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Social Sci LibreTexts

Glossary

  • Page ID
    75856
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    “regeneration of the organs of belief” A tendency to forget past slights or difficulties caused by someone else and to resume trusting the person.
    Acculturation The transition to living abroad.
    Achievement norms Norms which the group sets for the nature and amount of its work.
    Action-oriented listeners Listening which focuses on accomplishing group tasks.
    active listening Focusing your attention on the message you are hearing, without distractions or interruptions.
    active listening Focusing your attention on the message you are hearing, without distractions or interruptions.
    ad hoc actions Behaviors of a group which were not mandated when the group originated but which respond to specific unanticipated circumstances.
    ad hoc actions Behaviors of a group which were not mandated when the group originated but which respond to specific unanticipated circumstances.
    adjourning stage Time when group members leave the group.
    Affect displays An expression of emotion or mood.
    agenda A specific written plan describing the purpose and contents of a meeting.
    agenda A specific written plan describing the purpose and contents of a meeting.
    analysis paralysis An overload of information beyond what is needed, leading to an inability to make a decision.
    anarchy Political state in which there is no government.
    appointed leader Individual designated by an authority to serve in the leadership capacity.
    artifacts Nonverbal representations of communication.
    Artifacts Forms of decorative ornamentation that are chosen to represent self-concept.
    Assessment A variety of feedback which expresses judgment about the value, significance, or merit of someone else’s nature or behavior.
    assume similarity Thinking that people are all basically similar.
    assume similarity Thinking that people are all basically similar.
    asynchronous Exchange of messages by senders and recipients who do not reach each other or generate responses immediately.
    asynchronous Exchange of messages by senders and recipients who do not reach each other or generate responses immediately.
    Attribution theory A process theory of motivation holding that that people are motivated according to what they believe underlies other people’s actions and attitudes.
    Attribution theory A process theory of motivation holding that that people are motivated according to what they believe underlies other people’s actions and attitudes.
    autocratic leader Self-directed leader who establishes norms and conduct for the group.
    autocratic leader Self-directed leader who establishes norms and conduct for the group.
    autocratic leadership A style of leadership in which group members are strictly controlled, monitored, and commanded by the leader.
    autocratic leadership A style of leadership in which group members are strictly controlled, monitored, and commanded by the leader.
    avoiding style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a practice of sidestepping areas of conflict, passing the buck, or withdrawing from conflict entirely.
    avoiding style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a practice of sidestepping areas of conflict, passing the buck, or withdrawing from conflict entirely.
    Behaviorism A process theory of motivation which states that people’s actions depend solely on the consequences of those actions.
    Behaviorism A process theory of motivation which states that people’s actions depend solely on the consequences of those actions.
    benchmarks Qualitative or quantitative descriptions of a group’s initial conditions to be used later for comparative purposes.
    benchmarks Qualitative or quantitative descriptions of a group’s initial conditions to be used later for comparative purposes.
    bisociation According to Arthur Koestler, the essence of the creative process, whereby previously unconnected ideas fuse into something new.
    bisociation According to Arthur Koestler, the essence of the creative process, whereby previously unconnected ideas fuse into something new.
    brainstorming A group decision-making tool in which members generate as many creative ideas as possible before assessing them.
    brainstorming A group decision-making tool in which members generate as many creative ideas as possible before assessing them.
    breakpoint stage Characterized by turns in the conversation that regulate interaction, from an actual break in the discussion like a coffee break to a shift in the conversation to something they all have in common, like participation in a softball league.
    breakpoint stage Characterized by turns in the conversation that regulate interaction, from an actual break in the discussion like a coffee break to a shift in the conversation to something they all have in common, like participation in a softball league.
    cancer model A view which conceives of any conflict as being inevitably expanding, pernicious, and destructive.
    cancer model A view which conceives of any conflict as being inevitably expanding, pernicious, and destructive.
    Centralized rule Political system where power is concentrated, such as dictatorship, communism, or theocracy.
    Centralized rule Political system where power is concentrated, such as dictatorship, communism, or theocracy.
    channel The way in which a message or messages travel between source and receiver.
    channel The way in which a message or messages travel between source and receiver.
    Chronemics The study of how we refer to and perceive time.
    Chronemics The study of how we refer to and perceive time.
    circadian rhythm A biological process which displays a recurrent pattern each 24 hours.
    circadian rhythm A biological process which displays a recurrent pattern each 24 hours.
    clear message format According to Adler and Towne, a five-step process of transmitting assertive messages in a conflict.
    clear message format According to Adler and Towne, a five-step process of transmitting assertive messages in a conflict.
    cliché A once-clever word or phrase that has lost its impact through overuse.
    cliché A once-clever word or phrase that has lost its impact through overuse.
    closure stage Features statements of agreement and support for the result, action, or outcome.
    closure stage Features statements of agreement and support for the result, action, or outcome.
    code-switching The practice among bilingual speakers of mixing expressions from one language into their communication in another.
    code-switching The practice among bilingual speakers of mixing expressions from one language into their communication in another.
    coliberation According to Bernard DeKoven, who coined the term, a process whereby group members free one another to work joyfully and creatively toward a common purpose.
    coliberation According to Bernard DeKoven, who coined the term, a process whereby group members free one another to work joyfully and creatively toward a common purpose.
    Collaboration Joint expenditure of energy by two or more people in pursuit of a shared goal or aim.
