By Hyisung Hwang and David Matsumoto
Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion
Emotions Help us Act Quickly with Minimal Conscious Awareness
Emotions Prepare the Body for Immediate Action
Emotions Influence Thoughts
Emotions Motivate Future Behaviors
Interpersonal Functions of Emotion
Emotional Expressions Facilitate Specific Behaviors in Perceivers
Emotional Expressions Signal the Nature of Interpersonal Relationships
Emotional Expressions Provide Incentives for Desired Social Behavior
Social and Cultural Functions of Emotion
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- NPR News: Science Of Sadness And Joy: 'Inside Out' Gets Childhood Emotions Right
- Online Psychology Laboratory: Motivation and Emotion resources
- Web: See how well you can read other people’s facial expressions of emotion
- Cultural display rules
- These are rules that are learned early in life that specify the management and modification of emotional expressions according to social circumstances. Cultural display rules can work in a number of different ways. For example, they can require individuals to express emotions “as is” (i.e., as they feel them), to exaggerate their expressions to show more than what is actually felt, to tone down their expressions to show less than what is actually felt, to conceal their feelings by expressing something else, or to show nothing at all.
- This refers to the relationship or interaction between two or more individuals in a group. Thus, the interpersonal functions of emotion refer to the effects of one’s emotion on others, or to the relationship between oneself and others.
- This refers to what occurs within oneself. Thus, the intrapersonal functions of emotion refer to the effects of emotion to individuals that occur physically inside their bodies and psychologically inside their minds.
- Social and cultural
- Society refers to a system of relationships between individuals and groups of individuals; culture refers to the meaning and information afforded to that system that is transmitted across generations. Thus, the social and cultural functions of emotion refer to the effects that emotions have on the functioning and maintenance of societies and cultures.
- Social referencing
- This refers to the process whereby individuals look for information from others to clarify a situation, and then use that information to act. Thus, individuals will often use the emotional expressions of others as a source of information to make decisions about their own behavior.