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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition) The definition is case sensitive (Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages] (Optional) Caption for Image (Optional) External or Internal Link (Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA .") (Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity") The infamous double helix CC-BY-SA; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    Ableism A system of beliefs and practices that produces a physical and mental standard that is projected as normal for a human being and labels deviations from it abnormal.        
    abstract An author-supplied summary of an academic article.        
    academic conferences Local, regional, national, or international events at which students, teachers, professionals, and practitioners gather to discuss and share knowledge in a particular field of study.        
    Accents Distinct styles of pronunciation.        
    accepting an award A ceremonial speech in which a person briefly, graciously, and humbly accepts an award.        
    accommodating Style of conflict management that may indicate a low concern for self and a high concern for other, is often viewed as passive or submissive, and may result in a lose/win situation.        
    Achievement-oriented leaders Leaders who strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and exhibiting confidence that group members can meet their high expectations.        
    Action-oriented listeners Listeners who focus on what action needs to take place in regards to a received message and try to formulate an organized way to initiate that action.        
    Active listening The process of pairing outwardly visible positive listening behaviors with positive cognitive listening practices.        
    Adaptors Touching behaviors and movements that indicate internal states typically related to arousal or anxiety and may be directed at the self, others, or objects.        
    Adjacency pairs Related communication structures that come one after the other (adjacent to each other) in an interaction.        
    adjourning The stage of group development in which a group dissolves because it has completed its purpose or goal, membership is declining and support for the group no longer exists, or it is dissolved because of some other internal or external cause.        
    Affective language Language used to express a person’s feelings and create similar feelings in another person.        
    Aggressive listening A bad listening practice in which people pay attention in order to attack something a speaker says.        
    airhead A person who skirts his or her responsibilities by claiming ignorance when he or she actually understands or intentionally performs poorly on a task so the other group members question his or her intellectual abilities to handle other tasks.        
    Alternative media Media that include a range of voices with diverse cultural identities and experiences, which counter the mainstream media that are controlled by and include the voices and perspectives of more privileged people.        
    altruistic lies Lies told to build the self-esteem of another person, communicate loyalty, or bend the truth to spare someone from hurtful information.        
    Analogies Type of supporting material that compares ideas, items, or circumstances.        
    Analogue media Media that are created by encoding information onto a physical object that must then be paired with another device capable of reading that specific code.        
    Annoyance swearing Swearing that provides a sense of relief as people use it to manage stress and tension, which can be a preferred alternative to physical aggression.        
    Antimiscegenation laws Laws that made it illegal for people of different racial/ethnic groups to marry.        
    anxious attachment Used to describe people with a desire for closeness but anxieties about being abandoned leading to self-doubts and emotional volatility.        
    Articulation The clarity of sounds and words we produce.        
    artifacts Possessions that communicate our identities.        
    Associative friendships Mutually pleasurable relationships between acquaintances or associates that, although positive, lack the commitment of reciprocal friendships.        
    assumed similarity Perceptual tendency to perceive others as similar to us.        
    audio monitor Speaker or earpiece that allows a person on television to hear himself or herself, studio producers, or another person communicating from off-site.        
    audiovisual age The period that extends from 1850 to 1990 and marks the invention and spread of radio, movies, and television.        
    avoidant attachment Used to describe people who report discomfort with closeness and a reluctance to depend on others resulting in a pessimistic view of love and a fear of intimacy.        
    avoiding Style of conflict management that may indicate a low concern for self and other, in which there is no direct communication about the conflict, and may result in a lose/lose situation.        
    avoiding stage Relational interaction stage where people signal that they want to close down the lines of communication.        
    avowed identities Identities that we claim for ourselves.        
    Back-channel cues Verbal and nonverbal signals we send while someone is talking, which can consist of verbal cues like “uh-huh,” “oh,” and “right,” and/or nonverbal cues like direct eye contact, head nods, and leaning forward.        
    bonding stage Relational interaction stage that includes a public ritual that announces a formal commitment.        
    Books The earliest form of communication to be distributed to the masses, which led to significant cultural and social transformation.        
    boomerang effect Media-induced change that is counter to the desired change.        
    Brainstorming Process of quickly generating ideas without prejudging them.        
    captive audience An audience consisting of people who are required to be present.        
    Causal reasoning Arguments that establish a relationship between a cause and an effect.        
    cause-effect pattern Organizing a speech by setting up a relationship between ideas that shows a progression from origin to result or vice versa.        
    Ceremonial speaking Speeches of praise, tribute, and celebration that bring audiences together on special occasions.        
    channel The sensory route on which a message travels.        
    Chronemics The study of how time affects communication.        
    chronological pattern Organizing a speech based on time or sequence.        
    circumscribing stage Relational interaction stage where communication decreases and certain areas or subjects become restricted as individuals verbally close themselves off from each other.        
    citizen journalism Reporting done by individuals or small groups outside of the media establishment as a corrective to mainstream journalism, which may inaccurately report or underreport a story.        
    Civic engagement Working to make a difference in our communities by improving the quality of life of community members; raising awareness about social, cultural, or political issues; or participating in a wide variety of political and nonpolitical processes.        
    code-switching Changing accents, dialects, or languages.        
    Codes Culturally agreed on and ever-changing systems of symbols that help us organize, understand, and generate meaning.        
    coercive power Power that comes from the ability of a group member to provide a negative incentive.        
    cognitive dissonance The mental discomfort that results when new information contradicts currently held beliefs, attitudes, or values.        