    Collaboration Joint expenditure of energy by two or more people in pursuit of a shared goal or aim.
    common law Legal system in which the judge interprets the law and considers the concept of precedent, or previous decisions.
    common law Legal system in which the judge interprets the law and considers the concept of precedent, or previous decisions.
    Communication The process of understanding and sharing meaning.
    Communication The process of understanding and sharing meaning.
    community A physical or virtual space where people seeking interaction and shared interest come together to pursue their mutual goals, objectives, and shared values
    community A physical or virtual space where people seeking interaction and shared interest come together to pursue their mutual goals, objectives, and shared values
    compromising style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, an approach to conflict characterized by mutual sacrifice in the pursuit of outcomes that all members of a group can accept.
    compromising style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, an approach to conflict characterized by mutual sacrifice in the pursuit of outcomes that all members of a group can accept.
    conflict An expressed struggle between interdependent parties over goals which they perceive as incompatible or resources which they perceive to be insufficient.
    conflict An expressed struggle between interdependent parties over goals which they perceive as incompatible or resources which they perceive to be insufficient.
    Conflicts of misperceived differences Conflicts which arise when people interpret each other’s actions or emotions erroneously.
    Conflicts of misperceived differences Conflicts which arise when people interpret each other’s actions or emotions erroneously.
    Conflicts of process Conflicts over how to reach goals or pursue values which members of a group share. Also known as “task conflicts.”
    Conflicts of process Conflicts over how to reach goals or pursue values which members of a group share. Also known as “task conflicts.”
    conflicts of substance Conflicts which rest on differing views of the facts and which relate to questions about what choices to make in a given situation. Also known as intrinsic conflicts.
    conflicts of substance Conflicts which rest on differing views of the facts and which relate to questions about what choices to make in a given situation. Also known as intrinsic conflicts.
    Conflicts of value Conflicts in which various parties either hold totally different values or rank the same values in a significantly different order.
    Conflicts of value Conflicts in which various parties either hold totally different values or rank the same values in a significantly different order.
    connotative meaning A meaning not often found in the dictionary but in the community of users; it can involve an emotional association, and can be individual or collective, but is not universal.
    connotative meaning A meaning not often found in the dictionary but in the community of users; it can involve an emotional association, and can be individual or collective, but is not universal.
    constructivist Model of communication focusing on the negotiated meaning, or common ground, when trying to describe communication.
    constructivist Model of communication focusing on the negotiated meaning, or common ground, when trying to describe communication.
    content communities A group of people who create, store, and make available text, images, or other digital data on line—e.g., video recordings on YouTube.
    content communities A group of people who create, store, and make available text, images, or other digital data on line—e.g., video recordings on YouTube.
    Content-oriented listeners Listening directed toward specifics and factual elements of a discussion.
    Content-oriented listeners Listening directed toward specifics and factual elements of a discussion.
    context Involves the setting, scene, and expectations of the individuals involved.
    context Involves the setting, scene, and expectations of the individuals involved.
    Contextual rules Govern meaning and word choice according to context and social custom.
    Contextual rules Govern meaning and word choice according to context and social custom.
    cost/benefit analysis Method of ranking each possible solution according to its probable impact.
    cost/benefit analysis Method of ranking each possible solution according to its probable impact.
    counterfeit questions A belligerent statement which appears superficially to be a question because its end with a question mark.
    counterfeit questions A belligerent statement which appears superficially to be a question because its end with a question mark.
    crazymaking George Bach’s term for passive aggression.
    crazymaking George Bach’s term for passive aggression.
    crisis communication plan The prepared scenario document that organizes information into responsibilities and lines of communication prior to an event.
    crisis communication plan The prepared scenario document that organizes information into responsibilities and lines of communication prior to an event.
    critical theories paradigm A set of theories which seeks to identify how oppression is exerted through communication and then to alter that process for the good of those oppressed.
    critical theories paradigm A set of theories which seeks to identify how oppression is exerted through communication and then to alter that process for the good of those oppressed.
    decision-making The process of choosing among options and arriving at a position, judgment, or action.
    decision-making The process of choosing among options and arriving at a position, judgment, or action.
    deckplate leadership An effective leader has to be on the deck of the ship, interacting and learning what are the challenges, strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities present, emphasizing both task orientation and relationships.
    deckplate leadership An effective leader has to be on the deck of the ship, interacting and learning what are the challenges, strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities present, emphasizing both task orientation and relationships.
    Defensive listening Interpreting much or most of another person’s statements as personal attacks.
    Defensive listening Interpreting much or most of another person’s statements as personal attacks.
    delegator A leader who seeks to prevent or manage conflict by transferring responsibility for some of his/her tasks to others in a group or organization.
    delegator A leader who seeks to prevent or manage conflict by transferring responsibility for some of his/her tasks to others in a group or organization.
    deliberative assembly Any formal group which considers options and reaches decisions.
    deliberative assembly Any formal group which considers options and reaches decisions.
    Democracy Political system or form of government that promotes the involvement of the individual.
    Democracy Political system or form of government that promotes the involvement of the individual.
    democratic leader Individual elected by a group to serve as its leader.
    democratic leader Individual elected by a group to serve as its leader.
    democratic leadership A style of leadership in which the leader distributes responsibility and shares power with group members.
    democratic leadership A style of leadership in which the leader distributes responsibility and shares power with group members.
    Democrats According to William Schutz, an individual who gathers and shares information in a balanced fashion to acquire a sense of control as part of a group.
