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Core Concepts (a Glossary)

  • Page ID
    207071
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    “the demotic turn” in celebrity culture

    Graeme Turner's term for the leveling of the everyday toward celebrity culture and vice versa (Understanding Celebrity, 2004)

    a public

    people paying sustained attention to the same thing at the same time

    affordances

    signals or cues in an environment that communicate how to interact with features or things in that environment

    Affordances

    signals or cues in an environment that communicate how to interact with features or things in that environment

    aggregate
     
    aggregated

    to pull or present content together online as related

    algorithm

    a step-by-step set of instructions for getting something done to serve humans, whether that something is making a decision, solving a problem, or getting from point A to point B (or point Z).

    Algorthims

    a step-by-step set of instructions for getting something done to serve humans, whether that something is making a decision, solving a problem, or getting from point A to point B (or point Z)

    appropriation

    use for a different cultural purpose than originally intended

    Arab Spring

    an explosion of protests against governments in the Middle East in 2011

    art world

    an inspired, collaborative competition among artists and content creators

    barriered SMP’s

    A platform where it is relatively difficult to maintain a viewership compared to, say, something like Instagram (Student-Contributed term)

    belief perseverence

    The human tendency to want to continue believing what you already believe.

    biases

    assumptions about a person, culture, or population

    black box algorithms

    The term used when processes created for computer-based decisionmaking is not shared with or made clear to outsiders.

    Black Lives Matter

    a sophisticated movement online and offline, fueled by outrage over injustices against black citizens by American institutions including law enforcement today

    branchability

    the degree of freedom one has to go from one piece of media to the next while doing the least physical work possible. example: the suggested videos on youtube (not all the videos as that is not least work as you'd have to search it up) (Student-Contributed term)

    bridge

    In the terminology of social network analysis, whenever an individual connects two networked publics (or any two entities, such as two other people), that connector is called a bridge.

    broadcast media

    one subcategory of older media, including television and radio, that communicates from one source to many viewers.

    bullshit

    Information spread without concern for whether or not it's true

    bullying

    a real phenomenon with specific criteria: aggressive behavior, imbalance of power, repeated over time. Defined by Dan Olweus.

    cancel culture

    a collective attack built upon the practice of using social media to call people out for perceived wrongs

    choreography of assembly

    Paulo Gerbaudo's term describing how successful online organizers preplan social activist movements that will ensue on the ground.

    civil inattention

    Sociologist Erving Goffman's term for the common understanding in crowded spaces that you don’t may politely acknowledge others, but you do not get in their business

    collocation

    a collection of words that often occurs together

    collocations
     
    communities of practice

    groups of people informally bound together by sharing expertise and passion for a joint enterprise

    confirmation bias

    The human tendency for the brain to run through the text of something to select the pieces of it that confirm what you think is already true, while knocking away and ignoring the pieces that don't confirm what you believe.

    context collapse

    Context collapse is when the different contexts or worlds you associate with overlap or become mixed together.

    Context collapse

    Context collapse is when the different contexts or worlds you associate with overlap or become mixed together

    creative online activism

    activist movements that deploy creativity in using the affordances of the internet to promote activist agendas and avoid the pitfalls of oversimplification and appropriation.

    crowdculture

    a (digital) culture built around certain concepts, which could include products

    cultural branding

    a branding strategy that tries to exploit existing crowdcultures and/or build new crowdcultures

    culture

    a concept encompassing all the norms, values, and related behaviors that people who have interacted in a social group over time agree on and perpetuate.

    cyberbullying

    a term entangled in moral panics that caused and used it as parents and educators in the early 2000s struggled to recognize the longstanding issue of bullying in online discourse

    data

    raw material in the world of ideas and information concepts: A list of millions of likes on Instagram, with little understanding yet applied

    deep work

    computer scientist Cal Newport's term for the very human act of sustained thinking and creation

    disinformation

    Information intended to deceive those who receive it.

    dynamic

    based on a changing set of deciders. An examples the way online norms are based on changing deciders including software developers and the evolving practices of publics of users.

    dystopia

    an imagined society where everything is terrible

    elements of communities

    membership, influence, reinforcement of needs, and emotional connection

    emoji

    a graphic image used via text

    emotional regulation

    a skill developed in childhood and adolescence by experiencing strong emotions and developing internal regulatory processes

    exposure

    the affordance of social media to draw matters society guards as private into the public sphere

    fake news

    a term recently popularized by politicians to refer to stories they do not agree with

    fallacies

    types of flawed thinking including utopian and dystopian ideas and technological determinism

    filter bubble

    also called an echo chamber, this is a phenomenon in which we only see news and information we like and agree with, leading to political polarization. (Term coined by Eli Pariser.)