    Cognitive flexibility The ability to continually supplement and revise existing knowledge to create new categories rather than forcing new information into old categories.        
    Cognitive restructuring Strategy for managing public speaking anxiety that involves changing negative thought patterns about public speaking.        
    collaborating Style of conflict management that shows a high degree of concern for self and other, usually indicates investment in the conflict and/or relationship, and results in a win/win situation.        
    Collectivistic cultures Culture that values in-group identity over individual identity and values conformity to social norms of the in-group.        
    commissives Language that commits the speaker to a certain course of action.        
    communication The process of generating meaning by sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal symbols and signs that are influenced by multiple contexts.        
    communication competence The knowledge of effective and appropriate communication patterns and the ability to use and adapt that knowledge in various contexts.        
    Communication ethics The process of negotiating and reflecting on our actions and communication regarding what we believe to be right and wrong.        
    Communication to outside stakeholders Messages sent from service providers to people who are not employed by the organization but conduct business with or support it.        
    Communication-orientation modification therapy A cognitive restructuring strategy also known as COM therapy that addresses public speaking anxiety by viewing public speaking as a conversation rather than a performance.        
    communicative aggression Recurring verbal or nonverbal communication that significantly and negatively affects a person’s sense of self.        
    Companionate love Overall stable and consistent affection felt between two people whose lives are interdependent.        
    competing Style of conflict management that indicates a high concern for self and a low concern for other, in which one party attempts to win by gaining concessions or consent from another.        
    compliance-gaining communication Communication aimed at getting people to do something or act in a particular way.        
    compromising Style of conflict management that shows moderate concern for self and other, may indicate a low investment in the conflict and/or the relationship, and results in a partial win or partial loss for both parties.        
    Connotation Definition that is based on emotion- or experience-based associations people have with a word.        
    Consensus rule A decision-making technique in which all members of the group must agree on the same decision.        
    constant connectivity A quality of personal media whereby we are “reachable” nearly all the time, which can be both comforting and anxiety inducing.        
    constructive criticism Comments that are specific and descriptive enough for the receiver to apply them for the purpose of self-improvement.        
    Contact cultures Cultural groups in which people stand closer together, engage in more eye contact, touch more frequently, and speak more loudly.        
    contaminated messages Messages that include mixed or misleading expressions.        
    Content-oriented listeners Listeners who like to listen to complex information and evaluate the content of a message, often from multiple perspectives, before drawing conclusions.        
    credibility Audience members’ perceptions of whether or not a speaker is competent, trustworthy, and/or engaging.        
    Crisis communication Communication that occurs as a result of a major event outside of normal expectations that has potential negative results, runs the risk of escalating in intensity, may result in close media or government scrutiny, and creates pressure for a timely and effective response.        
    Critical listening Listening with the goal of analyzing or evaluating a message.        
    Cross-gender friendships Friendships between a male and a female.        
    Crowdsourcing A decentralized model for problem solving in which people from various perspectives and positions offer proposals or information to solve a problem or create something new.        
    Cultivation theory Media effects theory that states that media exposure, specifically to television, shapes our social reality by giving us a distorted view on the amount of violence and risk in the world.        
    Cultural bias A skewed way of viewing or talking about a group that is typically negative.        
    Cultural context Aspects of identities such as race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, and ability that influence communication.        
    Cultural identities Identities based on socially constructed categories that teach us a way of being and include expectations for social behavior.        
    cultural-individual dialectic Dialectic that captures the interplay between patterned behaviors learned from a cultural group and individual behaviors that may be variations on or counter to those of the larger culture.        
    culture The ongoing renegotiation of learned and patterned beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors.        
    Cyberslacking The non-work-related use of new media while on the job.        
    dark side of relationships Includes actions that are deemed unacceptable by society at large and actions that are unproductive for those in the relationship.        
    Demographics Broad sociocultural categories such as age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, education level, religion, ethnicity, and nationality that are used to segment a larger population.        
    Denotation Definition that is accepted by the language group as a whole, or the dictionary definition of a word.        
    Dichotomies Dualistic ways of thinking that highlight opposites, reducing the ability to see gradations that exist in between concepts.        
    differentiating stage Relational interaction stage where communicating differences becomes a primary focus and people reestablish boundaries between themselves.        
    digital divide The unequal access to technology and related skills that exists in much of the world.        
    digital media Media similarly constructed with digital, binary code made up of ones and zeros.        
    digital rights management, DRM Practice that involves embedding device- or program-specific codes into a digital product that limit its ability to be reproduced and/or used on multiple devices.        
    Directive leaders Leaders who provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures.        
    Directives Utterances that try to get another person to do something.        
    Discriminative listening A focused and usually instrumental type of listening that is primarily physiological and occurs mostly at the receiving stage of the listening process.        
    displacement The unique human ability to talk about events that are removed in space or time from a speaker and situation.        
    Display rules Sociocultural norms that influence emotional expression.        
    divergence Using communication to emphasize the differences between you and your conversational partner.        
    dormant network A network of people with whom users may not feel obligated to explicitly interact but may find comfort in knowing the connections exist.        
    Downward communication Messages directed at audience members who hold lower positions on the organizational hierarchy than the sender.        
    DTR talk A form of relationship-maintenance communication that defines the relationship between two people—often occurs in the early stages of a relationship to reduce uncertainty about where one stands with the other person.        
    Dynamism Refers to the degree to which audience members perceive a speaker to be outgoing and animated.        
    Eavesdropping A bad listening practice that involves a planned attempt to secretly listen to a conversation.        
    Emblems Gestures that have specific agreed-on meanings.        