    Democrats According to William Schutz, an individual who gathers and shares information in a balanced fashion to acquire a sense of control as part of a group.
    Democrats People who share the need for control between the individual and the group.
    Democrats People who share the need for control between the individual and the group.
    Deniability The capacity of a theory to be disproven in light of evidence.
    Deniability The capacity of a theory to be disproven in light of evidence.
    deviate Someone who differs in some important way from the rest of a group.
    deviate Someone who differs in some important way from the rest of a group.
    deviates Someone who differs in some important way from the rest of a group.
    deviates Someone who differs in some important way from the rest of a group.
    dialogic listening Stewart and Thomas’s name for ideal listening behavior, including four active, empathetic qualities.
    dialogic listening Stewart and Thomas’s name for ideal listening behavior, including four active, empathetic qualities.
    Direct aggression According to Adler and Rodman, a conflict style involving willful verbal or nonverbal attacks on other people.
    Direct aggression According to Adler and Rodman, a conflict style involving willful verbal or nonverbal attacks on other people.
    dominating style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a win-lose approach to conflict in which one tries to compel others to accept one’s position.
    dominating style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a win-lose approach to conflict in which one tries to compel others to accept one’s position.
    Doublespeak The deliberate use of words to disguise, obscure, or change meaning.
    Doublespeak The deliberate use of words to disguise, obscure, or change meaning.
    dyadic effect The expectation that when we reveal something about ourselves, others will reciprocate.
    dyadic effect The expectation that when we reveal something about ourselves, others will reciprocate.
    ego investment Personal, emotional commitment to an idea or course of action in a conflict.
    ego investment Personal, emotional commitment to an idea or course of action in a conflict.
    emblem Nonverbal gesture that carries a specific meaning, and can replace or reinforce words.
    emblem Nonverbal gesture that carries a specific meaning, and can replace or reinforce words.
    emergent leader Individual who grows into the leadership role, often out of necessity.
    emergent leader Individual who grows into the leadership role, often out of necessity.
    Empathetic listening Listening to both the literal and implied meanings within a message.
    Empathetic listening Listening to both the literal and implied meanings within a message.
    empirical laws paradigm A set of theories based on the conviction that universal laws govern human interaction.
    empirical laws paradigm A set of theories based on the conviction that universal laws govern human interaction.
    environment The atmosphere, physical and psychological, where you send and receive messages.
    environment The atmosphere, physical and psychological, where you send and receive messages.
    Environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.
    Environment Involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context.
    equilibristic Capable of balancing differing and sometimes conflicting forces so as to maintain continuous movement in a chosen direction.
    equilibristic Capable of balancing differing and sometimes conflicting forces so as to maintain continuous movement in a chosen direction.
    escalatory spiral A process which reinforces itself and thereby continually increases in intensity.
    escalatory spiral A process which reinforces itself and thereby continually increases in intensity.
    Ethnocentrism The tendency to view other cultures as inferior to one’s own.
    Ethnocentrism The tendency to view other cultures as inferior to one’s own.
    euphemism Involves substituting an acceptable word for an offensive, controversial, or unacceptable one that conveys the same or similar meaning.
    euphemism Involves substituting an acceptable word for an offensive, controversial, or unacceptable one that conveys the same or similar meaning.
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.
    ex-member Individual who no longer belongs to a group.
    Expectancy theory Victor Vroom’s process theory of motivation, which contends that people are motivated to behave based on whether they believe a reward will ensue, whether the reward appeals to them, and whether they believe they can earn the reward.
    Expectancy theory Victor Vroom’s process theory of motivation, which contends that people are motivated to behave based on whether they believe a reward will ensue, whether the reward appeals to them, and whether they believe they can earn the reward.
    explicit norms Norms expressed overtly in written or oral form.
    explicit norms Norms expressed overtly in written or oral form.
    Face-saving strategies Messages or statements that protect credibility and separate message from messenger.
    Face-saving strategies Messages or statements that protect credibility and separate message from messenger.
    Face-value listening Paying considerable attention to terminology in a speaker’s message but little attention to intentions or feelings.
    Face-value listening Paying considerable attention to terminology in a speaker’s message but little attention to intentions or feelings.
    Feedback Messages the receiver sends back to the source.
    Feedback Messages the receiver sends back to the source.
    Feedback Communication with another person or persons in response to a message or with respect to an impression you have of the person(s).
    Feedback Communication with another person or persons in response to a message or with respect to an impression you have of the person(s).
    Formative assessment Judgment concerning a process which is conducted before it is completed.
    Formative assessment Judgment concerning a process which is conducted before it is completed.
    friction model A view of conflict which conceives of it as a natural and manageable by-product of any group’s activities.
    friction model A view of conflict which conceives of it as a natural and manageable by-product of any group’s activities.
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.
    Full members Individual who is a known quantity, is familiar with the group’s norms, and feels free to express opinions.
    functional leadership Leadership that focused on behaviors that address needs and help the group achieve its goals.
    functional leadership Leadership that focused on behaviors that address needs and help the group achieve its goals.
    global village Characterized by information and transportation technologies that reduce the time and space required to interact.
    global village Characterized by information and transportation technologies that reduce the time and space required to interact.
    Goal theory A process theory of motivation comprising seven steps whereby people act to identify and pursue goals.
    Goal theory A process theory of motivation comprising seven steps whereby people act to identify and pursue goals.
    group Three or more individuals who affiliate, interact or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.
    group Three or more individuals who affiliate, interact or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.
