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9.3: Chapter Glossary and References

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    Chapter Glossary of Key Terms

    19th Amendment - The right for women to vote.

    Aboriginal - Inhabiting or existing in a land from the earliest of times or before the arrival of colonists.

    Acephalous Society - A society without a governing head.

    African Charter - An international women rights agreement intended to promote and protect women rights and basic freedoms in Africa.

    Amnesty International - The oldest and longest human rights group, focused on local human right activism.

    Civil and Political Rights - A class of rights that restrict the government, social organizations and private individuals from repressing the freedom of an individual to participate in society or state.

    Clitoridectomy - Removal of the entire clitoris and the removal of the adjacent labia.

    Coalition - A group formed with two or more people, temporarily work together.

    Compensation - Something, typically money, awarded to someone as a recompense for loss, injury or suffering.

    Controversial - Giving rise or likely to give rise to public disagreement.

    Contraceptive - Devices or drug serving to prevent pregnancy.

    Cultural hybridity - The borrowing and modification of ideas from other cultures within a culture.

    Cultural Imperialism - An undermining of the cultural aspects of imperialism, which is the making and maintaining of relationship among civilizations which are unequal; the potential for culture to contrast another culture.

    Dalit - A member of the lowest caste in the traditional Indian caste system. "Untouchables."

    De-Stigmatizing - To remove associations of shame or disgrace.

    Divorce - The legal dissolution of a marriage by a court or other competent body. Different cultures and religions have their own specific rules and "norms."

    Dysphoria - The state of feeling often experienced by transgender individuals which can be described as feeling as though one is born in a body that doesn't fit with what one feels they should be born as (i.e breasts or lack thereof, incorrect genitalia, absence or excess of body hair)

    Electronic Frontier Foundation - founded to promote and extend the concept of civil liberties to online communities.

    Entitlements - The society defined rights to life sustaining resources, meaning access to basic human rights and social freedoms.

    Entitlement Programs - Programs that supply basic needs like health care, food stamps and other services.

    Expenditures - The action of spending funds, or the amount of money spent.

    Exploitation - The action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work.

    Female Circumcision - The ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

    First Optional Protocol - An individual complaints mechanism in which people can submit complaints, also known as communications, to the Human Rights Committee to be reviewed.

    Freedom from want - Freedom to the right to an adequate standard of living, depends on economic and social rights, right to property, work and education.

    Gay Conversion Therapy - Sending people who identify as gay to therapy to attempt to make them straight.

    Genocide - The deliberate killing of a group of people.

    Globalization - The process by which businesses or organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.

    Human Rights - The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled to inside of a system.

    Individualism - Social theory advocating the liberty, rights or independent actions of the individual.

    International Labor Organization - Founded by the UN, and is dedicated to resolving international labor issues.

    Intersex - A person who is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that is not exclusive with the traditional definitions of male and female.

    Jurisprudence - The theory or philosophy of law.

    Lambda - A national organization committed to achieving full recognition of the LGBTQ community.

    League of Nations - The first world intergovernmental organization whose goal was maintaining world peace.

    LGBTQ - Individuals whose sexual orientation and gender are described as; Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer.

    Lineal Descendant - A person who is the direct line to an ancestor.

    Living wage - A pay rate that allows for one to meet their household's basic needs.

    Lobbying - To solicit or try to influence the votes of members of a legislative body.

    Mandate - An official order or commission to do something.

    Manifest - Clear or obvious to the eye or mind.

    Male Circumcision - A surgery that removes the foreskin from the tip of the penis and is most commonly performed on infants or children for religious or social purposes.

    Multilateral Treaty - Treaty in which 3 or more sovereign states are parties.

    NAGPRA - The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation act. Allows for Native American Tribes to reclaim human remains and cultural object to the direct lineal descendants.

    Oppressed - Subject to harm and authoritarian treatment.

    Patrimony - Property inherited from ones father or male ancestor.

    Pharaonic Circumcision - Female genital mutilation, removal of inner and outer labia, and suturing of the vulva.

    Preconceived - An idea or opinion formed before having the evidence for it's truth or usefulness.

    Pro-Choice - Advocating legalized abortion.

    Pro-Life - Political view that opposes abortions and euthanasia because it violates a fetus or baby's rights.

    Protocol - Official procedures or systems of rules governing affairs of state or diplomatic occasions.

    Rank Societies - Class and caste limit social mobility.

    Reproduction - The production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process.

    Reproductive rights - The right to determine the number and spacing of their children.

    Right - Morally good, justified or acceptable.

    Rights to Culture - Ensures that everyone has the right to participate in, and enjoy their culture.

    Second Optional Protocol - Abolishes the death penalty, but countries could still request it for the worst of crimes of a military nature that is committed during war time.

    Sexually Demorphic - Is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

    Socioeconomic - Interaction of social and economic factors.

    Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (S.T.A.R) - A transgender group founded in 1970 by two transgender members of the Stonewall Riots. Focused on supporting homeless queer people and queer sex workers.

    Transgender - People that have a different gender expression or gender identity as the sex they were assigned to at birth.

    United Nations - An intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. It replaced the League of Nations in 1945.

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Adopted by the UN Nations in 1945, it outlines that all people are born free and equal with the right to not be enslaved or tortured, the right to life, security, and to be recognized as a person before the law.

    Unpaid vs. Paid Labor - Unpaid labor is parental work, community work, agricultural work for personal use. Paid would be formal work with currency in exchange for labor and/or time.


    1. United Nations
    4. Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, Article 2.1
    5. "UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights". UN. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
    6. Sverker Finnstrom {url=}
    8. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1969". Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 29 Nov 2016. <>
    9. LO: Working time in the twenty-first century, report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Working-time Arrangements, Geneva, 17–21 Oct. 2011.
    10. Chan, Anita, and Robert J. S. Ross. "Racing To The Bottom: International Trade Without A Social Clause." Third World Quarterly 24.6 (2003): 1011-1028. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.
    11. Human Rights Watch
    13. "The Declaration of Sentiments." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. <>.
    14. "Primary Documents in American History." 15th Amendment to the Constitution: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress). N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. <>.
    15. Lois W. Banner, Women in Modern America: A Brief History
    16. "19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920)." Our Documents - 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920). N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. <>.
    17. Bettina Shell-Duncan
    20. Male-vs-Female Circumcision
    21. "Curbing Spending by Reframing the Politics of Entitlements". Walker Foundation. Retrieved ?-?-2009.
    23. Bourgois, Philippe 1995 “Workaday World, Crack Economy.” The Nation (December 4) pp. 706-11.
    24. Danger in the Comfort Zone. American Management Association| {url=,M1}
    26. Schultz, Emily and Lavenda, Robert, "Cultural Anthropology, A Perspective on the Human Condition" pg.422
    27. Variance Across the Globe===
    32. Ross A., "The invisible army: why the military needs to rescind its ban on transgender service members," Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 23 (2014) p. 185
    34. . In 2007, the American Psychology Association reviewed the practices of conversion therapy.
    35. Campaign, Human Rights. "The Lies and Dangers of "Conversion Therapy" | Human Rights Campaign." Human Rights Campaign. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

    "Female Genital Mutilation: A Call to Action",Troubia N: New York, New York, Women, Ink, 1993. 48 p.

    1. Birx, James. "Human Rights and Anthropology." Encyclopedia of Anthropology. 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2006. Print. Pg. 1228.

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