    Emergent leaders Leaders who gain status and respect through engagement with the group and its task and are turned to by others as a resource when leadership is needed.        
    Emotion sharing Communicating the circumstances, thoughts, and feelings surrounding an emotional event.        
    emotional contagion The spreading of emotion from one person to another.        
    Emotional intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action.        
    Emotions Physiological, behavioral, and/or communicative reactions to stimuli that are cognitively processed and experienced as emotional.        
    Empathetic listening The most challenging form of listening, which occurs when we try to understand or experience what a speaker is thinking or feeling.        
    Esperanto The most well-known and widely used auxiliary language that was intended to serve as a common international language.        
    essentialize To reduce/overlook important variations within a group.        
    ethnocentrism The tendency to view our own culture as superior to other cultures.        
    Ethos Refers to the credibility of a speaker, which includes three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.        
    eulogy A speech honoring a person who has died.        
    example A cited case that is representative of a larger whole.        
    expediter A task-related role that functions to keep the group on track toward completing its task by managing the agenda and setting and assessing goals in order to monitor the group’s progress.        
    experimenting stage Relational interaction stage where people exchange information and often move from strangers to acquaintances.        
    Expert power Power that comes from knowledge, skill, or expertise that a group member possesses and other group members do not.        
    Explanations Type of supporting material that clarifies ideas by providing information about what something is, why something is the way it is, or how something works or came to be.        
    Extemporaneous delivery Delivering a speech using a keyword and/or key-phrase outline after memorizing the general structure and main points of a speech.        
    External attributions The process of connecting the cause of behaviors to situational factors.        
    Extradyadic romantic activity, ERA Sexual or emotional interaction with someone other than a primary romantic partner.        
    eye contact Element of nonverbal delivery that helps establish credibility and hold an audience’s attention.        
    Face negotiation theory Theory that argues people in all cultures negotiate face through communication encounters, and that cultural factors influence how we engage in facework, especially in conflicts.        
    Facial expressions Movements of the face that help convey emotions and demonstrate enthusiasm during a speech.        
    Fallacies Flaws within the logic or reasoning of an argument.        
    family celebrations Formal family rituals that have more standardization between families, may be culturally specific, help transmit values and memories through generations, and include rites of passage and religious and secular holiday celebrations.        
    Family of orientation Refers to people who share the same household and are connected by blood, legal bond, or who act/live as if they are connected by either.        
    Family traditions Formal family rituals that vary widely from family to family and include birthdays, family reunions, and family vacations, among other things.        
    feasibility report Future-oriented report that explores potential actions or steps and then makes recommendations for future action based on methodical evaluation.        
    Feedback Messages sent in response to other messages.        
    Final reports Reports presented at the conclusion of a task and similar to a progress report but including a discussion and analysis of the results of an effort.        
    Fluency hiccups Unintended pauses in a speech.        
    formal outline A full-sentence outline that helps a speaker prepare for and judge the coherence of a speech.        
    forming The stage of development in which group members begin to reduce uncertainty associated with new relationships and/or new tasks through initial interactions that lay the foundation for later group dynamics.        
    Friends with benefits Relationships that have the closeness of a friendship and the sexual activity of a romantic partnership without the expectations of romantic commitment or labels.        
    Friendships Voluntary interpersonal relationships between two people who are usually equals and who mutually influence one another.        
    fundamental attribution error A perceptual error through which we are more likely to explain others’ behaviors using internal rather than external attributions.        
    gatekeeper A group member who manages the flow of conversation in a group in order to achieve an appropriate balance so that all group members get to participate in a meaningful way.        
    gatekeeping function Media outlets function to effect or control the information that is transmitted to their audiences.        
    gatewatching A media criticism practice that seeks to correct or expand mainstream media reporting.        
    general purpose The overarching purpose of your speech, which will be to inform, to persuade, or to entertain.        
    Gestures Arm and hand movements used during a speech.        
    Globalization A complex of interconnecting structural and cultural forces that aid the spread of ideas and technologies and influence the social and economic organization of societies.        
    Grammar The rules that govern how words are used to make phrases and sentences.        
    Group climate The relatively enduring tone and quality of group interaction that is experienced similarly by group members.        
    Group cohesion The commitment of members to the purpose of the group and the degree of attraction among individuals within the group.        
    Group communication Communication among three or more people interacting to achieve a shared goal.        
    group fantasies Verbalized references to events outside the “here and now” of the group, including references to the group’s past, predictions for the future, or other communication about people or events outside the group.        
    Group socialization The process of teaching and learning the norms, rules, and expectations associated with group interaction and group member behaviors.        
    Groupthink A negative group phenomenon characterized by a lack of critical evaluation of proposed ideas or courses of action that results from high levels of cohesion and/or high conformity pressures.        
    haptics The study of communication by touch.        
    harmonizer A group member who helps manage the various types of group conflict that emerge during group communication.        
    high-context communication Communication style in which much of the meaning generated within an interaction comes from nonverbal or contextual cues rather than the verbal communication.        
    history/past-present/future dialectic Dialectic that reminds us to acknowledge how the past informs our communication in the present, how the present influences our view of the past, and how the past and present will affect our future.        
    horizontal communication Communication between colleagues or people who are on the same approximate level in the organizational hierarchy.        
    horn effect Perceptual effect that occurs when initial negative perceptions lead us to view later interactions as negative.        
    hypodermic needle approach An early theory of mass communication that suggests a sender constructs a message with a particular meaning that is “injected” or “shot” into individuals within the mass audience.        