    Group communication A dynamic process where a small number of people engage in a conversation.
    Group communication A dynamic process where a small number of people engage in a conversation.
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are alike culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically.
    Group communication The exchange of information with those who are alike culturally, linguistically, and/or geographically.
    group facilitation In groups, to make work easier or less difficult; to help bring about growth.
    group facilitation In groups, to make work easier or less difficult; to help bring about growth.
    Group norms Customs, standards, and behavioral expectations that emerge as a group forms.
    Group norms Customs, standards, and behavioral expectations that emerge as a group forms.
    Group norms Rules or guidelines that reflect expectations of how group members should act and interact.
    Group norms Rules or guidelines that reflect expectations of how group members should act and interact.
    Group socialization The development of interpersonal relationships within a group context.
    Group socialization The development of interpersonal relationships within a group context.
    Groupthink A unified view or approach adopted by a group which may arise out of members' desire to conform and be approved of, and which members resist giving up even when presented with reasonable opposing evidence.
    Groupthink A unified view or approach adopted by a group which may arise out of members' desire to conform and be approved of, and which members resist giving up even when presented with reasonable opposing evidence.
    Groupthink Tendency to accept the group’s ideas and actions in spite of individual concerns.
    Groupthink Tendency to accept the group’s ideas and actions in spite of individual concerns.
    gunnysacking The imaginary bag we all carry, into which we place unresolved conflicts or grievances over time.
    gunnysacking The imaginary bag we all carry, into which we place unresolved conflicts or grievances over time.
    haptics Touch in communication interaction.
    haptics Touch in communication interaction.
    homeostasis A state of balance or equilibrium within a system or group.
    homeostasis A state of balance or equilibrium within a system or group.
    human rules paradigm A set of theories based on the idea that human beings purposefully construct and then follow rules for their interactions.
    human rules paradigm A set of theories based on the idea that human beings purposefully construct and then follow rules for their interactions.
    HURIER model A model of the listening process comprising hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, and responding.
    HURIER model A model of the listening process comprising hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, and responding.
    Hygienes In Herzberg’s two-factor theory, factors which don’t create satisfaction when they’re present, but which lead to dissatisfaction if they’re absent.
    Hygienes In Herzberg’s two-factor theory, factors which don’t create satisfaction when they’re present, but which lead to dissatisfaction if they’re absent.
    Illusion of group productivity The tendency of members to rate the quality of their groups’ outputs as higher than they really are.
    Illusion of group productivity The tendency of members to rate the quality of their groups’ outputs as higher than they really are.
    implicit norms Norms which are not discussed or expressed in writing or orally.
    implicit norms Norms which are not discussed or expressed in writing or orally.
    implicit rule culture Rules are often understood and communicated nonverbally.
    implicit rule culture Rules are often understood and communicated nonverbally.
    in good faith Seriously and honestly, as in a decision-making or conflict situation.
    in good faith Seriously and honestly, as in a decision-making or conflict situation.
    individualistic cultures This culture values individual freedom and personal independence.
    individualistic cultures This culture values individual freedom and personal independence.
    institutional memory Shared remembrances among members of a group, which may or may not be recorded in physical form, of the group’s past.
    institutional memory Shared remembrances among members of a group, which may or may not be recorded in physical form, of the group’s past.
    Insulated listening Taking in a responding to everything the speaker says except what’s unpleasant to the listener.
    Insulated listening Taking in a responding to everything the speaker says except what’s unpleasant to the listener.
    integrating style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a practice of being open and willing to exchange information and resolve conflict in a way that is acceptable to all.
    integrating style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a practice of being open and willing to exchange information and resolve conflict in a way that is acceptable to all.
    integration Bringing together diverse elements of one’s personality into a new and more unified form.
    integration Bringing together diverse elements of one’s personality into a new and more unified form.
    intellectual hospitality John Dewey’s term for an active disposition to welcome new viewpoints.
    intellectual hospitality John Dewey’s term for an active disposition to welcome new viewpoints.
    Interaction norms Norms which specify how people communicate in a group.
    Interaction norms Norms which specify how people communicate in a group.
    interactive questioning Open-minded, open-ended questioning which serves to enhance mutual understanding among group members.
    interactive questioning Open-minded, open-ended questioning which serves to enhance mutual understanding among group members.
    Interference Anything that blocks or changes the source’s intended meaning of the message.
    Interference Anything that blocks or changes the source’s intended meaning of the message.
    interior states Thoughts, feelings, and sentiments within people. (Behaviorists hold that motivation can be explained and promoted without reference to interior states).
    interior states Thoughts, feelings, and sentiments within people. (Behaviorists hold that motivation can be explained and promoted without reference to interior states).
    Interpersonal communication Normally involves two people, and can range from intimate and very personal to formal and impersonal.
    Interpersonal communication Normally involves two people, and can range from intimate and very personal to formal and impersonal.
    Interpersonal communication Communication between two people.
    Interpersonal communication Communication between two people.
    interpersonal needs Another model characterizing human needs, including affection, control, and belonging.
    interpersonal needs Another model characterizing human needs, including affection, control, and belonging.
    intracultural communication Communication within the same culture.
    intracultural communication Communication within the same culture.
    intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.
    intrapersonal communication Communication with yourself.
    Intrapersonal communication Communication that involves one person; it is often called “self-talk.”
    Intrapersonal communication Communication that involves one person; it is often called “self-talk.”
    intrinsic rewards Rewards which arise from within an individual or group.
    intrinsic rewards Rewards which arise from within an individual or group.
