We hope this chapter makes you interested in staying with us throughout the rest of the book as we explore interpersonal communication.

    End of Chapter

    Key Terms
    • Acting with Awareness
    • Appropriate Communication
    • Attention
    • Attitude
    • Cognitive Complexity
    • Communication
    • Communication Competence
    • Connotative Definitions
    • Denotative Definitions
    • Describing
    • Effective Communication
    • Group
    • Intention
    • Interpersonal Communication
    • Intrapersonal Communication
    • Mediated Communication
    • Mindful Awareness
    • Mindful Communication
    • Mindful Practice
    • Nonjudging of Inner Experience
    • Nonreactivity to Inner Experience
    • Observing
    • Public Communication
    • Self-Monitoring
    • Symbol

    Real World Case Study

    Noam is a freshman in college and doesn’t understand why he needs to take a communication studies course. He doesn’t see the importance or application of this course. He wants to be an engineer. His math and engineering classes are more exciting than a communications course. He has been talking his whole life and is very popular.

    Can you convince him why communication is important for Noam?

    End of Chapter Quiz

    1. Which of the following are reasons for studying communication?
      a. to increase our effectiveness
      b. gives us a new perspective
      c. because we spend so much time doing it
      d. a and b
      e. all of the above
    2. My mother told me that I would succeed at anything I put my mind to and that I could achieve anything. Which type of need is this example?
      a. physical
      b. practical
      c. identity
      d. social
      e. affectionate
    3. Communication is all the following except:
      a. purposeful
      b. contains a relationship dimension
      c. contains a content dimension
      d. culturally determined
      e. assumed
    4. An individual at a concert flashes a friend the “peace sign” using her index and middle finger to form the letter “v.” This is an example of what?
      a. a sign
      b. a word
      c. mediated communication
      d. an emoji
      e. a symbol
    5. Which type of communication involves the exchange of messages between two people?
      a. intrapersonal
      b. interpersonal
      c. small group
      d. public
      e. mass

    49532493261_e72a40c3d2_o.jpg

    References

    1 Bochner, A. P. (1989). Interpersonal communication. In E. Bamouw, G. Gerbner, W. Schramm, T. L. Worth, & L. Gross (Eds.), International encyclopedia of communications (pp. 336-340). New York: Oxford University Press; pg. 336.

    2 Knapp, M. L., & Daly, J. A. (2011). Background and current trends in the study of interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 3-22). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    3 Morreale, S. P., & Pearson, J. C. (2008). Why communication education is important: The centrality of the discipline in the 21st. century. Communication Education, 57(2), 224-240. doi. org/10.1080/03634520701861713

    4 Chen, G. M. (2011). Tweet this: a uses and gratifications perspective on how active twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 755-762. doi.org/10.1016/j. chb.2010.10.023

    5 Francis, L. E. (2003). Feeling good, feeling well: Identity, emotion, and health. In T.J. Owens & P. J. Burke (Eds.), Advances in identity theory and research (pp. 123-134). Kluwer Academic /Plenum Press.

    6 Adler, R. B., Rosenfeld, L. R., &Proctor R. F., 11. (2007). Interplay: The process of interpersonal Communication (10th ed.). Oxford.

    7 Koesten, J. (2004). Family communication patterns, sex of subject, and communication competence. Communication Monographs, 71(2), 226-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/0363775052000343417

    8 Kinnick, K. N. & Parton, S. R. (2005). Workplace communication: what the apprentice teaches about communication skills. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(4), 429-456. doi. org/10.1177/1080569905282099

    9 Canary, D. J., Stafford, L., & Semic, B. A. (2002). A panel study of the associations between maintenance strategies and relational characteristics. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(2), 395-406. doi.org/10.1111/ j.1741-3737.2002.00395.x

    10 Stafford, L., & Canary, D. J. (1991). Maintenance strategies and romantic relationship type, gender, and relational characteristics. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8(2), 217-242. doi. org/10.1177/0265407591082004

    11 Berlo, D. K. (1960). The process of communication. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

    12 Wrench, J. S., McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (2008). Human communication in everyday life: Explanations and applications. Allyn & Bacon, pg. 421.

    13 Spitzberg, B. H. (2000). What is good communication? Journal of the Association for Communication Administration, 29, 103-119.

    14 Riccillo, S. C. (1994). Phylogenesis: Understanding the biological origins of intrapersonal communication. In D. R. Vocate (Ed.), Intrapersonal communication: Different voices, different minds (pp. 33-56). Lawrence Erlbaum; pg. 35.

    15 Nilsson, H., & Kazemi, A. (2016). Reconciling and thematizing definitions of mindfulness: The big five of mindfulness. Review of General Psychology, 20(2), 183-193. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000074, pg. 190.

    16 Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: Comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034–1040. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022713; pg. 1035.

    17 Langer, E. J., & Moldoveaunu, M. (2000). The construct of mindfulness. The Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 1-9. doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00148; pgs. 1-2.

    18 Langer, E. J. (1989). Mindfulness. Da Capo; pg. 220.

    19 Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191104268029; pg. 191.

    20 Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. Guilford Press; pgs. 322–323.

    21 Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Wherever you go there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. Hyperion; pg. 4.

    22 Gordon, R. D. (2018). Tuning-in: The art of mindful communicating. iUniverse; pg. 24.

    23 American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Mindfulness. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/mindfulness

    24 Sauer, S., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Mindfulness and decentering as mechanisms of change in mindfulnessand acceptance-based interventions. In. R. A. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness & acceptance process in clients: Illuminating the theory & practice of change (pp. 25-50). Context Press; pg. 28.