    Identity needs Needs related to the desire to present ourselves to others and be thought of in particular ways.        
    ideology of domination Common belief system that makes it seem natural and normal for some people or groups to have power over others.        
    Illustrators The most common type of gesture, used to illustrate the verbal message they accompany.        
    Immediacy behaviors Verbal and nonverbal behaviors that lessen real or perceived physical and psychological distance between communicators.        
    implicit personality theories An interpretation process that uses previous experience to generalize a person’s overall personality from the limited traits we can perceive.        
    implicit personality theories An interpretation process that uses previous experience to generalize a person’s overall personality from the limited traits we can perceive.        
    impromptu delivery Delivering a speech with little to no time to prepare.        
    impromptu delivery Delivering a speech with little to no time to prepare.        
    Inductive reasoning Arguments that persuade by citing examples that build to a conclusion.        
    inference-observation confusion A frequent source of miscommunication that involves the misperception of an inference (conclusion based on limited information) as an observation (an observed or agreed-on fact).        
    Informal time Applies to casual and interpersonal situations in which there is much more variation in terms of expectations for promptness.        
    information overload A barrier to effective listening that occurs when a speech contains more information than audience members can process.        
    Information power Power that comes from a person’s ability to access information that comes through informal channels and well-established social and professional networks.        
    information provider A role that includes behaviors that are more evenly shared than in other roles, as ideally, all group members present new ideas, initiate discussions of new topics, and contribute their own relevant knowledge and experiences.        
    information seeker A group member who asks for more information, elaboration, or clarification on items relevant to the group’s task.        
    Informational listening Listening with the goal of comprehending and retaining information.        
    informative speaking Speaking to teach an audience something using factual objective information.        
    Informing through definition Informing by defining concepts clearly and concisely using synonyms or antonyms, use or function, examples, or etymology.        
    informing through demonstration Informing by giving verbal directions about how to do something while also physically demonstrating the steps.        
    Informing through description Informing by creating detailed verbal pictures.        
    Informing through explanation Informing by sharing how something works, how something came to be, or why something happened.        
    initiating stage Relational interaction stage where people size each other up and try to present themselves favorably.        
    Instrumental needs Needs that help us get things done in our day-to-day lives and achieve short- and long-term goals.        
    integrating stage Relational interaction stage where two people’s identities and personalities merge and a sense of interdependence develops.        
    integrative learning An approach that encourages students to reflect on how the content they are learning connects to other classes they have taken or are taking, their professional goals, and their civic responsibilities.        
    intensifying stage Relational interaction stage where people indicate that they would like or are open to more intimacy, closeness, or interdependence.        
    Intercultural communication competence, ICC The ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in various cultural contexts.        
    Intercultural relationships Relationships formed between people with different cultural identities and includes friends, romantic partners, family, and coworkers.        
    interdependence A characteristic of small groups that refers to a shared purpose and fate, meaning that each group member’s actions affect every other group member.        
    intergenerational communication Communication between people of different age groups.        
    Internet A decentralized communications and information network that relies on the transmission of digital signals through cables, phone lines, and satellites, which are then relayed through network servers, modems, and computer processors.        
    Interpersonal attributions Identifies the relationship between the sender and receiver as the cause of the disclosure.        
    Interpersonal communication The process of exchanging messages between people whose lives mutually influence one another in unique ways in relation to social and cultural norms.        
    interpersonal communication competence Our ability to communicate effectively and appropriately within our personal relationships.        
    Interpersonal conflict Interactions in which there are real or perceived incompatible goals, scare resources, or opposing viewpoints.        
    interpreter A group member who helps manage the diversity within a group by mediating intercultural conflict, articulating common ground between different people, and generally creating a climate where difference is seen as an opportunity rather than as something to be feared.        
    intersectional reflexivity A reflective practice by which we acknowledge intersecting identities, both privileged and disadvantaged, and implicate ourselves in social hierarchies and inequalities.        
    intersectionality Acknowledges that we each have multiple cultures and identities that intersect with each other.        
    intimate terrorism, IT Violence used by one partner to have general control over the other.        
    Intrapersonal communication Communication with oneself using internal vocalization or reflective thinking.        
    Jargon Specialized words used by a certain group or profession.        
    Johari window Concept that can be applied to a variety of interpersonal interactions in order to help us understand what parts of ourselves are open, hidden, blind, and unknown.        
    Judgments Expressions of approval or disapproval that are subjective and not verifiable.        
    kinesics Refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements.        
    laissez-faire family A family that is low in conversation and conformity orientations, has infrequent and/or short interactions, and doesn’t discuss many topics.        
    Language acquisition The process by which we learn to understand, produce, and use words to communicate within a given language group.        
    Leadership A complex of beliefs, communication patterns, and behaviors that influence the functioning of a group and move a group toward the completion of its task.        
    learning styles How individuals effectively receive and process information, including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.        
    legitimate power Power that flows from the officially recognized position, status, or title of a group member.        
    Listenable messages Orally delivered messages that are tailored to be comprehended by a listener.        
    Listenable messages Orally delivered messages that are tailored to be comprehended by a listener.        
    Listening The learned process of receiving, interpreting, recalling, evaluating, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages.        
    Listening environment Characteristics and norms of an organization and its members that contribute to expectations for and perceptions about listening.        
    Logos The reasoning or logic of an argument.        