    Jargon An occupation-specific language used by people in a given profession. Think of the way medical caregivers speak to one another, frequently using abbreviations for procedures and medications.
    Jargon An occupation-specific language used by people in a given profession. Think of the way medical caregivers speak to one another, frequently using abbreviations for procedures and medications.
    kinesics The study of body movements.
    kinesics The study of body movements.
    laissez-faire leader Individual who practices a “live and let live” style of leadership.
    laissez-faire leader Individual who practices a “live and let live” style of leadership.
    laissez-faire leadership A “live and let live” style of leadership; a willingness to let people in a group behave as they wish.
    laissez-faire leadership A “live and let live” style of leadership; a willingness to let people in a group behave as they wish.
    laws A description of phenomena which specifies uniform cause-and-effect relationships which hold true under limited, defined circumstances.
    laws A description of phenomena which specifies uniform cause-and-effect relationships which hold true under limited, defined circumstances.
    leader-as-coach Individual serving as a teacher, motivator, and keeper of the goals of the group.
    leader-as-coach Individual serving as a teacher, motivator, and keeper of the goals of the group.
    leader-as-conductor Central role of bringing people together for a common goal.
    leader-as-conductor Central role of bringing people together for a common goal.
    leader-as-technician Occurs when the leader has skills that others do not.
    leader-as-technician Occurs when the leader has skills that others do not.
    Leadership The ability to effectively formulate and implement a plan of action based on the context.
    Leadership The ability to effectively formulate and implement a plan of action based on the context.
    Lean media Media which depend solely on written communication and cannot easily convey non-verbal communication cues.
    Lean media Media which depend solely on written communication and cannot easily convey non-verbal communication cues.
    logistical Routine in nature (applicable to fundamental elements and considerations of how an organization or process works).
    logistical Routine in nature (applicable to fundamental elements and considerations of how an organization or process works).
    main motion The initial form of a motion proposed by a group member, prior to and independent of any amendments.
    main motion The initial form of a motion proposed by a group member, prior to and independent of any amendments.
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.
    Marginal group members Individual who looks outside the group for fulfillment of personal needs.
    mashups Alterations of digital content meant to humiliate someone.
    mashups Alterations of digital content meant to humiliate someone.
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A model characterizing human needs from the most basic (physical) to the most complex (aesthetic appreciation).
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A model characterizing human needs from the most basic (physical) to the most complex (aesthetic appreciation).
    Mass communication Involves sending a single message to a group.
    Mass communication Involves sending a single message to a group.
    material exchanges Transfers of reward back and forth between a group’s members.
    material exchanges Transfers of reward back and forth between a group’s members.
    matriarchal leadership Leadership in which women exercise primary influence instead of men on how whole societies and the groups within them function.
    matriarchal leadership Leadership in which women exercise primary influence instead of men on how whole societies and the groups within them function.
    meaning What we share through communication.
    meaning What we share through communication.
    meritocracies A system in which people gain status by having their talents recognized and rewarded.
    meritocracies A system in which people gain status by having their talents recognized and rewarded.
    message The stimulus or meaning produced by the source for the receiver or audience.
    message The stimulus or meaning produced by the source for the receiver or audience.
    microgroup A small, independent group that has a link, affiliation, or association with a larger group.
    microgroup A small, independent group that has a link, affiliation, or association with a larger group.
    monochromatic time Interruptions are to be avoided, and everything has its own specific time.
    monochromatic time Interruptions are to be avoided, and everything has its own specific time.
    nature versus nurture The question of how much of human behavior is caused by biological factors and how much of it results from features of the environment.
    nature versus nurture The question of how much of human behavior is caused by biological factors and how much of it results from features of the environment.
    neophobes Individuals who tend to avoid or oppose new things.
    neophobes Individuals who tend to avoid or oppose new things.
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.
    new group member Individual who is still learning the group’s norms and rules.
    nonassertion According to Adler and Rodman, a style of conflict marked by inability or unwillingness to express oneself.
    nonassertion According to Adler and Rodman, a style of conflict marked by inability or unwillingness to express oneself.
    Nonverbal communication The process of conveying a message without the use of words.
    Nonverbal communication The process of conveying a message without the use of words.
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.
    norming stage Time when the group establishes norms, or informal rules, for behavior and interaction.
    NOSTUESO A technique to ensure that all members in a group participate in its discussions.
    NOSTUESO A technique to ensure that all members in a group participate in its discussions.
    object-adaptor Use of an object for a purpose other than its intended design.
    object-adaptor Use of an object for a purpose other than its intended design.
    obliging style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a practice of minimizing points of difference in a conflict so as to try to satisfy others’ needs.
    obliging style According to Rahim, Antonioni, and Psenicka, a practice of minimizing points of difference in a conflict so as to try to satisfy others’ needs.
    opportunity cost The loss of potential gain from other alternatives when any one option is selected.
    opportunity cost The loss of potential gain from other alternatives when any one option is selected.
    organizational memory A mechanism, in digital or hard-copy form, for retaining information about a group’s activities over extended periods.
    organizational memory A mechanism, in digital or hard-copy form, for retaining information about a group’s activities over extended periods.
    out of order In parliamentary terms, inappropriate and unacceptable for further consideration.
    out of order In parliamentary terms, inappropriate and unacceptable for further consideration.
    overpersonals According to William Schutz, someone who continually seeks attention and affirmation.
    overpersonals According to William Schutz, someone who continually seeks attention and affirmation.
    paradigms A clear point of view involving theories, laws, and/or generalizations that provide a framework for understanding.
    paradigms A clear point of view involving theories, laws, and/or generalizations that provide a framework for understanding.