    Five strategies deployed by creative online activist movements:

    Speed, Visuals, Performances, Inclusiveness, Masked leadership

    four key affordances of online communication

    There are four affordances of online communication that danah boyd emphasizes are far more pronounced than in offline communication (It's Complicated, pg. 11). They are: persistence (online content and expressions can last for a very long time), visibility (many audiences and publics may be able to see what you post over time), spreadability (it's nearly effortless to share content posted online), and searchability (content posted online can be searched for.)

    Furries

    An Internet Public Based around Anthropomorphic Animals From Various Media. Uses Art and Other Mediums to Create an Online Persona and Interact with Others. (Student-contributed term)

    hookability

    ease at which one can go from one piece of media to the next, on the same platform (Student-Contributed term)

    Hypebeast

    Person who wears high fashion clothing, typically a person who has experience with reselling luxury items and trades for higher priced pieces. Person who can either afford or not afford this expensive lifestyle. (Student-contributed term)

    Identifier

    A way of referring to a set of characteristicsYour email address (myID@me.com) or user name (RaulB) or an account number (7633)

    identity

    https://opentextbooks.library.arizona.edu/hasm/chapter/identity-2/

    An iteration of the self that links individuals with how they are perceived by others.

    Identity (according to InternetSociety.org

    The complete set of characteristics that define youName, nicknames, birth date and any other unique characteristics that com- bined make you who you are

    information

    the bridge to making meaning from data, such as a research article interpreting findings from a study, or a newspaper article making sense of observed phenomena

    information warfare

    the strategic use of information and its anticipated effects on receivers to influence the power dynamics in a conflict

    intersectionality

    the theory according to which different forms of oppression intersect and must be taken into account

    Janus Faced

    a symbol, derived from ancient Roman mythology, of something that simultaneously works toward two opposing goals.

    knowledge

    the outcome of synthesizing information by considering it in our minds among all of our understandings of and experiences in the world

    knowledge construction

    The negotiation of multiple truths as a way of understanding or "knowing" something

    layers of electronic intimacy

    a term by Yang et al (2013) to describe how college students chose different media platforms as benchmarks in the progression of a romantic relationship

    male guardianship

    the system in Saudi Arabia whereby every woman must get the approval of a male guardian for decisions about her body and life including passport applications, travel, and marriage.

    markuped

    This term was entered after enabling markup

    meme

    something culturally significant - a concept or a form of media - that spreads from person to person, often being modified as it does so

    memes
     
    microcelebrity

    a way of presenting yourself like a celebrity: setting up your profile and "brand" online, gaining followers, and revealing things about yourself in strategic and controlled ways

    misinformation

    Inaccurate information that is spread without the intention to deceive.

    moral panics

    fears spread among many people about a threat to society at large

    net neutrality

    a shorthand name for a key set of features that have made the internet what it is today.

    network effects

    A concept meaning that the more the platform is used, the more valuable it is - because the more likely it is where we go to interact with family, or friends, or customers, or all of these. A shorthand definition is "the more, the merrier."

    network effects in platforms

    the more the platform is used, the more valuable it is - because the more likely that platform is where we go to interact with family, or friends, or customers, or all of these

    networked publics

    a term danah boyd uses in her book It's Complicated, these are sets of people paying sustained attention to the same thing at the same time that intersect and connect online

    Networked publics

    these are sets of people paying sustained attention to the same thing at the same time that intersect and connect online

    Ni Una Menos

    translated from Spanish as "not one less", this is a hemispheric movement expressing outrage over violence against women in the Americas, this movement began in Argentina and led to an August 2016 demonstration in Lima that was characterized as the largest demonstration ever seen in Peru.

    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    An agreement between the US, Mexico, and Canada in the early 1990s forging interdependence between their economies, including subsidies for corporations taking over Mexican land to grow cheap crops.

    online communities

    a group of people, connected online, that share a common interest

    online disinhibition effect

    The psychology theory finding and predicting that people behave online in ways they would not in person. For more information see Suler, J. (2004). The Online Disinhibition Effect. Cyberpsychology & behavior : the impact of the Internet, multimedia and virtual reality on behavior and society, 7 3, 321-6 .

    Open Educational Resources

    According to Cheryl Cuillier of the UA Libraries, Open Educational Resources (OER) are "teaching and learning materials in the public domain or openly licensed that allow free reuse and remixing."

    organizational layer

    Political scientist David Karpf's term for the networked groups of people responding together who he argues form the most important agents for change in American political advocacy today.

    oversimplification

    the threat faced by any spreading movement for complex causes to be reduced to a simplistic phrase or meaning as the movement spreads.

    paradox of choice

    psychologist Barry Schwartz's theory that the more selection we have, the less likely we are to choose something and feel satisfied with our choice

    paratactic style

    also called the additive style, this is a linguistic style in which elements are presented, one simple sentence after the other, and there are few elaborate sentences

    Partial Identity

    A subset of the characteristics that make up your identity. Example: Demographic information about you or any purchase history is stored in your account at a website.

