# 1.6: Introduction to Psychology (Exercises)

## 1.1: What Is Psychology?

### Review Questions

#### Q1

Which of the following was mentioned as a skill to which psychology students would be exposed?

1. critical thinking
2. use of the scientific method
3. critical evaluation of sources of information
4. all of the above

#### Q2

Psyche is a Greek word meaning ________.

1. essence
2. soul
3. behavior
4. love

#### Q3

Before psychology became a recognized academic discipline, matters of the mind were undertaken by those in ________.

1. biology
2. chemistry
3. philosophy
4. physics

#### Q4

In the scientific method, a hypothesis is a(n) ________.

1. observation
2. measurement
3. test
4. proposed explanation

### Critical Thinking Questions

#### Q5

Why do you think psychology courses like this one are often requirements of so many different programs of study?

#### Q6

Why do you think many people might be skeptical about psychology being a science?

### Personal Application Question

#### Q7

Why are you taking this course? What do you hope to learn about during this course?

### Solution

D

B

C

D

#### S5

Psychology courses deal with a number of issues that are helpful in a variety of settings. The text made mention of the types of skills as well as the knowledge base with which students of psychology become familiar. As mentioned in the link to learning, psychology is often helpful/valued in fields in which interacting with others is a major part of the job.

#### S6

One goal of psychology is the study of the mind. Science cannot directly study the mind, because it is not a form of matter or energy. This might create some skepticism about the scientific nature of psychology.

## 1.2: History of Psychology

### Review Questions

#### Q1

Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.

1. William James
2. Max Wertheimer
3. Carl Rogers
4. Noam Chomsky

#### Q2

________ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.

1. Noam Chomsky
2. Carl Rogers
3. Abraham Maslow
4. Sigmund Freud

#### Q3

Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and ________ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.

1. structuralism
2. functionalism
3. Gestalt
4. unconditional positive regard

#### Q4

The operant conditioning chamber (aka ________ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.

1. Skinner
2. Watson
3. James
4. Koffka

### Critical Thinking Questions

#### Q5

How did the object of study in psychology change over the history of the field since the $$19^{th}$$ century?

#### Q6

In part, what aspect of psychology was the behaviorist approach to psychology a reaction to?

### Personal Application Questions

#### Q7

Freud is probably one of the most well-known historical figures in psychology. Where have you encountered references to Freud or his ideas about the role that the unconscious mind plays in determining conscious behavior?

### Solution

B

C

D

A

#### S5

In its early days, psychology could be defined as the scientific study of mind or mental processes. Over time, psychology began to shift more towards the scientific study of behavior. However, as the cognitive revolution took hold, psychology once again began to focus on mental processes as necessary to the understanding of behavior.

#### S6

Behaviorists studied objectively observable behavior partly in reaction to the psychologists of the mind who were studying things that were not directly observable.

## 1.3: Contemporary Psychology

### Review Questions

#### Q1

A researcher interested in how changes in the cells of the hippocampus (a structure in the brain related to learning and memory) are related to memory formation would be most likely to identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

1. biological
2. health
3. clinical
4. social

#### Q2

An individual’s consistent pattern of thought and behavior is known as a(n) ________.

1. psychosexual stage
2. object permanence
3. personality
4. perception

#### Q3

In Milgram’s controversial study on obedience, nearly ________ of the participants were willing to administer what appeared to be lethal electrical shocks to another person because they were told to do so by an authority figure.

1. $$1/3$$
2. $$2/3$$
3. $$3/4$$
4. $$4/5$$

#### Q4

A researcher interested in what factors make an employee best suited for a given job would most likely identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

1. personality
2. clinical
3. social
4. I-O

### Critical Thinking Questions

#### Q5

Given the incredible diversity among the various areas of psychology that were described in this section, how do they all fit together?

#### Q6

What are the potential ethical concerns associated with Milgram’s research on obedience?

### Personal Application Question

#### Q7

Now that you’ve been briefly introduced to some of the major areas within psychology, which are you most interested in learning more about? Why?

### Solution

A

C

B

D

#### S5

Although the different perspectives all operate on different levels of analyses, have different foci of interests, and different methodological approaches, all of these areas share a focus on understanding and/or correcting patterns of thought and/or behavior.

#### S6

Many people have questioned how ethical this particular research was. Although no one was actually harmed in Milgram’s study, many people have questioned how the knowledge that you would be willing to inflict incredible pain and/or death to another person, simply because someone in authority told you to do so, would affect someone’s self-concept and psychological health. Furthermore, the degree to which deception was used in this particular study raises a few eyebrows.

## 1.4: Careers in Psychology

### Review Questions

#### Q1

If someone wanted to become a psychology professor at a $$4$$-year college, then s/he would probably need a ________ degree in psychology.

1. bachelor of science
2. bachelor of art
3. master’s
4. PhD

#### Q2

The ________ places less emphasis on research and more emphasis on application of therapeutic skills.

1. PhD
2. PsyD
3. postdoctoral training program
4. dissertation

#### Q3

Which of the following degrees would be the minimum required to teach psychology courses in high school?

1. PhD
2. PsyD
3. master’s degree
4. bachelor’s degree

#### Q4

One would need at least a(n) ________ degree to serve as a school psychologist.

1. associate’s
2. bachelor’s
3. master’s
4. doctoral

### Critical Thinking Questions

#### Q5

Why is an undergraduate education in psychology so helpful in a number of different lines of work?

#### Q6

Other than a potentially greater salary, what would be the reasons an individual would continue on to get a graduate degree in psychology?

### Personal Application Question

Which of the career options described in this section is most appealing to you?

### Solution

D

B

D

C

#### S5

An undergraduate education in psychology hones critical thinking skills. These skills are useful in many different work settings.

#### S6

The graduate degree would be a stronger guarantee of working in a psychology-related field and one would have greater control over the specialty of that work. It would allow one to practice in a clinical setting. In general, it would allow someone to work in a more independent or supervisory capacity.