    Paralanguage Involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and silence.
    Paralanguage Involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and silence.
    parliamentarians An expert in parliamentary procedure.
    parliamentarians An expert in parliamentary procedure.
    parliamentary procedure A system of rules for conducting the business of an organization in ways which ensure consistency, fairness, and efficiency.
    parliamentary procedure A system of rules for conducting the business of an organization in ways which ensure consistency, fairness, and efficiency.
    parsimony Simplicity, as in a theory which contains no superfluous elements.
    parsimony Simplicity, as in a theory which contains no superfluous elements.
    People-oriented listeners Listening directed toward detecting and preserving positive emotional features of a relationship.
    People-oriented listeners Listening directed toward detecting and preserving positive emotional features of a relationship.
    perception check A question or questions designed to determine if one’s interpretation of someone else’s behavior is accurate.
    perception check A question or questions designed to determine if one’s interpretation of someone else’s behavior is accurate.
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.
    performing stage Time when the group accomplishes its mandate, fulfills its purpose, and reaches its goals.
    personal individual The person who strikes a healthy balance in terms of human interaction.
    personal individual The person who strikes a healthy balance in terms of human interaction.
    personal space The “bubble” of space surrounding each individual.
    personal space The “bubble” of space surrounding each individual.
    plop A discussion in which members of a group express views and identify alternative but reach no decision and take no action.
    plop A discussion in which members of a group express views and identify alternative but reach no decision and take no action.
    Polychromatic time A more fluid approach to scheduling time, where several things can be done at once, and each may have different levels of importance and urgency.
    Polychromatic time A more fluid approach to scheduling time, where several things can be done at once, and each may have different levels of importance and urgency.
    postdiction Interpretation of specific past phenomena that accounts for why they would be expected to happen as they did.
    postdiction Interpretation of specific past phenomena that accounts for why they would be expected to happen as they did.
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.
    potential member Individual who is qualified to join a group but has not yet joined.
    precise words Words that paint as vivid and accurate a mental picture as possible for your group.
    precise words Words that paint as vivid and accurate a mental picture as possible for your group.
    predicted outcome value theory Asserts that not only do we want to reduce uncertainty, we also want to maximize our possible benefit from the association.
    predicted outcome value theory Asserts that not only do we want to reduce uncertainty, we also want to maximize our possible benefit from the association.
    pregnant pause A silence between verbal messages that is full of meaning.
    pregnant pause A silence between verbal messages that is full of meaning.
    Prejudice A negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior.
    Prejudice A negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior.
    Procedure-oriented norms Norms which identify how a group functions.
    Procedure-oriented norms Norms which identify how a group functions.
    process A dynamic activity that is hard to describe because it changes.
    process A dynamic activity that is hard to describe because it changes.
    Process theories Theories of motivation which analyze the interaction of factors which motivate behavior.
    Process theories Theories of motivation which analyze the interaction of factors which motivate behavior.
    proxemics The study of the human use of space and distance in communication.
    proxemics The study of the human use of space and distance in communication.
    proxemics The study of how people’s use of space affects interaction and meaning.
    proxemics The study of how people’s use of space affects interaction and meaning.
    pseudo-listening Appearing to be listening but not really doing so.
    pseudo-listening Appearing to be listening but not really doing so.
    public communication Communication in which one person speaks or writes a message to a group of people.
    public communication Communication in which one person speaks or writes a message to a group of people.
    quick wins Simple, noncontroversial questions which can be answered easily at the start of a meeting to offer its participants a sense of unity and direction.
    quick wins Simple, noncontroversial questions which can be answered easily at the start of a meeting to offer its participants a sense of unity and direction.
    Racist language Discriminates against members of a given race or ethnic group.
    Racist language Discriminates against members of a given race or ethnic group.
    receiver Receives the message from the source, analyzing and interpreting the message in ways both intended and unintended by the source.
    receiver Receives the message from the source, analyzing and interpreting the message in ways both intended and unintended by the source.
    Regulators Nonverbal expression that controls, encourages or discourages interaction.
    Regulators Nonverbal expression that controls, encourages or discourages interaction.
    reinforcement stage Characterized by affirmations and statements of agreement or support for the task or actions.
    reinforcement stage Characterized by affirmations and statements of agreement or support for the task or actions.
    relational contracts Informal statements of knowledge and other strengths that group members pledge to contribute to the group’s work.
    relational contracts Informal statements of knowledge and other strengths that group members pledge to contribute to the group’s work.
    Relationship conflicts Conflicts which involve people’s egos and sense of self-worth.
    Relationship conflicts Conflicts which involve people’s egos and sense of self-worth.
    rhetorical theories paradigm A set of theories which focuses on how symbols affect people.
    rhetorical theories paradigm A set of theories which focuses on how symbols affect people.
    Rites of initiation These mark the transition of the role or status of the individual within the group.
    Rites of initiation These mark the transition of the role or status of the individual within the group.
    secondary groups Groups that meet some, but not all, of individuals’ needs.
    secondary groups Groups that meet some, but not all, of individuals’ needs.
    Selective listening Listening only to the parts of someone else’s communication that are personally important to the listener.
    Selective listening Listening only to the parts of someone else’s communication that are personally important to the listener.