    performativity

    This concept from Judith Butler's her 1990 book Gender Trouble asserts that roles like gender are only constructed through our performances of them; they would not exist without our acting them into existence.

    persistence

    the affordance that online content and expressions can last for a very long time

    Persona

    A partial identity created by you to represent yourself in a specific situation. Example: A social network account or your online blog

    platform

    An ecosystem that connects people and companies while retaining control over the terms of these connections and ownership of connection byproducts such as data

    print media

    a subcategory of older paper-based media such as newspapers, books, and magazines, that many users access individually.

    privacy

    a notion relating to self-determination that is too complicated to be reduced to one simple idea

    private by default, public by design
     
    Private: Context
     
    privateers

    Individual cyclists without a team who compose their own program of sponsors and their own race/event schedule.

    Profile

    A selective presentation of your identity online. This term can also refer to information collected by others about your actions and characteristics and without your knowledge or intention, such as data drawn from a search you conduct or a series of websites you've visited.

    public by default, private by design

    a phrase used by danah boyd to emphasize the work required to controlling the privacy of social media posts - the opposite of face to face communication, which is private by default, public by design. (It's Complicated, p. 61.)

    qualitative inquiry

    using observations and conversations or interviews as human research instruments

    searchability

    content posted online can be searched for

    selfies

    a 21st-century genre of popular art and media production

    Sexting as Media Production

    a 2013 article by Amy Hasinoff promoting the idea that sexting can be empowering for young women, and unveiling the complications that arise when laws designed to punish people for circulating pornographic images and abusing children are applied to young people who are expressing sexuality over phones and online

    sextortion

    A serious crime that occurs when someone threatens to distribute your private and sensitive material if you don’t provide them images of a sexual nature, sexual favors, or money. Sextortion is a serious crime that occurs when someone threatens to distribute your private and sensitive material if you don't provide them images of a sexual nature, sexual favors, or money. Often used through social media. (Student-contributed term)

    slacktivism

    coined by Evgeny Morozov, this concept relates to critiques of online activism as inferior to more traditional forms of activism, with organizing online perceived as so fast, easy, and risk-free, it results in insufficient gains or change.

    social anxiety

    fear of embarrassment or humiliation, leading to the avoidance of social situations

    Social Network

    a network of individuals held together by pre-established interpersonal relationships.

    social networking sites

    online platforms that allow users to create a public profile and interact with other users on the website

    social stage

    Sociologist Erving Goffman wrote in his 1956 book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life that we are all actors on a "social stage," who play particular roles to create our identities, and that these roles change as we interact with different people and situations. Our selves can only really be understood when we look at all of the roles we play.

    sociolinguistics

    the study of how human beings use language and to what purpose

    Sponsors

    Companies or individuals that provide money, product, or other benefits in exchange for naming rights of the team, ad space on team jersey, product testing or usage, etc.

    - James Eby

    spreadability

    the affordance that it's nearly effortless to share content posted online; the ability for media to be spread to many people, who may then choose to use, modify, and/or spread it further

    staircase thoughts

    The affordance of social media to allow people who will be gathering in person also to get a sense of what others are thinking before they meet face to face, and continue sharing their ideas after they leave the meeting

    symbolic center

    Paulo Gerbaudo's term for a meaningful public place that serves as a theatrical stage for activism to be seen and performed, such as park at a city center, a football field, the Olympic medal ceremonies, or a memorial statue.

    technological convergence

    blending of old and new media. For example, cellular phones were once shaped more like analog (non-digital) phones.

    technological determinism

    the fallacy of believing that technologies are fully responsible for grand shifts in our world, instead of acknowledging the more complicated interplay of forces behind the phenomenon in question

    the public

    a construct; an idea of "everyone, everywhere" that people imagine, and refer to when they want to add emphasis to the effects of one-to-many speech

    The three I’s

    Algorithms' decisions become invisible, irreversible, and infinite.

    theory of denunciation

    the more a "called out" person has to lose – status, some important position, wealth, etc. – the more suspicious people are of those who call them out or denounced them, because they might believe that the denunciation is not completely disinterested

    utopia

    an idealized or perfect imaginary view of society

    visibility

    the affordance that many audiences and publics may be able to see what you post over time

    Web 2.0

    Named by O'Reilly Media in the early 2000s, this concept describes integration of user contributions such as likes and votes into online sites.

    well-being

    a state of happiness and contentment, with low levels of distress, overall good physical and mental health and outlook, or good quality of life.

    wellness

    a state of well-being with dimensions including physical, mental, and social health

    why computers seem so smart today

    cooperation from human software developers, and cooperation on the part of users.

    Zapatistas

    an army of mostly poor, rural, indigenous people rose up against the Mexican government in 1994, and successfully used the early internet to reach out for witnesses and support.

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