    25 Langer, E. J. (1989). Mindfulness. Da Capo.

    26 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association, pg. 2.

    27 American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Awareness. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/awareness

    28 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

    29 Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237

    30 Shapiro, S., Thakur, S., & Sousa, S. (2014). Mindfulness for health care professionals and therapists in training. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications (2nd ed., pp. 319-345). Academic Press; pg. 320.

    31 Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330(6006), 932. doi.org/10.1126/science.1192439

    32 Shapiro, S., Thakur, S., & Sousa, S. (2014). Mindfulness for health care professionals and therapists in training. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications (2nd ed., pp. 319-345). Academic Press.

    33 Ibid.; pg. 320.

    34 Ibid. pg. 320.

    35 Ibid. pg. 321.

    36 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. Delacorte; pg. 19.

    37 Siegel, D. J. (2007). Mindfulness training and neural integration: Differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 259–263. https:// dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsm034

    38 Fogel, S. J. (n.d.). Mindful awareness and COAL. Steven J. Fogel Blog. stevenjayfogel.com/mindfulawareness-and-coal/

    39 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. Delacorte; pgs. 20-21.

    40 Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504

    41 Sauer, S., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Mindfulness and decentering as mechanisms of change in mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions. In. R. A. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness & acceptance process in clients: Illuminating the theory & practice of change (pp. 25-50). Context Press; pg. 31.

    42 Sørensen, L., Osnes, B., Visted, E., Svendsen, J. L., Adolfsdottir, S., Binder, P. E., & Schanche, E. (2018), November). Dispositional mindfulness and attentional control: The specific association between the mindfulness facets of non-judgment and describing with flexibility of early operating orienting in conflict detection. Frontiers in Psychology, 29, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02359; pg. 2.

    43 Sauer, S., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Mindfulness and decentering as mechanisms of change in mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions. In. R. A. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness & acceptance process in clients: Illuminating the theory & practice of change (pp. 25-50). Context Press; pg. 31.

    44 Galla, B. M., Tsukayama, E., Park, D., Yu, A., & Duckworth, A. L. (2020). The mindful adolescent: Developmental changes in nonreactivity to inner experiences and its association with emotional well-being. Developmental Psychology, 56(2), 350–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000877; pg. 351.

    45 Clance, P. R., & Imes, S. A. (1978). The imposter phenomenon in high achieving women: Dynamics and therapeutic intervention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 15(3), 241–247. doi.org/10.1037/ h0086006

    46 Flett, J. A. M., Lie, C., Riordan, B. C., Thompson, L. M., Conner, T. S., & Hayne, H. (2017). Sharpen your pencils: Preliminary evidence that adult coloring reduces depressive symptoms and anxiety. Creativity Research Journal, 29(4), 409-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2017.1376505

    47 van der Vennet, R., & Serice, S. (2012). Can coloring mandalas reduce anxiety? A replication study. Art Therapy, 29(2), 87-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421656.2012.680047

    48 Mantzios, M., & Giannou, K. (2018). When did coloring books become mindful? Exploring the effectiveness of a novel method of mindfulness-guided instructions for coloring books to increase mindfulness and decrease anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00056

    49 Ashdown, B. K., Bodenlos, J. S., Arroyo, K., Patterson, M., Parkins, E., & Burstein, S. (2018). How does coloring influence mood, stress, and mindfulness? Journal of Integrated Social Sciences, 8(1), 1-21. tinyurl. com/sp6k6qv

    50 DeLue, C. (1999). Physiological effects of creating mandalas. In C. Malchiodi (Ed.), Medical art therapy with children (pp. 33-49). Jessica Kingsley.

    51 Gençdoğan, B., Çetinkaya, S. K., Gümüş, E. (2018). Effects of coloring mandalas on test anxiety. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 19(1), 221-229. doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.415982

    52 Shapiro, L. E. (2016). Mindful coloring: A simple & fun way to reduce stress in your life. tinyurl. com/y3uqocrf; pg. 2.

    53 Benoit, P. J., & Benoit, W. L. (1986). Consciousness: The mindlessness/mindfulness and verbal report controversies. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 50(1), 41-63. doi. org/10.1080/10570318609374212

    54 Motley, M. T. (1992). Mindfulness in solving communicators’ dilemmas. Communication Monographs, 59(3), 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637759209376272

    55 Burgoon, J. K., Berger, C. R., & Waldron, V. R. (2000). Mindfulness and interpersonal communication. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 105-127.

    56 Ibid.; pg. 112.

    57 Sivaraksa, S. (2018). Mindful Communication for Sustainable Development. In K. Seneviratne (Ed.), Mindful communication for sustainable development: Perspectives from Asia (pp. 29-33). Sage; pg. 31.

    58 Prince-Paul, M., & Kelly, C. (2017). Mindful communication: Being present. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 3(5), 475-482; pg. 476.

    59 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

    60 Burgoon, J. K., Berger, C. R., & Waldron, V. R. (2000). Mindfulness and interpersonal communication. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 105-127; pg. 121.

    End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key

    1. E
    2. C
    3. E
    4. E
    5. B

    49531992983_e4eeb32656_o.jpg


    1.6: Chapter Wrap-Up is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jason S. Wrench, Narissra M. Punyanunt-Carter & Katherine S. Thweatt (OpenSUNY) via source content that was edited to conform to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.