    Self-centered roles Involves ego-centric behaviors that call attention to the individual, not the group, and distract or disrupt the group dynamic.
    Self-centered roles Involves ego-centric behaviors that call attention to the individual, not the group, and distract or disrupt the group dynamic.
    self-concept Your sense of self and awareness of who you are.
    self-concept Your sense of self and awareness of who you are.
    Self-disclosure Information, thoughts, or feelings we tell others about ourselves that they would not otherwise know.
    Self-disclosure Information, thoughts, or feelings we tell others about ourselves that they would not otherwise know.
    Self-disclosure The deliberate communication of information about yourself to others.
    Self-disclosure The deliberate communication of information about yourself to others.
    Semantic rules Govern the meaning of words and how to interpret them.
    Semantic rules Govern the meaning of words and how to interpret them.
    sender-receiver reciprocity The mutual obligation of speakers and listeners to create and understand meaning together.
    sender-receiver reciprocity The mutual obligation of speakers and listeners to create and understand meaning together.
    sense of progress The feeling that a person or group is accomplishing something.
    sense of progress The feeling that a person or group is accomplishing something.
    Sexist language Uses gender as a discriminating factor.
    Sexist language Uses gender as a discriminating factor.
    sharing Doing something together with one or more other people.
    sharing Doing something together with one or more other people.
    signposts Notifications of chronological stages in a meeting—e.g., “We have 25 minutes left, and we haven’t decided yet who will talk to the professor to ask about an extension on our assignment.”
    signposts Notifications of chronological stages in a meeting—e.g., “We have 25 minutes left, and we haven’t decided yet who will talk to the professor to ask about an extension on our assignment.”
    simplified standard order of business The major segments of a group’s business at a meeting, according to Robert’s Rules of Order.
    simplified standard order of business The major segments of a group’s business at a meeting, according to Robert’s Rules of Order.
    Situational leadership Leadership adapted to the specific context, and that leadership itself depends on the situation at hand.
    Situational leadership Leadership adapted to the specific context, and that leadership itself depends on the situation at hand.
    SLACK A method developed by Randy Fujishin to manage conflict (“SLACK” stands for “sit, listen, ask, compromise, and kiss”).
    SLACK A method developed by Randy Fujishin to manage conflict (“SLACK” stands for “sit, listen, ask, compromise, and kiss”).
    Slang The use of existing or newly invented words to take the place of standard or traditional words with the intent of adding an unconventional, non-standard, humorous or rebellious effect.
    Slang The use of existing or newly invented words to take the place of standard or traditional words with the intent of adding an unconventional, non-standard, humorous or rebellious effect.
    social According to William Schutz, an individual who seeks a sense of belonging in a group by striking a balance between involvement and withdrawal.
    social According to William Schutz, an individual who seeks a sense of belonging in a group by striking a balance between involvement and withdrawal.
    social decentering The act of stepping away from one’s own thoughts in order to try to experience the thoughts of others.
    social decentering The act of stepping away from one’s own thoughts in order to try to experience the thoughts of others.
    social links Long-term connections based on attitudes, emotional connections, shared identities, and other human commonalities.
    social links Long-term connections based on attitudes, emotional connections, shared identities, and other human commonalities.
    social loafing The tendency of members of a large group to feel diminished personal responsibility and to rely on the rest of the group to perform necessary tasks.
    social loafing The tendency of members of a large group to feel diminished personal responsibility and to rely on the rest of the group to perform necessary tasks.
    social loafing The tendency for each member of a group to devote less energy to a task than she or he would alone because it’s possible to let others take responsibility for getting things done.
    social loafing The tendency for each member of a group to devote less energy to a task than she or he would alone because it’s possible to let others take responsibility for getting things done.
    social person Person who strikes a healthy balance between being withdrawn and being the constant center of attention.
    social person Person who strikes a healthy balance between being withdrawn and being the constant center of attention.
    social presence The sensation of being in immediate, direct contact with other human beings rather than being distant in time or space from them.
    social presence The sensation of being in immediate, direct contact with other human beings rather than being distant in time or space from them.
    socialized The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.
    socialized The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.
    socialized The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.
    socialized The process of learning to associate, communicate, or interact within a group.
    source Person who imagines, creates, and sends the message.
    source Person who imagines, creates, and sends the message.
    stage-hogging Also known as disruptive listening. Attending only minimally and butting in persistently to insert views or express needs.
    stage-hogging Also known as disruptive listening. Attending only minimally and butting in persistently to insert views or express needs.
    state the question A formal announcement by the chair of a group indicating that a motion has been made and seconded and is open for debate.
    state the question A formal announcement by the chair of a group indicating that a motion has been made and seconded and is open for debate.
    Status A person’s level of importance or significance within a particular environment.
    Status A person’s level of importance or significance within a particular environment.
    Status norms Norms which indicate the degree of influence that members possess.
    Status norms Norms which indicate the degree of influence that members possess.
    status quo (Latin) things as they are at a given time; existing conditions.
    status quo (Latin) things as they are at a given time; existing conditions.
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.
    storming stage Time of struggles as group members themselves sort out their differences.
    structuralist A leader who attempts to manage conflict in a group by its composition or structure.
    structuralist A leader who attempts to manage conflict in a group by its composition or structure.
    subsidiary motions A motion related to a main motion, either to change it or otherwise alter its disposition.
    subsidiary motions A motion related to a main motion, either to change it or otherwise alter its disposition.