    Long-term memory A mental storage capability to which stimuli in short-term memory can be transferred if they are connected to existing schema. Once there, they can be stored indefinitely.        
    looking glass self A concept that explains that we see ourselves reflected in other people’s reactions to us and then form our self-concept based on how we believe other people see us.        
    low conformity orientation A climate that encourages diversity of beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors and assertion of individuality.        
    magazines The first national mass medium, reaching people all over the growing United States of the late 1700s and into the 1800s.        
    Majority rule A decision-making technique in which a majority of one-half plus one must agree before a decision is made.        
    manuscript age The period of human history that immediately predated the advent of mass media and began around 3500 BCE with the introduction of written texts and lasted until the printing revolution of 1450 CE.        
    manuscript delivery Delivering a speech from a written or printed document that contains the entirety of the speech.        
    mass communication Communication in which messages are transmitted to many people through print or electronic media.        
    matching hypothesis States that people with similar levels of attractiveness will pair together.        
    Media convergence The merging of technologies that were previously developed and used separately.        
    Media effects The intended or unintended consequences of what the mass media does.        
    Media imperialism The domination of other countries through exported media and the values and ideologies they contain.        
    media interview Communication with a reporter or radio or television representative.        
    Media literacy Our ability to critique and analyze the potential impact of the media.        
    medical model of disability Model that places disability as an individual and medical rather than social or cultural issue.        
    memorized delivery Delivering a speech word for word from memory.        
    mentoring relationship Relationship in which one person functions as a guide, helping another navigate toward career goals.        
    message The verbal or nonverbal content being conveyed in a communication encounter.        
    metaphor An implicit comparison of two things that are not alike and/or are not typically associated.        
    mic fright Increased nervousness due to the presence of a microphone.        
    Mindreading Communication in which one person attributes something to the other using generalizations, usually leading to a defensive response that escalates conflict.        
    Minority rule A decision-making technique in which a designated authority or expert has final say over a decision and may or may not consider the input of other group members.        
    mirroring The often subconscious practice of using nonverbal cues that match those of others around us.        
    mixed messages Messages in which verbal and nonverbal signals contradict each other.        
    Mnemonic devices Techniques that can aid in information recall.        
    Monroe’s Motivated Sequence A five-step organization pattern that attempts to persuade an audience by making a topic relevant, using positive and/or negative motivation, and including a call to action.        
    Motivation The root of a person’s desire to foster intercultural relationships, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic.        
    Movies The first mass medium to combine audio and visual electronic communication.        
    Narcissistic listening Self-centered and self-absorbed listening in which listeners try to make the interaction about them.        
    negative motivation Attempts to motivate an audience by implying or stating that failure to follow a speaker’s advice will result in negative consequences.        
    Neologisms Newly coined or used words.        
    Network overlap The number of shared associations, including friends and family, that a couple has.        
    Newspapers The first medium to serve as the chronicle of daily life in our society, providing regular coverage of events, both historic and mundane, and allowing us to learn about current events outside of our community and country.        
    nominal group technique A discussion method that guides decision making through a four-step process that includes idea generation and evaluation and seeks to elicit equal contributions from all group members.        
    noncontact culture Cultural groups in which people stand farther apart while talking, make less eye contact, and touch less during regular interactions.        
    nondominant identities Identities that historically had and currently have less resources and influence.        
    nonverbal adaptors Body movements triggered by anxiety that often occur unconsciously but are distracting for the audience.        
    Nonverbal communication A process of generating meaning using behavior other than words.        
    Nonverbal congruence Consistency among different nonverbal expressions within a cluster.        
    nonverbal leakage Nonverbal behaviors that occur as we try to control the cognitive and physical changes that happen during states of cognitive and physical arousal.        
    Nonverbal signposts Pauses and changes in rate, pitch, or volume that help emphasize transitions within a speech.        
    norming The stage of group development in which the practices and expectations of the group are solidified, which leads to more stability, productivity, and cohesion within the group.        
    oculesics The study of eye behaviors as nonverbal communication.        
    Organizing The second part of the perception process, in which we sort and categorize information that we perceive based on innate and learned cognitive patterns.        
    ought self Self that consists of the attributes you or someone else believes you should possess.        
    paralanguage The vocalized but not verbal part of a spoken message, such as speaking rate, volume, and pitch.        
    parallel wording Similar wording among key organizing signposts and main points that helps structure a speech.        
    paraphrase A message that is rephrased in your own words.        
    Partial messages Messages that are missing a relevant type of expression and can lead to misunderstanding and conflict.        
    Participative leaders Leaders who work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions.        
    Partnered couples Couples who live together and take additional steps to verbally, ceremonially, or legally claim their intentions to be together in a long-term committed relationship.        
    Pathos Emotional appeals used by a speaker.        
    patriarchy System of social structures and practices that maintains the values, priorities, and interests of men as a group.        
    Patterned family interactions Frequent family rituals that do not have the degree of formality of traditions or celebrations.        
    peer coworker relationship Relationship between two people who have no formal authority over the other and are interdependent in some way.        
    peer-review process A rigorous form of review that takes several months to years and ensures that the information published has been vetted and approved by numerous experts on the subject.        
    People-oriented listeners Listeners who are concerned about the emotional states of others and listen with the purpose of offering support in interpersonal relationships.        
    Perception The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information.        
    Perception checking A strategy to help us monitor our reactions to and perceptions about people and communication.        
    performing The stage of group development in which group members work relatively smoothly toward the completion of a task or achievement of a purpose.        
    personal idioms Communicative constructs between relational partners, such as nicknames, that create a sense of belonging and have unique meaning for those in the relationship but may not make sense to outsiders.        
    personal-contextual dialectic Dialectic that highlights the connection between our personal patterns of and preferences for communicating and how various contexts influence the personal.        