    Summative assessment Judgment concerning a process which has concluded.
    Summative assessment Judgment concerning a process which has concluded.
    superordinate goals Goals which transcend those of individuals in a conflict and which all parties can subscribe to.
    superordinate goals Goals which transcend those of individuals in a conflict and which all parties can subscribe to.
    supportive communication Focuses on the points and not personalities.
    supportive communication Focuses on the points and not personalities.
    Synergy A combined effect great than the simple sum total of individual components in a process or entity.
    Synergy A combined effect great than the simple sum total of individual components in a process or entity.
    Syntactic rules Govern the order of words in a sentence.
    Syntactic rules Govern the order of words in a sentence.
    systemic thinking A process whereby group members “think big” and long-term by conceiving of themselves as an enduring and organic totality.
    systemic thinking A process whereby group members “think big” and long-term by conceiving of themselves as an enduring and organic totality.
    Teams A form of group normally dedicated to production or problem-solving.
    Teams A form of group normally dedicated to production or problem-solving.
    technocratic Based primarily or exclusively on scientific data and technical information rather than on human considerations.
    technocratic Based primarily or exclusively on scientific data and technical information rather than on human considerations.
    Territory The space you claim as your own, are responsible for, or are willing to defend.
    Territory The space you claim as your own, are responsible for, or are willing to defend.
    The Peter Principle The view that everyone in an organization rises to his or her level of incompetence and that eventually every role is performed by someone unfit to manage it.
    The Peter Principle The view that everyone in an organization rises to his or her level of incompetence and that eventually every role is performed by someone unfit to manage it.
    theoretical paradigms A collection of concepts, values, assumptions, and practices that constitute a way of viewing reality.
    theoretical paradigms A collection of concepts, values, assumptions, and practices that constitute a way of viewing reality.
    theory A set of inter-related propositions that suggest why events occur in the manner that they do.
    theory A set of inter-related propositions that suggest why events occur in the manner that they do.
    Theory X Asserts that workers are motivated by their basic (low-level) needs and have a general disposition against labor.
    Theory X Asserts that workers are motivated by their basic (low-level) needs and have a general disposition against labor.
    Theory Y Views employees as ambitious, self-directed, and capable of self-motivation.
    Theory Y Views employees as ambitious, self-directed, and capable of self-motivation.
    Theory Y In groups, an approach which assumes that members are generally honorable, industrious, trustworthy, and cooperative.
    Theory Y In groups, an approach which assumes that members are generally honorable, industrious, trustworthy, and cooperative.
    Theory Z Combines elements of both Theory X and Y; views workers as having a high need for reinforcement and belonging.
    Theory Z Combines elements of both Theory X and Y; views workers as having a high need for reinforcement and belonging.
    Time-oriented listeners Listening directed toward schedules, deadlines, and other time-bound features of a group.
    Time-oriented listeners Listening directed toward schedules, deadlines, and other time-bound features of a group.
    transactional Model of communication in which actions happen at the same time.
    transactional Model of communication in which actions happen at the same time.
    transactional leadership A behaviorist approach to motivating group members in which leaders exchange rewards for performance.
    transactional leadership A behaviorist approach to motivating group members in which leaders exchange rewards for performance.
    transformational leadership Leadership that emphasizes the vision, mission, motivations, and goals of a group or team and motivates them to accomplish the task or achieve the result.
    transformational leadership Leadership that emphasizes the vision, mission, motivations, and goals of a group or team and motivates them to accomplish the task or achieve the result.
    Trouble in River City A term from the musical “The Music Man” referring to problems lurking ahead of an unsuspecting group or community.
    Trouble in River City A term from the musical “The Music Man” referring to problems lurking ahead of an unsuspecting group or community.
    trust Reliance on the integrity, strength, ability, or dependability of a person or thing.
    trust Reliance on the integrity, strength, ability, or dependability of a person or thing.
    two-pizza guideline A policy by Amazon Corporation to limit membership in its employee teams to the quantity which could be fed with two pizzas.
    two-pizza guideline A policy by Amazon Corporation to limit membership in its employee teams to the quantity which could be fed with two pizzas.
    two-thirds vote A process of making a decision whereby twice as many voters have to approve of a proposal than oppose it in order for the proposal to be accepted.
    two-thirds vote A process of making a decision whereby twice as many voters have to approve of a proposal than oppose it in order for the proposal to be accepted.
    unanimity A condition in which no one in a group has explicitly stated objections to a proposal or decision.
    unanimity A condition in which no one in a group has explicitly stated objections to a proposal or decision.
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.
    Uncertainty theory States that we choose to know more about others with whom we have interactions in order to reduce or resolve the anxiety associated with the unknown.
    understanding To perceive, to interpret, and to relate our perception and interpretation to what we already know.
    understanding To perceive, to interpret, and to relate our perception and interpretation to what we already know.
    unilaterally Determined or executed by one person alone.
    unilaterally Determined or executed by one person alone.
    universal leadership traits The view that there are inherent traits, that may be part of a person from birth as in talents, or acquired skills that express those in-born traits, that are somehow universal or constant across contexts and cultures.
    universal leadership traits The view that there are inherent traits, that may be part of a person from birth as in talents, or acquired skills that express those in-born traits, that are somehow universal or constant across contexts and cultures.
    WII-FM An imaginary radio station whose call letters stand for “What’s in it for me?”
    WII-FM An imaginary radio station whose call letters stand for “What’s in it for me?”
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