    Personality A person’s general way of thinking, feeling, and behaving based on underlying motivations and impulses.        
    Personification The attribution of human qualities or characteristics of other living things to nonhuman objects or abstract concepts.        
    Phatic communion Scripted and routine verbal interactions that are intended to establish social bonds rather than actually exchange meaning.        
    Physical context The environmental factors in a communication encounter.        
    Physical needs Needs that keep our bodies and minds functioning.        
    physical relaxation exercises Strategy for managing public speaking anxiety that uses breathing and stretching to address the physiological responses to anxiety.        
    piracy The unlawful reproduction and/or distribution of intellectual property or other copyrighted material.        
    Pitch How high or low your voice is.        
    polychronic A flexible cultural orientation toward time in which relationships are often valued above schedules and scheduling appointments at the same time and being late for or missing appointments may not be a violation of norms.        
    positive visualization A cognitive restructuring strategy that addresses public speaking anxiety by visualizing success as a speaker rather than focusing on negative thoughts.        
    Posture Position we assume with our body, either intentionally or out of habit.        
    Prejudice Negative feelings or attitudes toward people based on their identity or identities.        
    presenting an award A ceremonial speech meant enhance the value of an award and honor the person receiving it.        
    primacy effect Perceptual tendency to place more value on the first information we receive about a person.        
    Primary emotions Innate emotions that are experienced for short periods of time, appear rapidly, and are expressed similarly across cultures.        
    primary groups Long-lasting groups that are formed based on relationships and include significant others.        
    Primary sources Materials written by people with firsthand experience with an event or researchers/scholars who conducted original research.        
    primary tension Group tension based on uncertainty that is a natural part of initial interactions.        
    print age The period that extended from 1450 to 1850 and marked the birth and rise of the first mass medium.        
    problem question A question that will guide the group as it generates possible solutions.        
    problem statement A single sentence that summarizes the problem facing the group.        
    problem-solution pattern Organizing a speech by presenting a problem and then offering a solution.        
    Procedural conflict Group conflict that emerges from disagreements or trouble with the mechanics of group operations.        
    pronunciation Speaking words correctly.        
    Propositions of policy Arguments that persuade that something “should or shouldn’t” be done.        
    proxemic information Information that is geographically relevant to the audience.        
    Proxemics The study of how space and distance influence communication.        
    Pseudo-listening Behaving as if you’re paying attention to a speaker when you’re actually not.        
    Psychological audience analysis Analysis that considers your audience’s psychological dispositions toward the topic, speaker, and occasion and how their attitudes, beliefs, and values inform those dispositions.        
    Psychological context The mental and emotional factors in a communication encounter.        
    Psychological noise Noise stemming from our psychological states, including moods and level of arousal, that can impede listening.        
    public advocacy Engaging people through responsible communication that seeks to make a better world for our loved ones and our communities.        
    Public communication A sender-focused form of communication in which one person is typically responsible for conveying information to an audience.        
    Public speaking anxiety A type of communication apprehension that produces physiological, cognitive, and behavioral reactions in people when faced with a real or imagined presentation.        
    Punctuation The structuring of information into a timeline to determine the cause (stimulus) and effect (response) of our communication interactions.        
    race A socially constructed category based on differences in appearance that has been used to create hierarchies that privilege some and disadvantage others.        
    Rate How fast or slow you speak.        
    Reasoning by analogy Arguments that claim what is true in one set of circumstances will be true in another.        
    recency effect Speaking strategy in which the best information is presented last in a speech in order to leave a strong final impression.        
    Receptive friendships Friendships that include a status differential that makes the relationship asymmetrical.        
    reciprocal effect The interactive relationship between the media and the subject being covered through which the media attention received by a person or event influences the way the person acts or the way the event functions.        
    recorder A group member who takes notes on the discussion and activities that occur during a group meeting.        
    Reference librarians Information-retrieval experts at college and university libraries.        
    Referent power Power that comes from the attractiveness, likeability, and charisma of the group member.        
    Relational context The previous interpersonal history and type of relationship we have with a person.        
    Relational needs Needs that help us maintain social bonds and interpersonal relationships.        
    Relational-oriented groups Groups formed to promote interpersonal connections and that are more focused on quality interactions that contribute to the well-being of group members.        
    Relationship rituals Communicative acts that take on more symbolic meaning than relationship routines and may be adapted from established cultural rituals such as holidays or anniversaries or may be highly individualized and specific to a relationship.        
    relationship routines Communicative acts that create a sense of predictability in a relationship that is often comforting.        
    relationship schemata The expectations or blueprints we bring into our interpersonal relationships based on our social and cultural experiences.        
    Response preparation Our tendency to rehearse what we are going to say next while a speaker is still talking.        
    rhetoric The art of speaking well and persuasively.        
    rhetorical question A question posed to the audience that is designed to elicit a mental response.        
    safety needs Human need to preserve the safety of ourselves and our loved ones.        
    Salience The degree to which something attracts our attention in a particular context.        
    Schemata Databases of stored, related information that we use to interpret new experiences.        
    Secondary emotions Emotions that develop over time, take longer to fade away, and require higher-order thinking to process.        
    secondary groups Groups characterized by less frequent face-to-face interactions, less emotional and relational communication, and more task-related communication than primary groups.        
    secondary sources Sources that compile and summarize research done by others.        
    Secondary tension Tension that emerges after groups have passed the forming stage of group development and begin to have conflict over member roles, differing ideas, and personality conflicts.        
    secure attachment Used to describe people who are comfortable with intimacy and dependence and have few self-doubts resulting in generally effective emotion management.        
    Selecting The first part of the perception process, in which we focus our attention on certain incoming sensory information.        
    selective attention Our tendency to pay attention to the messages that benefit us in some way and filter others out.        
    self-centered roles Negative group roles that divert attention from the task to the group member exhibiting the behavior. These roles include the central negative, monopolizer, stage hog, egghead, self-confessor, insecure compliment seeker, and joker.        
    Self-concept The overall idea of who a person thinks he or she is.        
    Self-disclosure Purposeful disclosure of personal information to another person.        
    Self-Efficacy The judgments people make about their ability to perform a task within a specific context.        
    self-enhancement bias Self-presentation bias that refers to our tendency to emphasize our desirable qualities.        
    Self-esteem The judgments and evaluations we make about our self-concept.        
    self-esteem needs Human need to think well of ourselves and have others think well of us.        
    Self-fulfilling prophecies Thought and action patterns in which a person’s false belief triggers a behavior that makes the initial false belief actually or seemingly come true.        
    Self-presentation The process of strategically concealing or revealing personal information in order to influence others’ perceptions.        
    self-serving bias A perceptual error through which we overattribute the cause of our successes to internal personal factors while overattributing our failures to external factors beyond our control.        
    Self-serving self-presentation Strategically exhibiting behaviors that present a person as highly skilled, willing to challenge others, and someone not to be messed with.        
    semantic noise Noise that occurs in the encoding and decoding process when the participants do not understand a symbol.        
    serial arguing A repeated pattern of disagreement over an issue.        
    Sex Classification based on biological characteristics, including external genitalia, internal sex organs, chromosomes, and hormones.        
    Sexual conflict Conflict that can result when couples disagree over frequency or type of sexual activities.        
    Sexual orientation A person’s primary emotional and physical attraction and activity.        
    Signposts Statements that help audience members navigate the turns of a speech.        
    simile A direct comparison of two things using the words like or as.        
    Situational audience analysis Analysis that considers the physical surroundings and setting of a speech.        
    Situational couple violence, SCV Violence provoked by a particular situation that does not involve a quest for control in the relationship.        
    Skills training Strategy for managing public speaking anxiety that focuses on learning skills that will improve specific speaking behaviors.        
    Slang New or adapted words that are specific to a group, context, and/or time period, regarded as less formal, and representative of people’s creative play with language.        
    Small group communication Interactions among three or more people who are connected through a common purpose, mutual influence, and a shared identity.        
    Social cohesion The attraction and liking among group members.        
    Social comparison theory Theory that explains how we describe and evaluate ourselves in terms of how we compare to other people.        
    Social constructionism A view that argues the self is formed through our interactions with others and in relationship to social, cultural, and political contexts.        
    Social context The stated rules or unstated norms that guide communication.        
    Social exchange theory Theory that states we weigh the costs and rewards in our relationships.        
    social identities Identities that are derived from involvement in social groups with which we are interpersonally committed.        
    Social learning theory States that media portrayals influence our development of schemata or scripts, especially as children, about different groups of people.        
    social loafing Tendency for some members of small groups to contribute less to the group than other members or than they would if working alone.        
    social needs Human need to belong to supportive and caring groups.        
    social networking sites, SNSs Sites that are an influential part of Web 2.0 and allow users to build a public or semipublic profile, create a network of connections to other people, and view other people’s profiles and networks of connections.        
    Social penetration theory Theory that states we engage in a reciprocal process of self-disclosure that changes in breadth and depth and affects how a relationship progresses.        
    Social relationships Relationships that occasionally meet our needs and lack the closeness and interdependence of personal relationships.        
    sound bite A verbal bullet point that is about ten seconds or twenty-six words long.        
    spatial pattern Organizing the main points of a speech based on their layout or proximity to each other.        
    Speaking in education/training and development Speaking that involves students delivering a lecture, facilitating a discussion, or running an activity as if they were actually teaching or training.        
    Speaking in science and math Speaking that usually focuses on using established methods and logic to find and report objective results.        
    Speaking in technical courses Speaking that focuses on learning through testing, replication, and design and then translating the technical information involved in those processes into lay terms.        
    Speaking in the arts and humanities Speaking that usually involves creating and explaining original works of art or critiquing, reviewing, or comparing and contrasting existing literature, art, philosophies, or historical texts in ways that connect the historical and contemporary.        
    Speaking in the social sciences Speaking driven by quantitative or qualitative data reviewed in existing literature or from original research projects that focus on historical or current social issues.        
    speaking outline A keyword and phrase outline that helps a speaker deliver a speech.        
    Special peers Peers who have high levels of self-disclosure with relatively few limitations and are highly interdependent in terms of providing emotional and professional support for one another.        
    specific purpose A one-sentence statement that is audience centered and includes the objective a speaker wants to accomplish in his or her speech.        
    speech of introduction A ceremonial speech in which one speaker briefly introduces an upcoming speaker who is usually the focus of the occasion.        
    speech of tribute A longer and more formal version of a toast that establishes why a person, group, or concept is worthy of praise.        
    Spokespeople Speakers who communicate with external audiences, primarily the media, on behalf of an individual or group.        
    stagnating stage Relational interaction stage where the relationship may come to a standstill, as individuals wait for the relationship to end.        
    State CA Anxiety related to communication that occurs in a particular situation and time.        
    static-dynamic dialectic Dialectic that suggests culture and communication change over time, yet often appear to be and are experienced as stable.        
    Statistics Numerical representations of information.        
    Status reports Reports that focus on a specific project or task or simply report on the regular functioning of a group.        
    Stereotypes Sets of beliefs that we develop about groups, which we then apply to individuals from that group.        
    storming The stage of group development in which conflict emerges as people begin to perform their various roles, have their ideas heard, and negotiate where they fit in the group’s structure.        
    Subordinate points Points that provide evidence or support for a main idea or thesis.        
    Substantive conflict Group conflict that focuses on group members’ differing beliefs, attitudes, values, or ideas related to the purpose or task of the group.        
    supervisor-subordinate relationship Relationship based in mentoring, friendship, or romance that includes two people, one of whom has formal authority over the other.        
    supporter A role characterized by communication behaviors that encourage other group members and provide emotional support as needed.        
    Supportive leaders Leaders who show concern for their followers’ needs and emotions.        
    supportive messages Messages communicated in an open, honest, and nonconfrontational way.        
    syllogism An example of deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is supported by major and minor premises.        
    symbol Something, like a word or gesture, that stands in for or represents something else.        
    Synergy Refers to the potential for gains in performance or heightened quality of interactions when complementary members or member characteristics are added to existing ones.        
    systematic desensitization Strategy for managing public speaking anxiety that involves repeated real or imagined exposure to public speaking to reduce uncertainty and novelty.        
    Task-oriented groups Groups formed to solve a problem, promote a cause, or generate ideas or information.        
    Teams Task-oriented groups in which members are especially loyal and dedicated to the task and other group members.        
    technical briefings Briefings that provide instructions on the use or function of something.        
    telegraph Communication device invented in the 1840s that transmitted Morse code across cables using electric pulses, making it the first nearly instant one-to-one communication technology.        
    television The first mass medium capable of instantly and wirelessly transmitting audio and visual signals.        
    tension releaser A role filled by someone who is naturally funny and sensitive to the personalities of the group and the dynamics of any given situation and who uses these qualities to manage the frustration level of the group.        
    terminating stage Relational interaction stage where a relationship ends.        
    Territoriality An innate drive to take up and defend spaces.        
    Testimony Quoted information from people with direct knowledge about a subject or situation.        
    theory of triangles Theory that examines the relationship between three domains of activity: the primary partnership (corner 1), the inner self (corner 2), and important outside interests (corner 3).        
    thesis statement A one-sentence summary of the central idea of your speech that you will either explain or defend.        
    This I Believe speeches Speeches that encourage people to use the power of their voice to speak from a personal context in a way can inspire, motivate, and resonate with others.        
    Tie signs Nonverbal cues that communicate intimacy and signal the connection between two people.        
    Time-oriented listeners Listeners who are more concerned about time limits and time lines than they are with the content or senders of a message.        
    toast A ceremonial speech that praises or conveys goodwill or blessings in honor of a person, accomplishment, or event.        
    Tolerance for uncertainty An individual’s attitude about and level of comfort in uncertain situations.        
    topical pattern Organizing a speech by logically dividing a large topic or idea into smaller topics or ideas.        
    training Presentations that prepare new employees for their jobs or provide instruction or development opportunities for existing employees.        
    transaction model of communication Describes communication as a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.        
    Transgender An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or expression does not match the gender they were assigned at birth.        
    transmission model of communication Describes communication as a linear, one-way process in which a sender intentionally transmits a message to a receiver.        
    triangle of meaning A model of communication that indicates the relationship among a thought, symbol, and referent, and highlights the indirect relationship between the symbol and referent.        
    Trustworthiness The degree to which audience members perceive a speaker to be presenting accurate, credible information in a nonmanipulative way.        
    truth bias Our tendency to believe that people are telling the truth, especially if we know and like them.        
    unconscious competence Communicating competently without straining to do so.        
    unproductive roles Negative group roles that prevent or make it more difficult for the group to make progress. These roles include the blocker, withdrawer, aggressor, and doormat.        
    unsupportive messages Messages that can make others respond defensively, which can lead to feelings of separation and actual separation or dissolution of a relationship.        
    Upward communication Speeches, proposals, or briefings that are directed at audience members who hold higher positions in the organizational hierarchy than the sender.        
    Verbal expressions Language that helps us communicate our observations, thoughts, feelings, and needs.        
    Verbal fillers Words that speakers use to fill in a gap between what they were saying and what they will say next.        
    Video monitors Televisions that allow on-air people to monitor their movements and see what viewers are seeing.        
    Violent resistance, VR Violence that is often a reaction or response to intimate terrorism.        
    Virtual groups Groups that take advantage of new technologies and meet exclusively or primarily online to achieve their purpose or goal.        
    Visual aids Materials that reinforce speech content visually, which helps amplify the speaker’s message.        
    Vocal variety Variations in rate, volume, and pitch that make a speech more engaging.        
    Vocal warm-up exercises Exercises targeted at warming up muscles of the face and mouth to reduce fluency issues that occur when speaking and contribute to speaking anxiety.        
    Vocalics The study of paralanguage, which includes the vocal qualities that go along with verbal messages, such as pitch, volume, rate, vocal quality, and verbal fillers.        
    Volume How loud or soft you speak.        
    voluntary audience An audience consisting of people who chose to be present.        
    warrant The underlying justification that connects the claim and evidence.        
    wireless telegraph Communication device that used electromagnetic waves to transmit signals coded into pulses and was the precursor to radio.        
    Workplace romances Relationships that involve two coworkers who are emotionally and physically attracted to one another.        
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